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Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include mutations, poor nourishment, poor circulation, loss of hormonal support, loss of nerve supply to the target organ, excessive amount of apoptosis of cells, disuse or lack of exercise or disease intrinsic to the tissue itself. In medical practice and nerve inputs that maintain an organ or body part are said to have trophic effects. A diminished muscular trophic condition is designated as atrophy. Atrophy is reduction in size of organ or tissue, after attaining its normal mature growth. In contrast, hypoplasia is the reduction in size of a cell, organ, or tissue that has not attained normal maturity. Atrophy is the general physiological process of reabsorption and breakdown of tissues, involving apoptosis; when it occurs as a result of disease or loss of trophic support because of other diseases, it is termed pathological atrophy, although it can be a part of normal body development and homeostasis as well.

Examples of atrophy as part of normal development include shrinking and the involution of the thymus in early childhood, the tonsils in adolescence. In old age, effects include, but are not limited to, loss of teeth, thinning of skin that creates wrinkles, weakening of muscles, loss of weight in organs and sluggish mental activity. Disuse atrophy of muscles and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can occur after prolonged immobility, such as extended bedrest, or having a body part in a cast; this type of atrophy can be reversed with exercise unless severe. Astronauts in microgravity must exercise to minimize atrophy of their limb muscles. There are many conditions which cause atrophy of muscle mass. For example, diseases such as cancer and AIDS induce a body wasting syndrome called cachexia, notable for the severe muscle atrophy seen. Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are congestive heart failure and liver disease. During aging, there is a gradual decrease in the ability to maintain skeletal muscle function and mass.

This condition is called sarcopenia, may be distinct from atrophy in its pathophysiology. While the exact cause of sarcopenia is unknown, it may be induced by a combination of a gradual failure in the satellite cells which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival. Pathologic atrophy of muscles can occur with diseases of the motor nerves or diseases of the muscle tissue itself. Examples of atrophying nerve diseases include Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome. Examples of atrophying muscle diseases include muscular dystrophy, myotonia congenita, myotonic dystrophy. Changes in Na+ channel isoform expression and spontaneous activity in muscle called fibrillation can result in muscle atrophy. A flail limb is a medical term which refers to an extremity in which the primary nerve has been severed, resulting in complete lack of mobility and sensation.

The muscles soon wither away from atrophy. The adrenal glands atrophy during prolonged use of exogenous glucocorticoids like prednisone. Atrophy of the breasts can occur with prolonged estrogen reduction, as with anorexia nervosa or menopause. Testicular atrophy can occur with prolonged use of enough exogenous sex steroids to reduce gonadotropin secretion. In post-menopausal women, the walls of the vagina become thinner; the mechanism for the age-related condition is not yet clear, though there are theories that the effect is caused by decreases in estrogen levels. This atrophy, that of the breasts concurrently, is consistent with the homeostatic role of atrophy in general, as after menopause the body has no further functional biological need to maintain the reproductive system which it has permanently shut down. One drug in test seemed to prevent the type of muscle loss that occurs in immobile, bedridden patients. Testing on mice showed that it blocked the activity of a protein present in the muscle, involved in muscle atrophy.

However, the drug's long-term effect on the heart precludes its routine use in humans, other drugs are being sought. Olivopontocerebellar atrophy Optic atrophy Spinomuscular atrophy Hypertrophy List of biological development disorders

Manstein Plan

The Manstein Plan is one of the names used to describe the war plan of the German Army during the Battle of France in 1940. The original invasion plan was an awkward compromise devised by General Franz Halder, the chief of Oberkommando des Heeres staff and satisfied no one. Documents with details of the plan fell into Belgian hands during the Mechelen incident of 10 January 1940 and the plan was revised several times, each giving more emphasis to an attack by Army Group A through the Ardennes, which progressively reduced the offensive by Army Group B through the Low Countries to a diversion. In the final version of the plan, the main effort of the German invasion was made against the Ardennes, which by coincidence, was the weakest part of the Allied line, where the defence was left to second-rate French divisions in the Second Army and the Ninth Army, on the assumption that the difficulty of moving masses of men and equipment would give the French plenty of time to send reinforcements if the area was attacked.

