Exaggeration is a representation of something in an excessive manner. The exaggerator has been a familiar figure in Western culture since at least Aristotle's discussion of the alazon:'the boaster is regarded as one who pretends to have distinguished qualities which he possesses either not at all or to a lesser degree than he pretends...exaggerating'. It is the opposite of minimisation. Words or expressions associated with exaggeration include: Contexts of exaggeration include: The boasting and bragging by arrogant or manipulative people has been sent up on stage since the first appearance of the alazon –'a stock character in Greek comedy'. Inflated praise in the form of flattery and puffery has a lengthy history. Amplifying achievements and problems to seek attention is an everyday occurrence, as'in exaggerating what one feels by magnifying the emotional expression: this is the ploy used by the six-year-old who twists her face into a pathetic frown, lips quivering, as she runs to complain to her mother about being teased'.
Exaggerating is a type of deception, as well as a means of malingering – magnifying small injuries or discomforts as an excuse to avoid responsibilities. Character assassination involves deliberate exaggeration or manipulation of facts. Cognitive behavioral therapy views magnification as unconscious, unrealistic mental processing or cognitive distortion, which can take the form of probability overestimation or of catastrophizing; this is better known as'making a big deal out of nothing."Whereas probability overestimation refers to exaggerating the "likelihood" of an event, catastrophizing refers to exaggerating the "importance" of the event'. Related'is overgeneralizing, where one takes a single negative event and see it as a never-ending pattern of defeat'. Another form of cognitive exaggeration is inflation of the difficulty of achieving a goal after attaining it to improve self-esteem. In depression, exaggerated all-or-nothing thinking can form a self-reinforcing cycle: these thoughts might be called emotional amplifiers because, as they go around and around, they become more intense.
Here are some typical all-or-nothing thoughts: my efforts are either a success or they are an abject failure I am/other people are either all good or all bad if you're not with us, you're against us Reaction formation is believed to be a defense mechanism in which emotions and impulses which are anxiety-producing or perceived to be unacceptable are mastered by exaggeration of the directly opposing tendency. In cognitive therapy, decatastrophizing or decatastrophization is a cognitive restructuring technique to treat cognitive distortions, such as magnification and catastrophizing seen in psychological disorders like anxiety and psychosis. Psychoanalysis considered that neurotic exaggerations were the products of displacement – overvaluations for example being used to maintain a repression elsewhere, thus a conflict over ambivalence may be resolved by means of exaggerating one's love for a person so as to keep an unconscious hatred in further check. The grandiose sense of self-importance observed in narcissists uses exaggeration to thwart any recognition of a moderate fallibility, seeing any departure from complete success as total and hopeless failure."Self-dramatization and exaggerated expression of emotion" can be observed in those with histrionic personality disorder and other Cluster B personality disorders.
Münchausen syndrome by proxy is a controversial term for a behavior pattern in which a caregiver deliberately exaggerates, fabricates, or induces physical, behavioral, or mental health problems in those who are in their care. Alarmism is excessive or exaggerated alarm about a real or imagined threat e.g. the increases in deaths from infectious disease. The alarmist person is subject to the cognitive distortion of catastrophizing – of always expecting the worst of possible futures.'Some theoreticians of the comic consider exaggeration to be a universal comic device'. It may take different forms in different genres, but all rely on the fact that'the easiest way to make things laughable is to exaggerate to the point of absurdity their salient traits'. A caricature can refer to a portrait that exaggerates or distorts the essence of a person or thing to create an identifiable visual likeness:'disproportionately increasing and emphasizing the defects of the features'. In literature, a caricature is a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others.
