Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type. It is characterized by difficulty paying attention, excessive activity and acting without regards to consequences, which are otherwise not appropriate for a person's age; some individuals with ADHD display difficulty regulating emotions. For a diagnosis, the symptoms should appear before a person is twelve years old, be present for more than six months, cause problems in at least two settings. In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance. Additionally there is an association with substance misuse. Although it causes impairment in modern society, many people with ADHD can have sustained attention for tasks they find interesting or rewarding. Despite being the most studied and diagnosed mental disorder in children and adolescents, the exact cause is unknown in the majority of cases. Genetic factors are estimated to make up about 75% of the risk. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy may be an environmental risk.
It does not appear to be related to the style of discipline. It affects about 5–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria; as of 2015, it was estimated to affect about 51.1 million people globally. Rates are similar between countries and depend on how it is diagnosed. ADHD is diagnosed two times more in boys than in girls, although the disorder is overlooked in girls because their symptoms differ from those of boys. About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition. In adults inner restlessness rather than hyperactivity may occur, they develop coping skills which make up for some or all of their impairments. The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other conditions, as well as to distinguish from high levels of activity that are still within the range of normative behaviors. ADHD management recommendations vary by country and involve some combination of counseling, lifestyle changes, medications.
The British guideline only recommends medications as a first-line treatment in children who have severe symptoms and for medication to be considered in those with moderate symptoms who either refuse or fail to improve with counseling, though for adults medications are a first-line treatment. Canadian and American guidelines recommend behavioral management first line in preschool-aged children while medications and behavioral therapy together is recommended after that. Treatment with stimulants is effective for at least 14 months; the medical literature has described symptoms similar to those of ADHD since the 18th century. ADHD, its diagnosis, its treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s; the controversies have involved clinicians, policymakers and the media. Topics include the use of stimulant medications in its treatment. Most healthcare providers accept ADHD as a genuine disorder in children and adults, the debate in the scientific community centers on how it is diagnosed and treated.
The condition was known as attention-deficit disorder from 1980 to 1987, while before this it was known as hyperkinetic reaction of childhood. Inattention, disruptive behavior, impulsivity are common in ADHD. Academic difficulties are frequent; the symptoms can be difficult to define, as it is hard to draw a line at where normal levels of inattention and impulsivity end and significant levels requiring interventions begin. According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, symptoms must be present for six months or more to a degree, much greater than others of the same age and they must cause significant problems functioning in at least two settings; the criteria must have been met prior to age twelve in order to receive a diagnosis of ADHD. This requires more than 5 symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity for those under 17 and more than 4 for those over 16 years old. ADHD is divided into three subtypes: predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, combined type.
A person with ADHD inattentive type has most or all of following symptoms, excluding situations where these symptoms are better explained by another psychiatric or medical condition: Be distracted, miss details, forget things, switch from one activity to another Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something they find enjoyable Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing or completing a task Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments losing things needed to complete tasks or activities Appear not to be listening when spoken to Daydream, become confused, move Have difficulty processing information as and as others Struggle to follow instructions Have trouble understanding details.
Ceol Cheann Dubhrann is an album supporting Scoil Naisiúnta Rann na Feirste, a National school and Áislann Rann na Feirste, a community centre in Ranafast in the Gaeltacht of County Donegal, Ireland. The album was recorded, mixed and engineered by Mánus Lunny and mastered by Paul McGeechan at Park Lane in Glasgow and features notable singers such as Máire Ní Bhraonáin and Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh. Coiste Cheol Cheann Dubhrann began working on the project when building work on Áislann Rann na Feirste was nearing completion to raise funds for the aforementioned initiative and the National school in the area; the album features local singers and musicians from the area, along with three musicians whose parents are from the area and two singers from Gaoth Dobhair. Most songs are from the area with a few that have been popular over the centuries in the area, from other parts of Ulster; the album was launched on 12 December 2009 in Mín a' Leice, Donegal. A further launch took place in Belfast's Cultúrlann McAdam Ó Fiaich on 26 February 2010.
A free copy of the album was given to every household in Ranafast. The album features the four surviving singers of the 1970s Gael Linn album, Rann na Feirste. Máire Ní Bhraonáin Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh Maighread Ní Dhomhnaill Tríona Ní Dhomhnaill Gearóidín Breathnach Dónall Mac Ruairí Connie Mhary Mhicí Ó Gallchóir Bernard Ó Duibheannaigh Aodh Óg Ó Duibheannaigh Aodh Mac Ruairí Néidí Mhary Hughie Ó Gallchóir Tony Mac Ruairí Rosanna Ní Dhónaill John Mhary Mhicí Ó Gallchóir Seán Mac Ruairí Sean Ó Duibheannaigh Charlie Ghracie'ac Grianna Sailí Bn. Uí Ghallchóir Pól Ó Gallchóir Mánus Lunny Dónal Lunny Seosamh Mac Grianna Seosamh Óg Mac Grianna Recording & Mixing: Mánus Lunny Engineering: Mánus Lunny Mastering: Paul McGeechan Artwork: Édaín O'Donnell Photographs: Donnchadh Ó Baoill, Donnchadh Mac Garbheith, Vincie Shíle Ó Domhnaill Coiste Cheol Cheann Dubhrann: Donnchadh Ó Baoill, Pádraig Ó Baoighill, Mánus Lunny, Tony Mac Ruairí Notes Áislann Rann na Feirste Cló Iar-Chonnachta
Clark Bailey Duke is an American actor and director known for his roles in the films Kick-Ass, Sex Drive, Hot Tub Time Machine, as well as playing Clark Green in The Office, Dale Kettlewell in the TV series Greek, Barry in Two and a Half Men. Clark is known for his role in I’m Dying Up Here as Ron Shack. Duke was born in Hot Springs, from Glenwood, Arkansas to Angela and Ronnie Duke, he was raised a Baptist. Along with best friend Michael Cera, Duke created, wrote and produced the web series Clark and Michael in which he plays a fictional version of himself; the pilot episode was directed by Duke as his college thesis film at Loyola Marymount University. He was a regular on the television series Greek as Rusty's Christian dorm roommate Dale. Duke appeared in the film Superbad in the small role of'Party Teenager #1'. In 1992, he was nominated for a Young Artist Award as an "Outstanding Actor Under Ten in a Television Series" for his work on Hearts Afire. In February 2008, he starred in Volume 2 of the web video series Drunk History with Jack Black, which can be found on YouTube.
Michael Cera had appeared in the previous episode, Drunk History, Volume 1. In 2008, Duke had his first co-starring film role in Sex Drive, he co-starred with Eddie Murphy in A Thousand Words, completed in 2008 but remained unreleased until 2012. He appeared in Kick-Ass with Aaron Taylor-Johnson and Nicolas Cage, played Jacob, the nephew of Adam Yates in Hot Tub Time Machine, he voiced Thunk in The Croods. In 2010, he had a cameo in a Kid Cudi music video, "Erase Me", he appeared as Clark in the ninth and final season of the American version of The Office. He reprised his role from Kick-Ass in its sequel Kick-Ass 2, released August 2013. Duke will make his major motion picture directorial debut in 2020 with the film Arkansas, about two friends who live in Arkansas and work for a Chicago-based drug kingpin, whom they have never met. Set in his home state, Duke will co-star along with Liam Hemsworth, Michael Kenneth Williams, Vince Vaughn, John Malkovich, Vivica A. Fox. Duke is an avid wrestling fan.
He is part of the cast of the second season of WWE Swerved. Clark Duke on IMDb