Dogs and cats have a range of interactions. The natural instincts of each species lead towards antagonistic interactions, though individual animals can have non-aggressive relationships with each other under conditions where humans have socialized non-aggressive behaviors; the aggressive interactions between the species have been noted in cultural expressions. The signals and behaviors that cats and dogs use to communicate are different and can lead to signals of aggression, dominance, friendship or territoriality being misinterpreted by the other species. Dogs have a natural instinct to chase smaller animals that flee, an instinct common among cats. Most cats flee from a dog, while others take actions such as hissing, arching their backs and swiping at the dog. After being scratched by a cat, some dogs can become fearful of cats. If appropriately socialized and dogs may have relationships that are not antagonistic, dogs raised with cats may prefer the presence of cats to other dogs. Cats and dogs that have got along together in the same household may revert to aggressive reactions due to external stimuli, illness, or play that escalates.
The phrase "fight like cats and dogs" reflects a natural tendency for the relationship between the two species to be antagonistic. Other phrases and proverbs include "The cat is mighty dignified until the dog comes by" and "The cat and dog may kiss, but are none the better friends."A Russian legend explains the antipathy between dogs and cats by stating that the devil has tricked the dog and cat each into thinking the other has its rightful fur. Eugene Field's children's poem, "The Duel," projects and amplifies the real-life antipathy between cats and dogs onto a stuffed gingham dog and a stuffed calico cat who had an all-night fight during which they "ate each other up." In Fam Ekman's children's book Kattens Skrekk, a cat visits a museum to find that all of the artworks, like Mona Lisa and Venus de Milo, have been replaced by parodies featuring dogs. The only piece not converted is The Scream which "symbolizes the cat's terror in the face of so many dogs." The American animated television series CatDog featured the adventures of the protagonist, CatDog, a genetically altered creature that had the head of a dog on one side of its body and the head of a cat on the other.
The episodes played on "cats and dogs being what they are" to incorporate "a lot of running and chasing."The comedy films Cats & Dogs, released in 2001, its sequel Cats & Dogs: The Revenge of Kitty Galore, released in 2010, both projected and amplified the above-mentioned antipathy between dogs and cats into an all-out war between the two species wherein cats are shown as being out-and-out enemies of humans, whereas dogs are shown as being more sympathetic to humans. Adlai Stevenson invoked the dog-cat conflict in his explanation of a veto he delivered as governor of Wisconsin: "If we attempt to resolve by legislation, who knows but what we may be called upon to take sides as well in the age-old problems of dog versus cat, bird versus bird bird versus worm." Interspecies friendship Human–canine bond
A bark is a sound most produced by dogs. Other animals that make this noise include wolves, seals and quolls. Woof is the most common representation in the English language for this sound for large dogs. Other transliterations include the onomatopoeic wuff, ruff, arf, au au, bork, awoo, ar ar arrrrr, miaoaw, wowowowowoowooo ghrrrrowh, bow-wow, for small dogs, yip. “Bark” is a verb that describes the sharp explosive cry of certain animals. Dog barking is distinct from wolf barking. Wolf barks are described as "rare" occurrences. According to Schassburger, wolves bark only in warning and protest. In contrast, dogs bark in a wide variety of social situations, with acoustic communication in dogs being described as hypertrophic. Additionally, while wolf barks tend to be brief and isolated, adult dogs bark in long, rhythmic stanzas. Dogs have been known to bark for hours on end. While a distinct reason for the difference is unknown, a strong hypothesis is that the vocal communication of dogs developed due to their domestication.
As evidenced by the farm-fox experiment, the process of domestication alters a breed in more ways than just tameness. Domesticated breeds show vast physical differences from their wild counterparts, notably an evolution that suggests neoteny, or the retention of juvenile characteristics in adults. Adult dogs have, for example, large heads, floppy ears, shortened snouts – all characteristics seen in wolf puppies; the behavior, too, of adult dogs shows puppy-like characteristics: dogs are submissive, they whine, they bark. The experiment illustrates how selecting for one trait can create profound by-products, both physical and behavioral; the frequency of barking in dogs in relation to wolves could be the product of the different social environment of dogs. Dogs live in extraordinarily close range with humans, in many societies kept as companion animals. From a young age, humans tend to be one of a dog's primary social contacts; this captive environment presents different stimuli than would be found by wolves in the wild.