Slapstick is the recourse to humor involving exaggerated physical activity which exceeds the boundaries of common sense. These exaggerated depictions are found in cartoons, light film comedies aimed at younger audiences. Paradoxical laughter is an exaggerated expression of humor, unwarranted by external events, it may be uncontrollable laughter. Freud considered'the compulsive laughter which so occurs on mournful occasions' the by-product of ambivalence; the boastful soldier or Miles Gloriosus has for thousands of years formed part of the Western stage.'The original miles gloriosus in Plautus is a son of Jove and Venus who has killed an elephant with his fist and seven thousand men in one day's fighting. In other words, he is trying to put on a good show: the exuberance of his boasting helps to put the play over'. Overacting is the exaggeration of gestures and speech, it ma
Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that they have compromised their own standards of conduct or have violated a universal moral standard and bear significant responsibility for that violation. Guilt is related to the concept of remorse. Guilt is an important factor in perpetuating obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms. Guilt and its associated causes and demerits are common themes in psychology and psychiatry. Both in specialized and in ordinary language, guilt is an affective state in which one experiences conflict at having done something that one believes one should not have done, it gives rise to a feeling which does not go away driven by'conscience'. Sigmund Freud described this as the result of a struggle between the ego and the superego – parental imprinting. Freud rejected the role of God as punisher in times of rewarder in time of wellness. While removing one source of guilt from patients, he described another.
This was the unconscious force within the individual that contributed to illness, Freud in fact coming to consider "the obstacle of an unconscious sense of guilt...as the most powerful of all obstacles to recovery." For his explicator, guilt was the inevitable companion of the signifying subject who acknowledged normality in the form of the Symbolic order. Alice Miller claims that "many people suffer all their lives from this oppressive feeling of guilt, the sense of not having lived up to their parents' expectations....no argument can overcome these guilt feelings, for they have their beginnings in life's earliest period, from that they derive their intensity." This may be linked to what Les Parrott has called "the disease of false guilt.... At the root of false guilt is the idea that what you feel must be true." If you feel guilty, you must be guilty! The philosopher Martin Buber underlined the difference between the Freudian notion of guilt, based on internal conflicts, existential guilt, based on actual harm done to others.
Guilt is associated with anxiety. In mania, according to Otto Fenichel, the patient succeeds in applying to guilt "the defense mechanism of denial by overcompensation...re-enacts being a person without guilt feelings."In psychological research, guilt can be measured by using questionnaires, such as the Differential Emotions Scale, or the Dutch Guilt Measurement Instrument. Defenses against feeling guilt can become an overriding aspect of one's personality; the methods that can be used to avoid guilt are multiple. They include: Repression used by the superego and ego against instinctive impulses, but on occasion employed against the superego/conscience itself. If the defence fails one may begin to feel guilty years for actions committed at the time. Projection is another defensive tool with wide applications, it may take the form of blaming the victim: The victim of someone else's accident or bad luck may be offered criticism, the theory being that the victim may be at fault for having attracted the other person's hostility.
Alternatively, not the guilt, but the condemning agency itself, may be projected onto other people, in the hope that they will look upon one's deeds more favorably than one's own conscience. Sharing a feeling of guilt, thereby being less alone with it, is a motive force in both art and joke-telling. Self-harm may be used as an alternative to compensating the object of one's transgression – in the form of not allowing oneself to enjoy opportunities open to one, or benefits due, as a result of uncompensated guilt feelings. Feelings of guilt can prompt subsequent virtuous behavior. People who feel guilty may be more to exercise restraint, avoid self-indulgence, exhibit less prejudice. Guilt appears to prompt reparatory behaviors to alleviate the negative emotions. People appear to engage in targeted and specific reparatory behaviors toward the persons they wronged or offended. Individuals high in psychopathy lack any true sense of guilt or remorse for harm they may have caused others. Instead, they blame someone else, or deny it outright.
A person with psychopathy has a tendency to be harmful to others. They have little ability to plan ahead for the future. An individual with psychopathy will never find themselves at fault because they will do whatever it takes to benefit themselves without reservation. A person that does not feel guilt or remorse would have no reason to find themselves at fault for something that they did with the intention of hurting another person. To a person high in psychopathy, their actions can always be rationalized to be the fault of another person; this is seen by psychologists as part of a lack of moral reasoning, an inability to evaluate situations in a moral framework, an inability to develop emotional bonds with other people due to a lack of empathy. Some evolutionary psychologists theorize that guilt and shame helped maintain beneficial relationships, such as reciprocal altruism. If a person feels guilty when he harms another, or fails to reciprocate kindness, he is more not to harm others or become too selfish.
