Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Government of Ontario
The Government of Ontario, formally Her Majesty's Government of Ontario, is the provincial government of the province of Ontario, Canada. Its powers and structure are set out in the Constitution Act, 1867; the government includes the cabinet of the day, selected from members of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, the non-political civil service staff within each provincial department or agency. The civil service that manages and delivers government policies and services is called the Ontario Public Service; the province of Ontario is governed by a unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, which operates in the Westminster system of government. The province's head of government, known as the Premier of Ontario, is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor; the Premier, invariably the leader of a political party represented in the Legislative Assembly, selects members of the Cabinet, who are appointed by the Lieutenant Governor. The Premier and Cabinet, who are responsible for the overall direction and functioning of the government, are entitled to remain in office so long as it maintains the confidence of the elected Legislative Assembly.
The Premier has been the leader of the party holding the largest number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, but this is not a constitutional requirement. The 26th and current Premier of Ontario is Doug Ford of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party after the PCs won a majority of seats in 2018. Owing to the location of the Ontario Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the Ontario government is referred to by the metonym "Queen's Park"; the functions of the Sovereign, Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, known in Ontario as the Queen in Right of Ontario, are exercised by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The Lieutenant Governor is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada; the executive powers in the province lie with the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, but these are exercised always on the advice of the Premier of Ontario and the rest of the Executive Council of Ontario. The legislative powers in the province lie with the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
The premier and other ministers in the Cabinet are members of, responsible to, the Legislative Assembly. For the 2013-2014 fiscal year, the Ontario government planned to spend C$127,600,000,000, including a deficit of C$11,700,000,000; as of March 31, 2014, the total Ontario debt stood at $295.80 billion. The Ontario Public Service was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Maclean's newsmagazine in 2009, again in 2010; the Ontario Public Service was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by the Toronto Star in 2009, was named one of "Canada's Best Diversity Employers" in 2009 by Bank of Montreal Association of Management and Professional Crown Employees of Ontario Cabinet of Ontario Family Responsibility Office Ontario general election, 2007 Ontario Public Service Employees Union Performance indicator Politics of Ontario Government of Ontario official website
Attawapiskat First Nation
The Attawapiskat First Nation is an isolated First Nation located in Kenora District in northern Ontario, Canada, at the mouth of the Attawapiskat River on James Bay. The traditional territory of the Attawapiskat First Nation extends beyond their reserve up the coast to Hudson Bay and hundreds of kilometres inland along river tributaries; the community is connected to other towns along the shore of James Bay by the seasonal ice road/winter road constructed each December, linking it to the towns of Kashechewan First Nation, Fort Albany, Moosonee Attawapiskat, Fort Albany, Kashechewan operate and manage the James Bay Winter Road through a jointly owned corporation named after the Cree word for "our road" kimesskanemenow, the Kimesskanemenow Corporation. Attawapiskat is the most remote northerly link on the 310-kilometre-long road to Moosonee, they control the reserves at Attawapiskat 91 and Attawapiskat 91A. Attawapiskat means "people of the parting of the rocks" from the Swampy Cree language chat-a-wa-pis-shkag.
The Attawapiskat River carved out several clusters of spectacular high limestone islands less than 100 kilometres from its mouth that are unique to the region. These formations are called chat-a-wa-pis-shkag in Swampy Cree. "ncestors of today's Attawapiskat band occupied all the territory from the Kapiskau River in the south, to Hudson Bay in the north, from Akimiski Island in the east to Lake Mississa to the west. This has been contended by the present day chief and council, is supported by documentation in the archives of the HBC, was documented by Honigmann."A land use study was carried out "jointly by the Research Program for Technology Assessment in Subarctic Ontario, the Mushkegowuk Council, its constituent First Nations, the Omushkegowuk Harvesters Association. The overall purpose of the project was to help the regional Council and its associations develop a strategy for natural resource co-management, self-government, sustainable regional development." In 1990 Dr. Fikret Berkes, Distinguished Professor and Canada Research Chair at the University of Manitoba, a team of academics interviewed 925 aboriginal hunters from eight communities of the Mushkegowuk region and James Bay Lowland.
Their results published in 1995, showed "that geographically extensive land use for hunting and fishing persists in the Mushkegowuk region, some 250,000 km2. However, the activity pattern of Omushkego Cree harvesters has changed much over the decades. Although the First Nations control only 900 km2 as Indian reserve land, they continue to use large parts of their traditional territory."In her Masters thesis Jacqueline Hookimaw-Witt, a Muskego-Cree, interviewed elders from Attawapiskat who described in great detail ways in which they continued to harvest and hunt for food, clothing and subsistence to complement store-bought items. Hookimaw-Witt was the first Muskego-Cree to earn a doctorate. Attawapiskat is a coastal community in the western Hudson Bay Lowland, a vast wetland located between the Canadian Shield and James Bay and Hudson Bay; the town or hamlet of Attawapiskat now covers 1.32 km2 of land and is located along the Attawapiskat River, 5 km inland from the James Bay coastline. It is in the James Bay drainage basin.