While wolves have vast territories, dogs do not. The boundaries of a captive dog's territory will be visited by intruders, thus triggering the bark response as a warning. Additionally, dogs densely populate urban areas, allowing more opportunity to meet new dogs and be social. For example, it is possible that kenneled dogs may have increased barking due to a desire to facilitate social behavior. Dogs’ close relationship with humans renders dogs reliant on humans for basic needs. Barking is a way to attract attention, the behavior is continued by the positive response exhibited by the owners. Barking in domestic dogs is a controversial topic. While suggested that barking is "non-communicative," data exists to show that it may well be a means of expression that became sophisticated during domestication. However, due to the lack of consensus over whether or not dogs communicate using their barks, there has not been much work done on categorizing the different types of barking in dogs. That, done has been criticized by Feddersen-Petersen as "lack objectivity."
Using sonographic methods, Feddersen-Petersen identified several distinct types of barks, analyzed them for meanings and emotions. He separated dog barks into subgroups based on said sonographic data: Turid Rugaas classifies barks thus in her book Barking: The Sound of a language; this is brief description of the types: Not all breeds demonstrated every subgroup of barking. Instead, significant variance in vocalization was found between different breeds. Poodles showed the least of all barking subunits. Additionally, barking in wolves was observed as notably less diverse. For example, wolf barks are harmonic, tending instead to be noisy. There is some evidence that humans can determine the suspected emotions of dogs while listening to barks emitted during specific situations. Humans scored the emotions of dogs performing these barks similarly and in ways that made sense according to the situation at hand. In one example, when subjects were played a recording of a dog tied alone to a tree, a situation in which one could reasonably infer that the dog would be distressed, the human listeners tended to rank the bark as having a high level of despair.
It has been suggested that this may be evidence for the idea that dog barks have evolved to be a form of communication with humans since humans can so determine a dog's needs by listening to their vocalizations. Further studies have found that the acoustic structure of a bark " with context." These studies suggest that barks are more than just random sounds, indeed hold some sort of communicative purpose. Nuisance-barking dogs sound off for no particular reason. "Many dogs bark when they hear other dogs barking," says Katherine A. Houpt, V. M. D. Ph. D. director of the Cornell Animal Behavior Clinic. Nuisance, inappropriate, or excessive barking comprises between 13 and 35 percent of behavior-problem complaints by dog owners, Houpt noted; the electric collars deliver an irritating shock of adjustable intensity when a vibration sensor in the collar detects barking. The citronella collar releases a spray of citronella. For the eight dogs that wore both types of collars, all owners found the citronella collar to be effective in reducing or stopping nuisance barking and most preferred the fragrance spray.
Dog fighting is a type of blood sport defined as two or more game dogs against one another in a ring or a pit for the entertainment of the spectators or the gratification of the dogfighters, who are sometimes referred to as dogmen. In rural areas, fights are staged in barns or outdoor pits. Dog fights last until one dog is declared a winner, which occurs when one dog fails to scratch, one dog dies, or one dog jumps out of the pit. Sometimes dog fights end without declaring a winner. Dog fighting generates revenue from admission fees and gambling. Worldwide, several countries have banned dog fighting, but it is still legal in some countries like Japan, parts of Russia, Albania. Blood sports in general can be traced back to the Roman Empire. In 13 BC, for instance, the ancient Roman circus slew 600 African beasts. Under Emperor Claudius's reign, as spectators cheered, 300 bears and 300 Libyan beasts were slain in the Colosseum. Dog fighting, more can be traced to ancient Roman times. In 43 AD, for example, dogs fought alongside the Romans and the British in the Roman Conquest of Britain.