In this way, he reduces the chances of retaliation by members of his tribe, thereby increases his survival prospects, those of the tribe or group. As with any other emotion, guilt can be manipulated to influence others; as social animals living in large, rela
Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of self-awareness. It is a preoccupation with oneself, as opposed to the philosophical state of self-awareness, the awareness that one exists as an individual being, though the two terms are used interchangeably or synonymously. An unpleasant feeling of self-consciousness may occur when one realizes that one is being watched or observed, the feeling that "everyone is looking" at oneself; some people are habitually more self-conscious than others. Unpleasant feelings of self-consciousness are sometimes associated with shyness or paranoia; when feeling self-conscious, one becomes aware of the smallest of one's own actions. Such awareness can impair one's ability to perform complex actions. Adolescence is believed to be a time of heightened self-consciousness. A person with a chronic tendency toward self-consciousness may be introverted. Unlike self-awareness, which in a philosophical context is being conscious of oneself as an individual, self-consciousness, being excessively conscious of one's appearance or manner, can be a problem at times.
Self-consciousness is associated with shyness and embarrassment, in which case a lack of pride and low self-esteem can result. In a positive context, self-consciousness may affect the development of identity, for it is during periods of high self-consciousness that people come the closest to knowing themselves objectively. Self-consciousness affects people in varying degrees, as some people are self-monitoring or self-involved, while others are oblivious about themselves. Psychologists distinguish between two kinds of self-consciousness and public. Private self-consciousness is a tendency to examine one's inner self and feelings. Public self-consciousness is an awareness of the self; this kind of self-consciousness can result in social anxiety. Both private and public self-consciousness are viewed as personality traits that are stable over time, but they are not correlated. Just because an individual is high on one dimension doesn't mean that he or she is high on the other. Different levels of self-consciousness affect behavior, as it is common for people to act differently when they "lose themselves in a crowd".
Being in a crowd, being in a dark room, or wearing a disguise creates anonymity and temporarily decreases self-consciousness. This can lead to uninhibited, sometimes destructive behavior. Alterity Introspection Looking glass self Personal identity Reflexive self-consciousness Self-awareness Self-concept Self-knowledge Shyness Surveillance Laing, R. D; the Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness. Harmondsworth: Penguin. "Self-Consciousness" by Uriah Kriegel, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus. This strengthening effect may be measured as a higher frequency of behavior, longer duration, greater magnitude, or shorter latency. There are two types of reinforcement, known as negative reinforcement. Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers. Reinforcement does not require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus. Thus, reinforcement occurs. However, there is negative reinforcement, characterized by taking away an undesirable stimulus. Changing someone's job might serve as a negative reinforcer to someone whom suffers from back problems, i.e. Changing from a labourers job to an office position for instance. In most cases, the term "reinforcement" refers to an enhancement of behavior, but this term is sometimes used to denote an enhancement of memory.
The memory-enhancing stimulus can be one whose effects are directly rather than only indirectly emotional, as with the phenomenon of "flashbulb memory," in which an highly intense stimulus can incentivize memory of a set of a situation's circumstances well beyond the subset of those circumstances that caused the significant stimulus, as when people of appropriate age are able to remember where they were and what they were doing when they learned of the assassination of John F. Kennedy or of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Reinforcement is an important part of instrumental conditioning. Main section: Reinforcement#Operant conditioningIn the behavioral sciences, the terms "positive" and "negative" refer when used in their strict technical sense to the nature of the action performed by the conditioner rather than to the responding operant's evaluation of that action and its consequence. "Positive" actions are those that add a factor, be it pleasant or unpleasant, to the environment, whereas "negative" actions are those that remove or withhold from the environment a factor of either type.
In turn, the strict sense of "reinforcement" refers only to reward-based conditioning. Thus, "positive reinforcement" refers to the addition of a pleasant factor, "positive punishment" refers to the addition of an unpleasant factor, "negative reinforcement" refers to the removal or withholding of an pleasant factor, "negative punishment" refers to the removal or withholding of an unpleasant factor; this usage is at odds with some non-technical usages of the four term combinations in the case of the term "negative reinforcement,", used to denote what technical parlance would describe as "positive punishment" in that the non-technical usage interprets "reinforcement" as subsuming both reward and punishment and "negative" as referring to the responding operant's evaluation of the factor being introduced. By contrast, technical parlance would use the term "negative reinforcement" to describe encouragement of a given behavior by creating a scenario in which an unpleasant factor is or will be present but engaging in the behavior results in either escaping from that factor or preventing its occurrence, as in Martin Seligman's experiments involving dogs' learning processes regarding the avoidance of electric shock.