It is in the Kenora District, in the extreme north of Ontario. Timmins, the nearest urban center, is located 500 km south. Moosonee is 160 km south of Attawapiskat, it is located 52°55′ north and 82°26′ west. The vegetation is subarctic with a coniferous forest in the muskeg. Wildlife includes geese, caribou, beaver, wolves, marten, muskrat and other species. Winter roads constructed each December link Attawapiskat First Nation with Fort Albany First Nation, Kashechewan and Moose Factory to the south; the fertile soil is underlain by silt. It is normal for the river to rise 2 metres; the community has experienced complete flooding. The Attawapiskat kimberlite field is a field of kimberlite pipes in the Canadian Shield located astride the Attawapiskat River on Attawapiskat First Nation land, it is thought to have formed about 180 million years ago in the Jurassic period when the North American Plate moved westward over a centre of upwelling magma called the New England hotspot referred to as the Great Meteor hotspot.
The area is composed of 18 kimberlite pipes of the Attawapiskat kimberlite field, 16 of which are diamondiferous. The Victor Kimberlite is a composition of pyroclastic crater facies and hypabyssal facies, is considered to have a variable diamond grade. Since June 26, 2008, the De Beers open pit Victor Diamond Mine has been in operation mining two pipes in the field at 52°49′14″N 83°53′00″W, about 90 kilometres west of the community of Attawapiskat; the mine expected to produce 600,000 carats of diamonds a year. There are over 2,800 members of Attawapiskat First Natio
Wasaya Airways LP is a 51% First Nations owned domestic airline with its headquarters in Thunder Bay, Northern Ontario, Canada. Its main hubs are the Thunder Bay International Airport and the Sioux Lookout Airport, however, it offers a charter and cargo service from a base in Red Lake and Pickle Lake. In 2003, Wasaya Airways bought the rights to serve remote First Nations communities from Bearskin Airlines; the airline supplies food, clothing and other various supplies to 25 remote communities in Ontario. Established in 1989, the name "Wasaya" comes from the Oji-Cree language, which means "it is bright" in English, in reference to the brightness of the rising Sun; the airline has grown over the years starting off as a floatplane operation to now a charter and scheduled passenger service airline. Its inflight magazine Sagatay is published in conjunction with Wawatay Native Communications Society. In October 2010, the company purchased a Bombardier Dash 8 to bolster its fleet. Ontario Bearskin Lake Deer Lake Eabametoong First Nation Fort Severn Kasabonika First Nation Keewaywin First Nation Kingfisher First Nation Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug First Nation Muskrat Dam Lake First Nation Neskantaga First Nation Nibinamik First Nation, North Spirit Lake First Nation Pickle Lake Pikangikum First Nation Poplar Hill Red Lake Sachigo Lake First Nation Sandy Lake Sioux Lookout Thunder Bay Wapekeka First Nation Weagamow Lake Webequie First Nation Wunnumin Lake First Nation Manitoba Winnipeg Ontario Attawapiskat Fort Albany Hearst Kashechewan First Nation Moosonee North Bay Sault Ste.
Marie Greater Sudbury Timmins As of November 2016 Wasaya Airways had the following 23 aircraft registered with Transport Canada. On 6 August 1998, Wasaya Airways Flight 804 was a British Aerospace BAe-748 that overran the runway at Kasabonika Airport injuring all 4 crew. On 11 September 2003, a Cessna 208B Caravan of Wasaya Airways Flight 125 crashed near Summer Beaver killing all 8 persons on board; the flight originated in Pickle Lake and was scheduled to land at Summer Beaver Airport, but the airplane crashed and burned 3 nautical miles short of the runway. The Transportation Safety Board was unable to determine the cause. 12 June 2012 - A Wasaya Airways Hawker-Siddley 748 caught fire during ground operations at Sandy Lake First Nation in Northwestern Ontario. No injuries were reported. Aircraft burned to the ground, only the left wing and nacelle survived. 11 December 2015 - Wasaya Airways Flight 127, a Cessna 208B Grand Caravan, while en route from Pickle Lake Airport, ON to Angling Lake/Wapekeka Airport, ON crashed 28km NE of Pickle Lake Airport.