In this war, the Romans used. Though the British were outnumbered and lost this war, the Romans were so impressed with the English Mastiffs that they began to import these dogs for use in the Colosseum, as well as for use in times of war. While spectators watched, the imported English Mastiffs were pitted against animals such as wild elephants, bears and gladiators; the Romans bred and exported fighting dogs to Spain and other parts of Europe until these dogs made their way back to England. Though bull baiting and bear baiting were popular throughout the Middle Ages up to the 19th century in Germany, Spain and the Netherlands, the British pitted dogs against bulls and bears on a scale like no other. In 12th century England during the feudal era, the landed aristocracy, who held direct military control in decentralized feudal systems and thus owned the animals necessary for waging war, introduced bull baiting and bear baiting to the rest of the British population. In years, bull baiting and bear baiting became a popular source of entertainment for the British royalty.
For instance, Queen Elizabeth I, who reigned from 1558–1603, was an avid follower of bull and bear baiting. In addition to breeding Mastiffs and entertaining foreign guests with a fight, Queen Elizabeth, her successor, King James I, built a number of bear gardens in London; the garden buildings were round and roofless, housed not only bears, but bulls and other wild animals that could be used in a fight. Today, a person can visit the Bear Garden museum near the Shakespeare Global Complex in Bankside, Southwark. With the popularity of bull and bear baiting, bears needed for such fights soon became scarce. With the scarcity of bear population, the price of bears rose and, because of this, bull baiting became more common in England over time. Bulls who survived the fights were slaughtered afterwards for their meat, as it was believed that the fight caused bull meat to become more tender. In fact, if a bull was offered for sale in the market without having been baited the previous day, butchers were liable to face substantial fines.
Animal fights were temporarily suspended in England when Oliver Cromwell seized power, but were reinstated again after the Restoration. Dog fighting, bear baiting, bull baiting were outlawed in England by the Humane Act of 1835; the official ban on all fights, however served to promote dog fighting in England. Since a small amount of space was required for the pit where a dog fight took place, as compared to the ring needed for bull or bear baiting, authorities had a difficult time enforcing the ban on dog fighting. In 1817, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier dog breed was brought to America and dog fighting became part of American culture. Yet, though historical accounts of dog fighting in America can be dated back to the 1750s, it was not until the end of the Civil War that widespread interest and participation in the blood sport began in the United States. For instance, in 1881, the Mississippi and Ohio railroads advertised special fares to a dog fight in Louisville. Many of these dogs thrown into the "professional pits" that flourished during the 1860s came from England and Ireland—where citizens had turned to dogs when bear-baiting and bull-baiting became illegal in their countries.
In twentieth century America, despite the expansion of laws to outlaw dog fighting, dog fighting continued to flourish underground. Aiding in the expansion of dog fighting were the police and firemen, who saw dog fighting as a form of entertainment amongst their ranks. In fact, the Police Gazette served as a "go to" source for information about where one could attend a fight; when Henry Bergh, who started the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, witnessed police involvement in these fights, he was motivated to seek and receive authority for the ASPCA Humane Law Enforcement Agents to have arresting power in New York. Additionally, Bergh's 1867 revision to New York's animal cruelty law made all forms of animal fighti
The coat of the domestic dog refers to the hair that covers its body. A dog's coat may be a double coat, made up of a soft undercoat and a tougher topcoat, or a single coat, which lacks an undercoat. Double coats have a top coat, made of stiff hairs to help repel water and shield from dirt, an undercoat to serve as insulation; the terms fur and hair are used interchangeably when describing a dog's coat, however in general, a double coat, e.g. like that of the Newfoundland and most mountain dogs, is referred to as a fur coat, while a single coat, like that of the Poodle, is referred to as a hair coat. There are a greater variety of coat colours, patterns and textures found in the domestic dog than in its wolf relations, as is typical of all domestic animals. In the wild, mutations put animals at some practical disadvantage decreasing survival or reducing their attractiveness to the opposite sex. During evolution of the dog from their wild wolf ancestors, coat colors in dogs were the inadvertent outcome of some other selective process, were not initially selected for intentionally by humans.
