National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Mikhail Yefremov (actor)
Mikhail Olegovich Yefremov is a Russian film and stage actor, Meritorious Artist of Russian Federation. Mikhail is the son of People's Artist of the USSR Oleg Yefremov and Sovremennik Theatre actress Alla Pokrovskaya, he made his screen debut in mid 1970's as schoolboy. In 1982-1984 Yefremov served in Soviet Army. In 1987 he graduated from the Moscow Art Theatre School. Yefremov has six children, his first wife was the editor Asya Vorobieva, their son Nikita is a Sovremennik Theatre actor. His second wife was the actress Yevgenia Dobrovolskaya, their son Nikolay is an actor, his third wife was actress Kseniya Kachalina, they have a daughter Anna Mariya. His fourth wife is audio engineer Sofiya Kruglikova, they have daughters Vera and Nadezhda, son Bori. In 2009-2014, Yefremov presented Channel One show Wait for Me, dedicated to search of long lost relatives and friends. In 2010's he collaborated Dmitry Bykov over their project "Citizen Poet". Yefremov reads poems, written by Bykov, which are satirical comments on the contemporary Russian society and culture.
Each poem parodies the style of a famous poet of the past, e.g. Pushkin, Kipling, among others, it was broadcast on Dozhd TV channel, but the original project was closed, because the poems were too critical towards Russian government. The show is hosted in audio format by Echo of Moscow radio station. Mikhail Yefremov on IMDb
Valentina Illarionovna Talyzina is a Soviet and Russian film and stage actress, People's Artist of the RSFSR. Awarded the Order of Honor and the Order of Friendship. Member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1964. Valentina Illarionovna Talyzina was born on January 1935 in Omsk. Valentina's father was Illarion Grigorievich Talyzin and her mother was Anastasia Trifonovna Talyzina; when Valentina Talyzina was an infant, her family moved to Baranavichy. Between 1952-1954 she studied at the Omsk Agricultural Institute. In 1954 Valentina Talyzina was admitted to the Russian Academy of Theatre Arts, she graduated from the Academy in 1958. In the same year she became part of the Mossovet Theatre troupe. In cinema Valentina debuted in 1963 in the role of Inna in the detective film The Man who Doubts, but the actress began to act in film only in the late 1960s. One of the first big successes Talyzina on the screen was the role of Nadya in the adventure film Road to Saturn. Valentina Talyzina acted in the film The Irony of Fate and voiced the main character because Barbara Brylska, who played Nadia, had an obvious Polish accent.
For her performance in the television series Lines of Fate, Valentina Talyzina received the Golden Eagle Award as Best Television Actress in 2004. In March 2014 Talyzina signed a letter in support of Vladimir Putin's policies regarding the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea and Ukraine. For "statements contradicted the interests of our national security" she was banned from entering Ukraine. Father — Illarion Grigorievich Talyzin, from Russified Tatar. Mother — Anastasia Trifonovna Talyzina. Ex-husband — painter Leonid Nepomnyashchy. Daughter — Ksenia Khairova an actress, granddaughter Anastasia. Total over 138 movies. 1968 Zigzag of Success as Alevtina Vasil'evna 1971 Grandads-Robbers as Fedyaev's secretary 1972 Big School-Break as school chemical teacher 1974 Unbelievable Adventures of Italians in Russia as hostess in the hotel 1974 Agony as Aglaia 1975 Afonya as Vostryakova 1975 The Irony of Fate as Nadya / Valya 1979 The Luncheon on the Grass as Anna Petrovna 1981 Say a Word for the Poor Hussar as Anna Speshneva 1983 Crazy Day of Engineer Barkasov as Kobylina 1984 TASS Is Authorized to Declare... as Pilar 1985 Guest from the Future as Mariya Pavlovna 1985 After the Rain, on Thursday as Varvara 1989 Investigation Held by ZnaToKi 1991 Genius as Lubov Smirnova 2000 Old Hags as cleaning woman 2003 Lines of Fate as Rosa Sergeevna 2007 The Irony of Fate 2 as Nadya / Valya 2009 Attack on Leningrad as Valentina Valentina Talyzina on IMDb