The pilot was the sole occupant and was killed in the crash. The probable cause for the accident was flying in known or forecast icing conditions although the aircraft was prohibited from doing that, a high take-off weight that increased the severity of degraded performance when the flight encountered icing conditions. Wasaya Airways Wasaya Group
Ornge is the non-profit charitable organization which provides air ambulance and associated ground transportation service for the province of Ontario, Canada under the direction of the province's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. The provision of ambulance services in Ontario is governed by the Ambulance Act, which states that the Minister of Health "has the duty and the power" to make sure Ontario is serviced by a "balanced and integrated system of ambulance services and communication services used in dispatching ambulances", its headquarters are in Mississauga, Canada. The name Ornge is not an acronym, but is based on the orange colour of its aircraft and land ambulances. According to the organization, "The'a' was removed from the name to make people stop and take a second look, so that it could be trademarked."In 2012 Ornge and its associated companies employed more than 400 people, including paramedics and aviation specialists. Ornge has its own land ambulances, with 12 bases across Ontario.
It contracts some operations out to independent service providers. Prior to Ornge, the air ambulance program was established in 1977 to serve remote areas in Northern Ontario, that are inaccessible to land ambulances or that land ambulances would take too long to reach. Ontario was the first Canadian province to provide a helicopter-based air ambulance system to transport critically ill patients to hospital. Air ambulances are used to transport medical teams and organs for transplant. A large part of the air ambulance service is involved in serving aboriginal communities, of which there are 117, in 6 treaty areas of Northern Ontario; the first air ambulance, "Bandage One" a Bell 212, was operated out of Buttonville Airport by private operator Viking Helicopters Incorporated A second Bell 212, "Bandage Two", was after one year pilot deemed successful and located in Sudbury, Ontario followed by "Bandage Three" in Thunder Bay, "Bandage Four" in Timmins and "Bandage Five in Sioux Lookout for a total of 5 by 1981.
Fixed-wing service began in 1978, provided by Austin Airways, with a Timmins based Cessna Citation I. 90 private aircraft would be employed. This arrangement lasted more than 25 years, until about 2005, as the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care contracted with private operators to provide its air ambulance program’s aircraft and paramedics; the Ministry directly operated the central air ambulance dispatch centre and was responsible for overseeing the overall effectiveness of the air ambulance program. In 2005, the Ministry announced that it was appointing a not-for-profit corporation called the Ontario Air Ambulance Corporation to be responsible for all air ambulance operations; this was done to establish clearer lines of authority among the different parts of air ambulance operations. An arm’s-length corporation was consistent with the Ministry’s objective of moving away from direct service delivery; the corporation's name was subsequently changed to Ornge. Ornge was described in 2012 as being neither a Crown corporation nor an agency directly controlled by the Government of Ontario, but rather a non-profit organisation incorporated under the federal Canada Corporations Act.
The Ministry operated an air ambulance dispatch centre in Toronto until Ornge took over and MATC became the Ornge Communications Centre. On 17 September 2007, Ornge Air was created, it would compete with the private-sector providers. Today, the air ambulance program has become an integral component of the larger emergency health system in communities across the province. In 2011 Ornge was involved in a controversy regarding executives' compensation, including President and CEO Chris Mazza; the Toronto Star uncovered that Mazza was receiving $1.4 million a year while remaining off the "sunshine list" of public employees earning over $100,000. That salary made him the highest publicly paid official in the province. Ontario Health Minister Deb Matthews stated that Mazza’s salary was "outrageous and unacceptable". On 9 February 2013 Dr. Chris Mazza received $4.6 million in public dollars in his last two years at Ornge, including salary, cash advances and two housing loans. In 2013 it was revealed. Mazza expensed ski trips and international junkets with his girlfriend.
Other executives were "highly paid". Chairman Rainer Beltzner received $232,757 in 2011; the board members received $2 million between 2007 and 2011. In 2011, 50 executives received a total of $11.8 million, not disclosed on the Sunshine list. Executives were granted company-paid executive MBAs education, at a total of $600,000. Kelly Long, Mazza’s girlfriend and an ORNGE vice-president, received an MBA from Western University in London. Mazza went on an indefinite medical leave on 22 December 2011 at the height of the scandal. After Ornge bought helicopters from AgustaWestland for $144 million, AgustaWestland made a $4.7 million payment to Mazza-controlled ORNGE Global. A additional payment of $2 million was promised; the payment was for “marketing services”. It was found that this "consisted of a small binder of information pulled together by Long." Subsequent Ornge leader Ron McKerlie said. The binders are said to be in the possession of the OPP. Latter, a former executive indicated that Ornge had paid AgustaWestland $7 million more than should have.
It was this allegation. Tom Rothfels indicated
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s