Research has found that tameness brings associated physical changes, including coat colouring and patterning. Diversification of the dog into different types and separate breeds increased colour variation as factors such as camouflage and visibility aided the dogs’ functionality. Coat types were selected for, both inadvertently and intentionally, in accordance with factors such as climate, vegetation in the dogs’ working environment, the need to perform tasks in water. Domestic dogs display the remnants of countershading, a common natural camouflage pattern; the basic principle of countershading is when the animal is lit from above, shadows will be cast on the ventral side of the body. These shadows could provide a predator or prey with visual cues relating to the movement of the animal. By being lighter colored on the ventral side of the body, an animal can counteract this, thereby fool the predator or prey. An alternative explanation is that the dorsal and ventral sides of an animal experience different selection pressures resulting in differing coloration.
The same colour may be referred to differently in different breeds. A same term may mean different colourations in different breeds. Brown, liverBrown and liver are the most common terms used to refer to the bb-dilution of black pigment to a dark brown. Depending on breed and exact shade, terms such as mahogany, midtone brown, grey-brown, blackish brown are used. Sedge and deadgrass are used to describe the desired Chesapeake Bay Retriever color that resembles "that of its working surroundings" as as possible. RedRed refers to reddish shades of orange and tan. Terms used include orange, red-gold, cinnamon and ruby. Genetically a dog called red is a clear sable or a ruddy recessive yellow. In some breeds, "red" refers to what would be called brown, chocolate, or liver. A "red merle" is always a liver-based merle. In Australian Cattle Dogs, blue stands for a densely ticked liver-based colouration with an overall red-grey appearance. Gold and yellowGold refers to a rich reddish-yellow and its variants, whereas yellow can refer to any shade of yellow and tan.
Terms used include yellow-gold, lion-colored, apricot, tawny, yellow-red, sandy, apricot, lemon. Dogs called golden or yellow tend to be recessive yellow, but can be sable. CreamCream refers to a pale yellowish or tannish colour which can be white. FawnFawn refers to a yellow, light brown, or cream dog that has a dark melanistic mask. With Weimaraners, fawn refers to their typical brownish grey colouration that with other breeds is called lilac. BlackBlack is a pure black that can get grizzled as the dog ages, or have a tendency to gain a brownish cast when exposed to the elements. BlueBlue is a metallic grey, it means a d/d dilution of black pigment, a grey colouration, grey from birth, but has a wide range of breed-specific meanings. In Kerry Blue Terriers and Bearded Collies, "blue" refers to colouration, black at birth and progressively greys out as the dog matures. In Australian Shepherds, Rough Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs, blue means a blue merle. In Australian Silky Terriers, blue means a saddle-type black and tan pattern, where the black parts of the coat progressively fade to a steel grey as the dog matures and in Australian Cattle Dogs, blue stands for a densely ticked black-based colouration with an overall blue-grey appearance.
GreyGrey means a grey colouration of any shade. It can be used as an alternative synonym of blue, but tends to mean some other type of grey than the d/d dilution of black. Synonyms include silver, grizzle, blue-black grey and silver, steel. Greys of a dusty or brownish cast are lilac, a d/d dilution of liver, this colouration does not have much of a recognised name. Across various breeds, it is called lavender, silver-fawn, fawn, café au lait or silver beige. In Poodles, a blue is a slowly fading dark steel grey, whereas a silver is a quicker to clear, much lighter grey that can range from a pale platinum to a steel grey. Both are black at birth with minimal markings to indicate future change. Café au lait is a slower an
Dog food is food formulated and intended for consumption by dogs and other related canines. Like all carnivores, dogs have sharp, pointed teeth, have short gastrointestinal tracts better suited for the consumption of meat than of vegetable substances. In spite of this natural carnivorous design, dogs have still managed to adapt over thousands of years to survive on the meat and non-meat scraps and leftovers of human existence and thrive on a variety of foods, with studies suggesting dogs' ability to digest carbohydrates may be a key difference between dogs and wolves. In the United States alone, the dog food market is expected to reach $23.3 billion by 2022. Prior to being domesticated, being canines, fended for themselves and survived on a carnivorous diet. After adapting them for protection and companionship, people began to care at least in part for their nutritional needs; the historic record of his changing approach dates back at least 2,000 years. In 37 BCE Virgil talks about the feeding of dogs in his Bucolics: Nec tibi cura canum fuerit postrema.