The Seventh Army, the most powerful part of the French strategic reserve, had been committed to a rush through Belgium to join with the Dutch Army to the north, in the Breda variant of Plan D, the Allied deployment plan. The Manstein plan has been called Operation Sichelschnitt, a transliteration of "sickle cut", a catchy expression used after the events by Winston Churchill. After the war, German generals adopted the term, which led to a misunderstanding that this was the official name of the plan or at least of the attack by Army Group A; the German name was Aufmarschanweisung N°4, Fall Gelb issued on 24 February 1940 and the manoeuvre through the Ardennes had no name. The Manstein Plan was a counterpart to the French Dyle Plan for the Battle of France. Lieutenant General Erich von Manstein dissented from the 1939 versions of Fall Gelb, a plan for an invasion of France and the Low Countries, devised by Franz Halder; the original Aufmarschanweisung N°1, Fall Gelb, was a plan to push the Allied forces back through central Belgium to the Somme river, in northern France, with similarities to the 1914 campaign of the First World War.

On 10 January 1940, a German aircraft carrying documents with parts of the plan for Fall Gelb crashed in Belgium prompting another review of the invasion plan. Halder revised Fall Gelb to an extent in Aufmarschanweisung N°3, Fall Gelb and Manstein was able to convince Hitler in a meeting on 17 February, that the Wehrmacht should attack through the Ardennes, followed by an advance to the coast. Manstein, chief of staff of Army Group A, had formulated his plan in October 1939 in Koblenz on the instigation of his commander General Gerd von Rundstedt, who rejected Halder's plan through professional rivalry and part because it could not inflict a decisive victory over France. Manstein first thought to follow annihilation theory, envisaging a swing from Sedan to the north to destroy the Allied armies in a cauldron battle; when discussing his intentions with Generalleutnant Heinz Guderian, commander of the XIX Panzer Corps, Guderian proposed to avoid the main body of the Allied armies and swiftly advance with the armoured divisions to the English Channel, taking the Allies by surprise and cutting their supply routes from the south.

Manstein had many reservations about the proposal, fearing the long open flank to the south that would be created by such a bold advance. Guderian managed to convince him that the danger of a French counter-offensive from the south could be averted by a simultaneous secondary spoiling offensive southwards, in the general direction of Reims; when Manstein first presented his ideas to OKH, he did not mention Guderian and made the attack to the north the main effort with a few armoured divisions protecting the left flank of the manoeuvre. These changes were included because the original conception was too bold to be acceptable to many generals, who considered Guderian too radical. Reformulating it in a more radical sense did not help. Manstein and Halder were rivals. On 1 September 1938, Halder instead of Manstein had replaced Beck. In late January, Halder got rid Manstein by having him promoted commander of XXXVIII Corps in east Germany. In late January, Lieutenant-Colonel Günther Blumentritt and Major Henning von Tresckow, part of Manstein's staff, contacted Lieutenant Colonel Rudolf Schmundt the army attaché of Adolf Hitler, when he was visiting Koblenz, who informed Hitler of the affair on 2 February.

Having found the Halder plan unsatisfactory from the start, Hitler ordered a change of strategy on 13 February in accordance with Manstein's thinking, after having heard only a rough outline. Manstein was invited to the Reich Chancellery in Berlin to meet Hitler on 17 February, in the presence of Alfred Jodl and Erwin Rommel. Though Hitler felt an immediate antipathy against Manstein for being arrogant and aloof, he listened silently to his exposition and was impressed by Manstein's thinking. Hitler remarked after Manstein had left, "Certainly an exceptionally clever fellow, with great operational gifts, but I don't trust him". Manstein returned to east Germany. Halder had to revise the plan again, which became Fall Gelb; the new plan conformed to Manstein's thinking in that Army Group A would provide the main thrust of the invasion through the Ardennes in southern Belgi

Trevor Dawes

Trevor A. Dawes is a Jamaican-born American librarian and educator, he is the vice provost for libraries and museums and May Morris University Librarian at the University of Delaware. Dawes served as the 76th president of the Association of Research Libraries. Dawes was born in Jamaica to Louise and Charles Dawes; the family relocated to Brooklyn, New York in 1980. Dawes received a BA in sociology from Columbia University in 1990 and an MA in educational administration from Teachers College, Columbia University in 1994, he earned a MLS from Rutgers University -- New Brunswick in Ed. M in educational leadership from Teachers College, Columbia University the following year. Dawes is the Vice Provost for Libraries and Museums and May Morris University Librarian at the University of Delaware. In this capacity, Dawes is responsible for the University of Delaware Press, he served as Associate University Librarian at Washington University in St. Louis from 2013 to 2016. During his tenure, the WUSTL Libraries helped create Documenting Ferguson.