Kirill Yuryevich Lavrov was a well-known Soviet and Russian film and theatre actor and director. Kirill Yuryevich Lavrov was born on 15 September 1925, in Leningrad, USSR, he was baptized by the Russian Orthodox Church of St. John the Divine in Lavrushinskoe Podvorie Monastery in Leningrad. Young Kirill Lavrov was brought up in Leningrad, in a family with deep roots in St. Petersburg society, he was fond of literature and theatre from his young age, was exposed to a stimulating intellectual environment in his family. He was a good sportsman: he took gymnastics and was a member of the youth football team at "Spartak" sports club in Leningrad, his maternal grandmother, Olga Leonidovna Lykoshina, was related to writer Aleksandr Griboyedov and belonged to Polish Nobility. His grandfather, Sergei Vasilyevich Lavrov, was Director of Gymnasium of the Imperial Humanitarian Society in St. Petersburg. Kirill Lavrov's paternal grandmother, Elizaveta Akimovna, refused to emigrate and stayed home in Petrograd with her children.
In 1919, his father, Yuri Sergeevich Lavrov, became an actor at the Bolshoi Drama Theatre in St. Petersburg where his stage costumes were designed by the legendary theatrical artist Alexandre Benois, his mother, Olga Ivanovna Gudim-Levkovich, was an actress in Leningrad. Both Lavrov's parents worked together at various theaters in Leningrad, they married in 1924, in Leningrad. In the 1930s Leningrad was shocked by a series of high-level political murders and Great Purges under the leadership of Joseph Stalin. In 1934, the popular governor of Leningrad, Sergei Kirov was brutally murdered in his office. Joseph Stalin targeted Leningrad for the purpose of degrading the superior reputation of the former Russian capital by destruction of its culture and society through extermination of intellectuals. Soon the director of BDT Aleksei Dikij was imprisoned. After the most dangerous year of 1937, the family of Lavrovs managed to escape from Leningrad amidst the heat of the Stalinist repressions; the Lavrovs were at risk, because of their grandfather's Imperial past and emigration with the White Russians.
In 1938 the family moved from Leningrad to Kiev, where Kirill's father, Yuri Lavrov, became a permanent member of the troupe at Kiev State Russian Drama Theatre named after Lesya Ukrainka. During World War II Kirill Lavrov was evacuated to Kirov to Novosibirsk in Siberia. There he worked as a metal worker at a military-industrial plant. In the beginning of 1943 17-year-old Lavrov applied to join the Red Army to fight the Nazis, he was sent for training to Astrakhan at Technical School of Aviation, from which he graduated in 1945. He served as an aircraft technician in the Air Force, he was stationed at an Air Force Base on the Kuril island of Iturup until 1950. There he was involved in acting with an amateur troupe at a local army club. In 1950 he was reunited with his parents in Kiev, Ukraine. Kirill Lavrov did not have any theatrical training, he did not matriculate from a high school, so he was not accepted at any acting school in Moscow, when he tried to apply there. Frustrated Lavrov left Moscow for Kiev, settled with his parents.