Nam si tam laxa rura sunt, ut sustineant pecorum greges, omnis sine discrimine hordeacea farina cum sero commode pascit. Sin autem surculo consitus ager sine pascuo est, farreo vel triticeo pane satiandi sunt, admixto tamen liquore coctae fabae, sed tepido, nam fervens rabiem creat."Provisions of victuals are the same for both. If the fields are so large as to sustain herds of animals, barley meal mixed with whey is a convenient food, but if it is an orchard without grain, spelt or wheat bread is fed mixed with the liquid from cooked beans, but warm, for boiling creates rabies." In the Avesta, written from 224 to 651 CE, Azura Mazda advises: Bring ye unto him milk and fat with meat. In France, the word pâtée began to appear in the 18th century and referred to a paste given to poultry. In 1756, a dictionary indicates it was made of a mixture of bread crumbs and little pieces of meat given to pets. In 1781, an encyclopedia mentioned an earlier practice of removing the liver and blood of a downed stag and mixing it with milk and bread.
In 1844, the French writer, Nicolas Boyard, warned against giving tallow graves to dogs, though the English favored them, suggested a meat-flavored soup: By a misguided economy dogs are given meat scraps and tallow graves. In England, care to give dogs particular food dates at least from the late eighteenth century, when The Sportsman's dictionary described the best diet for a dog's health in its article "Dog": A dog is of a hot nature: he should therefore never be without clean water by him, that he may drink when he is thirsty. In regard to their food, carrion is by no means proper for them, it must hurt their sense of smelling, on which the excellence of these dogs depends. Barley meal, the dross of wheatflour, or both mixed together, with broth or skim'd milk, is proper food. For change, a small quantity of greaves from which the tallow is pressed by the chandlers, mixed with their flour. In the season of hunting your dogs, it is proper to feed them in the evening before, give them nothing in the morning you take them out, except a little milk.
If you stop for your own refreshment in the day, you should refresh your dogs with a little milk and bread. In 1833, The Complete Farrier gave similar but far more extensive advice on feeding dogs: The dog is neither wholly carnivorous nor wholly herbivorous, but of a mixed kind, can receive nourishment from either flesh or vegetables. A mixture of both is therefore his proper food, but of the former he requires a greater portion, this portion should be always determined by his bodily exertions, it was not until the mid-1800s that the world saw its first food made for dogs. An American electrician, James Spratt, concocted the first dog treat. Living in London at the time, he witnessed dogs around a shipyard eating scraps of discarded biscuits. Shortly thereafter he introduced his dog food, made up of wheat meals and meat. By 1890 production had begun in the United States and became known as "Spratt’s Patent Limited". In years, dog biscuit was sometimes treated as synonymous with dog food: The first three prize winners at the late coursing meeting at Great Bend were trained on Spratt's Patent Dog Biscuit.