This community-driven digital repository documents the unrest in Ferguson, Missouri after the murder of Michael Brown at the hands of police. Prior to that, Dawes held library management positions at Columbia University and Princeton University. Dawes has been an Adjunct Professor at Drexel University College of Computing and Informatics since 2006. Dawes has participated in ALA committees, including serving as councilor at large on the ALA Council and as a member of the ALA Committee on Committees, he served as chair of the Committee on Diversity. Dawes has been active with the LLAMA, serving as a member of the Technical Services Committee, Membership Committee, as an executive committee member at large of LLAMA-MAES. Dawes has served as executive board member at large of the New Jersey Library Association and president of the ACRL-NJ/NJLA-CUS, he served as secretary of the ACRL-NJ/NJLA-CUS and co-chair of the mentoring committee of the New Jersey Library Association. He was a member of the Cultural Diversity Committee of ACRL-NY.

In addition to his presidency, Dawes has served ACRL in various other capacities, including serving as co-chair of the ACRL 2017 Scholarships Component Committee, co-chair of the ACRL 2013 Conference Invited Papers Component Committee and co-chair of the ACRL 2011 Conference Poster Sessions Component Committee. He was a member of the ACRL Appointments Committee. Dawes served as chair of the ACRL Professional Development Coordinating Committee and as chair of the ACRL Excellence in Academic Libraries Award Nominating Committee. Dawes was elected to the Board of Directors Executive Committee of NERL in May 2017, he will serve a three-year term from July 2017 to June 2020. Dawes was elected to a three-year term as a member of the ALA Executive Board in January, 2017, he will serve from October 2017 to October 2020. Dawes was named president of the Association of College and Research Libraries in July, 2013 and served for one year. Prior to assuming the presidency, Dawes served as Vice President/President-Elect for one year.

He served as Past President during Campion's term. During his tenure as president, Dawes continued his work on equity and inclusion, he focused on increasing financial literacy and worked to expand discussions around how libraries add value to their institutions. Dawes T, Sweetman K, Von Elm C. ARL SPEC Kit #290: Access Services. November 2005. Dawes T. Marketing and Managing Electronic Reserves. "Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery & Electronic Reserve". October 2006. Foss M, Dawes T. Assessing Reserve Management Systems: Do They Deliver on Their Promises?. "Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery & Electronic Reserve". April 2010. Wang Y, Dawes T; the Next Generation Integrated Library System: A Promise Fulfilled?. "Information Technology and Libraries". September 2012. Dawes T. Crucible Moments: Inspiring Library Leadership, CHAPTER 6. "Crucible Moments: Inspiring Library Leadership". Mission Bell Media, Santa Barbara CA, 2016. Dawes T. Creating Leaders: An Examination of Academic and Research Library Leadership Institutes, CHAPTER 12.

"Creating Leaders: An Examination of Academic and Research Library Leadership Institutes". ACRL, Washington DC, 2015. Dawes was named a 2007 Library Journal "Mover & Shaker" because he helped create the New Jersey chapter of the Black Caucus of the American Library Association. BCALA Leadership Award Princeton LGBT Center "Building Bridges" Award Trevor A. Dawes's web site Association of College and Research Libraries homepage Bloomberg executive profile University of Delaware Library homepage

Kazimierz Skorupka

Kazimierz Józef Skorupka, codename: Dziad was a Polish Scoutmaster, Polish Army officer and member of the Polish resistance during the Second World War. Skorupka was born to a modest civil-servant family. After completing primary school, he attended the Chrzanowski Gymnasium, where on 2 July 1914 he joined the secret Tadeusz Reytan Scout Chapter. In the summer of 1915, the town of Warsaw was evacuated. Skorupka and his family left to the town of Klińce, near Homel. There he joined. Between 1916 and 1917, he took part in two Scout camps. In 1918, Kazimierz returned to Poland alone, he studied at the Konarski Technical School, where he joined 10 WDH and achieved the rank of "Scout". In August 1920, Skorupka was mobilised. In December of that year, he founded the 1st Kamionkowska Scouting Chapter in Grochów, joined by a platoon from 32 WDH, under the command of Janek Makowski. On 6 May 1921, the group was assigned the number "22". Skorupka remained with 22 WDH for the remainder of his life. In 1938 he was awarded the "Silver Cross of Merit", for social work carried out under the Scouts.