In Kiev he became an actor of Russian Drama Theatre named after Lesya Ukrainka, where his father was among leading actors at that time. Father and son Lavrovs were involved in several stage productions together; the artistic director of Kiev Russian Drama, Konstantin Khokhlov became Lavrov's mentor, soon invited Lavrov to move from Kiev to Leningrad, where Khokhlov was appointed artistic director of BDT. In 1955, upon Khokhlov's invitation, Kirill Lavrov moved to Leningrad and joined the troupe of BDT. From 1955 to 2007 Kirill Lavrov was a permanent member of the legendary troupe at BDT in St. Petersburg. From 1956 to 1989, Lavrov worked under directorship of Georgi Tovstonogov. During those 33 years with Tovstonogov, Lavrov ascended to stardom in film. After the death of Tovstonogov, Lavrov continued his work as the leader of an outstanding ensemble of actors at BDT. There his stage partners were such stars as Oleg Basilashvili, Tatyana Doronina, Alisa Freindlich, Lyudmila Makarova, Svetlana Kryuchkova, Zinaida Sharko, Valentina Kovel, Innokenti Smoktunovsky, Sergei Yursky, Nikolai Trofimov, Oleg Borisov, Vladislav Strzhelchik, Yefim Kopelyan, Yevgeni Lebedev, Georgi Shtil, Vsevolod Kuznetsov, Pavel Luspekayev, Vadim Medvedev, Yuri Demich, Leonid Nevedomsky, Gennadi Bogachyov, Andrei Tolubeyev, many other notable Russian actors.
In 1955, Kirill Lavrov made his film debut in Vasyok Trubachev I ego tovarishchi, directed by Ilya Frez. In 1964 Lavrov shot to fame with his leading role as Sintsov in The Alive and the Dead, a war drama by director Aleksandr Stolper. Kirill Lavrov received international acclaim for the leading role as Ivan Karamazov in an Oscar-nominated film The Brothers Karamazov, which he directed together with his co-star, Mikhail Ulyanov, after the death of the original film director Ivan Pyryev. Among Lavrov’s other achievements were his roles in such films as Tchaikovsky and Taming of the Fire, his last works in film were supporting roles in TV series Master and Margarita and in war drama Leningrad. In 1989, Kirill Lavrov was unanimously elected the Artistic Director of the Bolshoi Drama Theatre in St. Petersburg, he managed to preserve the artistic tradition established by the great Russian director Georgi Tovstonogov, to rename BDT after G. A. Tovstonogov. Kirill Lavrov was awarded the State Prizes of the USSR for his work
Vladimir Ilyin (actor)
Vladimir Adolfovich Ilyin is a Soviet and Russian actor. He was awarded People's Artist of Russia in 1999. Vladimir Ilyin was born in Sverdlovsk, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union. In 1969 he graduated from the Sverdlovsk Theatre School, he worked in the theater "Buffoon" under the direction of G. Yudenich in Kazan Youth Theater. From 1974 to 1989 he worked in the theater named after Vl. Mayakovsky led by A. Goncharov. Wife Zoe Ilyina, Short voice. Nephew - Aleksandr Ilyin, Jr. Russian actor. Vladimir Ilyin has starred in over 111 films Vladimir Ilyin on IMDb
Yevgeny Alekseevich Stychkin is a Russian actor, known for his roles in God Loves Caviar and Trotsky. Yevgeny Stychkin was born in Moscow, he graduated from the English special school No. 30. He studied at the All-Russian State University of Cinematography named after S. A. Gerasimov, course A. B. Dzhigarkhanyan and A. L. Filozov. From 1994 until 1995, actor of the Clownery Theater of Teresa Durova. Starting from the year 1995, he is employed as an actor of the Moon Theater in Moscow. Played in the performances "Proposal", "Fear and Misery of the Third Reich", "Mashenka", "Charlie Cha", "Seagull" Prize in the "Breakthrough-2000" nomination for the main role, "Faust" and others. At the moment he cooperates with the theatrical company S. Vinogradov, the Mossovet Theatre, the Theater "School of Modern Play", the State Academic Theater named after Evgeny Vakhtangov. In 2017 Stychkin was included in the blacklist of Myrotvorets. Stychkin's mother is actress and ballet dancer Kseniya Ryabinkina, a former soloist of the Bolshoi Theater.