This same dog food won no less than three awards, including a gold medal, at the Exposition in Paris which has just closed. It would seem. Another good dog food is that manufactured by Graves, of Boston. They, seem to be meeting with great success in their line. Canned horse meat was introduced in the United States under the Ken-L Ration brand after World War I as a means to dispose of deceased horses; the 1930s saw the introduction of dry meat-meal dog food by the Gaines Food Co.. By the time World War II ended, pet food sales had reached $200 million. In the 1950s Spratt's became part of General Mills. For companies such as Nabisc
Dogs in warfare
Dogs in warfare have a long history starting in ancient times. From war dogs trained in combat to their use as scouts and trackers, their uses have been varied and some continue to exist in modern military usage. War dogs were used by the Egyptians, Persians, Baganda, Slavs and the Romans; the Molossus dog of the Molossia region of Epirus was the strongest known to the Romans, was trained for battle. Among the Greeks and Romans, dogs served most as sentries or patrols, though they were sometimes taken into battle; the earliest use of war dogs in a battle recorded in classical sources was by Alyattes of Lydia against the Cimmerians around 600 BC. The Lydian dogs killed some routed others. During the Late Antiquity, Attila the Hun used molosser dogs in his campaigns. Gifts of war dog breeding stock between European royalty were seen as suitable tokens for exchange throughout the Middle Ages. Other civilizations used armored dogs to defend caravans or attack enemies. In the Far East, Emperor Lê Lợi raised a pack of 100 hounds, this pack was tended and trained by Nguyễn Xí whose skills were impressive enough to promote him to the Commander of a shock troop regiment.
On, Frederick the Great used dogs as messengers during the Seven Years' War with Russia. Napoleon used dogs during his campaigns. Dogs were used up until 1770 to guard naval installations in France; the first official use of dogs for military purposes in the United States was during the Seminole Wars. Hounds were used in the American Civil War to protect, send messages, guard prisoners. General Grant recounts how packs of southern bloodhounds were destroyed by Union troops wherever found due to their being trained to hunt men. Dogs were used as mascots in American World War I propaganda and recruiting posters. Dogs have been used in warfare by many civilizations; as warfare has progressed, their purposes have changed greatly. Mid-7th century BC: In the war waged by the Ephesians against Magnesia on the Maeander, the Magnesian horsemen were each accompanied by a war dog and a spear-bearing attendant; the dogs were released first and broke the enemy ranks, followed by an assault of spears a cavalry charge.
An epitaph records the burial of a Magnesian horseman named Hippaemon with his dog Lethargos, his horse, his spearman. 525 BC: At the Battle of Pelusium, Cambyses II uses a psychological tactic against the Egyptians, arraying dogs and other animals in the front line to take advantage of the Egyptian religious reverence for animals. 490 BC: At the Battle of Marathon, a dog follows his hoplite master into battle against the Persians and is memorialized in a mural. 480 BC: Xerxes I of Persia is accompanied by vast packs of Indian hounds when he invades Greece. They may have served in the military as well as being used for sport or hunting, but their purpose is unrecorded. 281 BC: Lysimachus is slain during the Battle of Corupedium and his body was discovered preserved on the battlefield and guarded vigilantly by his faithful dog. 231 BC: the Roman consul Marcus Pomponius Matho, leading the Roman legions through the inland of Sardinia, where the inhabitants led guerrilla warfare against the invaders, used "dogs from Italy" to hunt out the natives who tried to hide in the caves.
120 BC: Bituito, king of the Arvernii, attacked a small force of Romans led by the consul Fabius, using just the dogs he had in his army. 1500s: Mastiffs and other large breeds were used extensively by Spanish conquistadors against Native Americans. 1914–1918: Dogs were used by international forces to deliver vital messages. About a million dogs were killed in action. Sergeant Stubby, a Bull Terrier or Boston Terrier, has been called the most decorated war dog of World War I, the only dog to be nominated for rank and promoted to sergeant through combat, a claim having no official documentary evidence, but recognized in connection with an exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. Among other exploits, he is said to have captured a German spy, he was a mascot at Georgetown University. Rags was another notable World War I dog. 1941–1945: The Soviet Union deployed dogs strapped with explosives against invading German tanks, with limited success. 1943–1945: The United States Marine Corps used dogs, donated by their American owners, in the Pacific theater to help take islands back from Japanese occupying forces.