When the war broke out in 1939, he organised the Scouts from Praga for service on the "Scout War Medical Services" directing the "Scout Communication Services". For his part in the defence of Warsaw, he was awarded the "Cross of Bravery". From the start of the occupation, Skorupka was the "spiritual leader", so to say, of the "Cospiratory Scouts", the Szare Szeregi from Praga, he proceeded to adopt his prewar nickname - Dziad - as his codename. Skorupka became absorbed with the resistance work, he became the communications liaison to the commander of the "Home Army’s" Praga division, his ordinary job as a tram driver helped to cover his organisational work. When asked by Stanisław "Orsza" Broniewski about how many Scouts there were in Praga, Skorupka replied that there were 3,000; when asked on what basis he arrived at that figure, he replied: "All I have to do is whistle and 3,000 boys will assemble themselves on the corner of Targowa and Zamoyskiego St. That is how many were in the Praga Chapter on 1 September 1939, nothing has changed here!".

In reality, the actual number was far smaller. On 17 August 1942, Skorupka was arrested by the Gestapo, having managed to inform those closest to him that the Nazis knew about his conspiratory activities, he nonetheless resisted the Gestapo’s interrogation, did not reveal the names of his co-conspirators. In early 1943, Skorupa was taken to a concentration camp in Majdanek. One of the last traces he left were documents confirming his arrival at the camp - which are found in the concentration camp's museum - on a list of prisoners kept by the camp’s resistance section. On this list, he is noted under number 273: "Kazimierz Skorupka, born 18 February 1908, son of Adam and Elenor"; the second trace of the last days of Kazimierz Skorupka are the testimonies of former prisoners who describe someone whose profile fits that of Skorupka. He was classified as a political prisoner and was taken for interrogation, he would be taken in the mornings and return in the evenings, having been beaten, his health degrading progressively.

One evening, he did not return to the prisoners’ barracks. In August, 1944 Kazimierz Skorupka posthumously received a second "Cross of Bravery", being promoted to "Second Lieutenant"

Paul Sperry

Paul E. Sperry is an American conservative author and political commentator, he was a media fellow at the Hoover Institution, a public policy think tank. Sperry has been the Washington Bureau Chief at Investor's Business Daily and WorldNetDaily, he wrote pieces in The Wall Street Journal and made regular appearances on Fox News and other media outlets. He regularly writes op-ed pieces for the New York Post. In the wake of the Fort Hood Shooting, he gave an interview to Coast to Coast AM on November 7, 2009, about his co-authored book Muslim Mafia. In 2011, he published The Great American Bank Robbery, a book about how the government's attempt to increase minority home-ownership helped create the sub-prime housing crisis; the Great American Bank Robbery Muslim Mafia Infiltration: How Muslim Spies and Subversives have Penetrated Washington Crude Politics: How Bush's Oil Cronies Hijacked the War on Terrorism Op-ed, "When the Profile Fits the Crime", The New York Times, 28 July 2005 Op-ed, "It's the age of terror: What would you do?", The New York Times, 31 July 2005 Op-ed, "The military's blinders", New York Post, 7 November 2009 Viewpoint, "Soldiers Of Allah Or Of America: Does Military Know — Or Care?", archive URL Investor's Business Daily, 15 December 2009 "U.

S. Marines Build Shrine To Islam". June 13, 2006. Assyrian International News Agency Sperry's website "Muslim Brotherhood'Conspiracy' to Subvert America", Sperry speaking about Muslim Mafia, October 16, 2009

Donato and Daughter

Donato and Daughter is a 1993 American crime drama film. It stars Dana Delany. Charles Bronson – Sgt. Mike Donato Dana Delany – Lt. Dena Donato Xander Berkeley – Russ Loring Jenette Goldstein – Det. Judy McCartney Louis Giambalvo – Chief Hugh Halliday Marc Alaimo – Det. Petsky Tom Verica – Bobby Keegan Robert Gossett – Det. Bobbins Bonnie Bartlett – Renata Donato Julianna McCarthyAdele Loring Patti Yasutake – Dr. Stewart Richard Kuss - Chief Stone Michael Cavanaugh - Vinnie Stellino Julianna McCarthy - Adele Loring Donato and Daughter on IMDb