Yevgeny was married to pianist Ekaterina Skanavi until the year 2009. Has four children. Evgeny Stychkin's current wife is actress Olga Sutulova. Election Day Attack on Leningrad Alice's Birthday Burnt by the Sun 2 God Loves Caviar Locust Collector Friday Gogol; the Beginning Maximum Impact Beyond the Edge Gogol. Viy Gogol. Terrible Revenge The First Circle Bunker, or Scientists Underground The White Guard The Dark Side of the Moon Chernobyl: Zone of Exclusion Locust The Road to Calvary Trotsky Yevgeny Stychkin on IMDb
War film is a film genre concerned with warfare about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been associated with the 20th century; the fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films end with them. Themes explored include combat and escape, camaraderie between soldiers, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the stories told may be historical drama, or biographical. Critics have noted similarities between the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action and historical drama to wartime romance. Subgenres, not distinct, include anti-war, animated and documentary. There are subgenres of the war film in specific theatres such as the western desert, the Pacific in the Second World War, or Vietnam.
The war film genre is not tightly defined: the American Film Institute, for example, speaks of "films to grapple with the Great War" without attempting to classify these. However, some directors and critics have offered at least tentative definitions; the director Sam Fuller defined the genre by saying that "a war film’s objective, no matter how personal or emotional, is to make a viewer feel war." John Belton identified four narrative elements of the war film within the context of Hollywood production: a) the suspension of civilian morality during times of war, b) primacy of collective goals over individual motivations, c) rivalry between men in predominantly male groups as well as marginalization and objectification of women, d) depiction of the reintegration of veterans. The film critic Stephen Neale suggests that the genre is for the most part well defined and uncontentious, since war films are those about war being waged in the 20th century, with combat scenes central to the drama. However, Neale notes, films set in the American Civil War or the American Indian Wars of the 19th century were called war films in the time before the First World War.
The critic Julian Smith argues, on the contrary, that the war film lacks the formal boundaries of a genre like the Western, but that in practice, "successful and influential" war films are about modern wars, in particular World War II, with the combination of mobile forces and mass killing. The film scholar Kathryn Kane points out some similarities between the war film genre and the Western. Both genres use opposing concepts like war and peace and savagery. War films frame World War II as a conflict between "good" and "evil" as represented by the Allied forces and Nazi Germany whereas the Western portrays the conflict between civilized settlers and the savage indigenous peoples. James Clarke notes the similarity between a Western like Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch and "war-movie escapades" like The Dirty Dozen. Film historian Jeanine Basinger states that she began with a preconception of what the war film genre would be, namely that What I knew in advance was what every member of our culture would know about World War II combat films—that they contained a hero, a group of mixed types, a military objective of some sort.
They take place in the actual combat zones of World War II, against the established enemies, on the ground, the sea, or in the air. They contain many repeated events, such as mail call, all presented visually with appropriate uniforms and iconography of battle. Further, Basinger considers Bataan to provide a definition-by-example of "the World War II combat film", in which a diverse and unsuited group of "hastily assembled volunteers" hold off a much larger group of the enemy through their "bravery and tenacity", she argues. Since she notes that there were in fact only five true combat films made during the Second World War, in her view these few films, central to the genre, are outweighed by the many other films that lie on the margins of being war films. However, other critics such as Russell Earl Shain propose a far broader definition of war film, to include films that deal "with the roles of civilians, espionage agents, soldiers in any of the aspects of war" Neale points out that genres overlap, with combat scenes for different purposes in other types of film, suggests that war films are characterised by combat which "determines the fate of the principal characters".
This in turn pushes combat scenes to the climactic ends of war films. Not all critics agree, that war films must be about 20th-century wars. James Clarke includes Edward Zwick's Oscar-winning Glory among the war films he discusses in detail; the military historian Antony Beevor "despair" at how film-makers from America and Britain "play fast and loose with the facts", yet imply that "their version is as good as the truth." For example, he calls the 2000 American film U-571 a "shameless deception" for pretending that a US warship had helped to win the Battle of the Atlantic—seven months before America entered the war. He is critical of Christopher Nolan's 2017 film Dunkirk with its unhistorically empty beaches, low-level air combat over the sea, res