During this period the Doberman Pinscher became the official dog of the USMC. Of the 549 dogs that returned from the war, only 4 could not be returned to civilian life. Many of the dogs went home with their handlers from the war. Chips was the most decorated war dog during World War II. 1966–1973: Approximately 5,000 US war dogs served in the Vietnam War. 232 military working dogs and 295 US servicemen working as dog handlers were killed in action during the war. It is estimated that about 200 Vietnam War dogs survived the war to be assigned at other US bases outside the US; the remaining canines were left behind. 2011: United States Navy SEALs used a Belgian Malinois military working dog named Cairo in Operation Neptune Spear, in which Osama bin Laden was killed. Dogs have been used for many different purposes. Different breeds always met the demands of the handlers. Many roles for dogs in war are obsolete and no longer practiced, but the concept of the war dog still remains alive and well in modern warfare.
In ancient times, dogs large mastiff- or molosser-type breeds, would be strapped with armor or
Human–canine bonding is the relationship between dogs and humans. This bond can be traced back at least 15,000 years ago to the Bonn-Oberkassel dog, found buried with two humans. In the United States, over 48% of households have a pet dog. For centuries, dogs have been labeled as "man's best friend", offering love and loyalty to their human counterparts. Human-canine bonding was recognized by Boris Levinson, who had an immense influence on the establishment of the field of study. Levinson is known for accidentally discovering the benefits of assisted pet therapy, he found that withdrawn and uncommunicative children would interact positively whenever he brought his dog, Jingles, to their therapy sessions. His discovery was further reinforced by Sam and Elizabeth Corson, who were among the first to research and evaluate pet-facilitated therapy. In the early 1980s the term'human–animal bond' was coined by Leo K. Bustad, who delivered a summary lecture on the Human-Pet Relationship on October 28, 1983, at the International Symposium in Vienna.
This symposium was held in honour of Konrad Lorenz, during his lecture, Bustad praised him for his work on the human–animal bond and encouraged others to build on Lorenz's work on the subject. In the early 1970’s, Konrad Lorenz had developed the field of ethology with his landmark research on the imprinting of behaviours in geese. Bustad and other pet therapy advocates formed the Delta Society, built on the earlier work of Levinson and Croson. In the 1970s and 1980s, national and international conferences led to greater recognition of the human–animal bond. Since there has been widespread media coverage of animal-assisted activity and therapy programs and service dog training. A study conducted by J. S. J Odendaal in 2003 showed that when humans pet dogs, their bodies release oxytocin, a hormone associated with not only happiness, but bonding and affection as well. According to the social support theory, animals are a source of social support and companionship, which are necessary for well-being.
Canines' social impact on humans is significant for those who tend to be more isolated, such as children with no siblings or elderly persons. In this view, the animal is part of our community and is an important determinant for psychological well-being. According to self psychology, an animal can be a "self-object" that gives a sense of cohesion, support, or sustenance to a person's sense of self. Self-psychology explains why some animals are so crucial to a person's sense of well-being. Dog companionship gives people a sense of purpose by causing them to develop a daily routine and giving them something to look forward to each day. Studies show owning a dog reduces stress and alleviates anxiety. Anthrozoology Biophilia hypothesis Dog behavior Interspecies friendship Origin of the domestic dog Pack Jon Franklin; the Wolf in the Parlor: The Eternal Connection Between Humans and Dogs. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-9077-2. Retrieved 28 May 2011. Child development: Endenburg, Nienke & vanLith, Hein A.. "The influence of animals on the development of children" The Veterinary Journal Daly, Beth & Morton, L. L..
"Empathetic Differences in Adults as a Function of Childhood and Adult Pet Ownership and Pet Type" Anthrozoos, 22, p371-382. Health benefits: Gillum, Richard F. & Obisesan, Thomas O.. "Living with Companion Animals, Physical Activity and Mortality in a U. S. National Cohort" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 7, 2452-2459. Animal-assisted therapy and Animal-assisted activities: Friesen, Lori.. "Exploring Animal-Assisted Programs with Children in School and Therapeutic Contexts" Early childhood education journal, 37, p261-267