B. F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who articulated many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism. Skinner defined reinforcers according to the change in response strength rather than to more subjective criteria, such as what is pleasurable or valuable to someone. Accordingly, foods or items considered pleasant or enjoyable may not be reinforcing. Stimuli and activities only fit the definition of reinforcers if the behavior that precedes the potential reinforcer increases in similar situations in the future. If the frequency of "cookie-requesting behavior" increases, the cookie can be seen as reinforcing "cookie-requesting behavior". If however, "cookie-requesting behavior" does not increase the cookie cannot be considered reinforcing; the sole criterion that determines if a stimulus is reinforcing is the change in probability of a behavior after administration of that potential reinforcer. Other theories may focus on additional factors such as whether the person expected a behavior to produce a given outcome, but in the behavioral theory, reinforcement is defined by an increased probability of a response.
The study of reinforcement has produced an e
Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's idealised self image and attributes. The term originated from Greek mythology, where the young Narcissus fell in love with his own image reflected in a pool of water. Narcissism is a concept in psychoanalytic theory, popularly introduced in Sigmund Freud's essay On Narcissism; the American Psychiatric Association has listed the classification narcissistic personality disorder in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders since 1968, drawing on the historical concept of megalomania. Narcissism is considered a social or cultural problem, it is a factor in trait theory used in various self-report inventories of personality such as the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. It is one of the three dark triadic personality traits. Except in the sense of primary narcissism or healthy self-love, narcissism is considered a problem in a person's or group's relationships with self and others. Narcissism is not the same as egocentrism.
The term "narcissism" comes from the Greek myth about Narcissus, a handsome Greek youth who, according to Ovid, rejected the desperate advances of the nymph Echo. This caused Narcissus to fall in love with his own reflection in a pool of water. Unable to consummate his love, Narcissus "lay gazing enraptured into the pool, hour after hour," and changed into a flower that bears his name, the narcissus; the concept of excessive selfishness has been recognized throughout history. In ancient Greece the concept was understood as hubris, it is only more that narcissism has been defined in psychological terms. In 1752 Jean-Jacques Rousseau's play Narcissus: or the Self-Admirer was performed in Paris. In 1898 Havelock Ellis, an English psychologist, used the term "Narcissus-like" in reference to excessive masturbation, whereby the person becomes his or her own sex object In 1899, Paul Näcke was the first person to use the term "narcissism" in a study of sexual perversions. Otto Rank in 1911 published the first psychoanalytical paper concerned with narcissism, linking it to vanity and self-admiration.
Sigmund Freud published a paper on narcissism in 1914 called "On Narcissism: An Introduction". In 1923, Martin Buber published an essay "Ich und Du", in which he pointed out that our narcissism leads us to relate to others as objects instead of as equals. Four dimensions of narcissism as a personality variable have been delineated: leadership/authority, superiority/arrogance, self-absorption/self-admiration, exploitativeness/entitlement; these criteria have been criticized. Behavior is observable, thus classification requires assumptions which need to be tested before they can be asserted as fact considering multiple explanations could be made as to why a person exhibits these behaviors. Psychiatrists Hotchkiss and James F. Masterson identified what they called the seven deadly sins of narcissism: Shamelessness: Narcissists are proudly and shameless. Narcissists hate shame, consider it "toxic", as shame implies they are not perfect and need to change. Narcissists prefer guilt over shame, as guilt allows them to dissociate their actions from themselves - it's only their actions that are wrong, while they themselves remain perfect.
Magical thinking: Narcissists see themselves as perfect, using distortion and illusion known as magical thinking. They use projection to "dump" shame onto others. Arrogance: A narcissist, feeling deflated may "reinflate" their sense of self-importance by diminishing, debasing, or degrading somebody else. Envy: A narcissist may secure a sense of superiority in the face of another person's ability by using contempt to minimize the other person or their achievements. Entitlement: Narcissists hold unreasonable expectations of favorable treatment and automatic compliance because they consider themselves special. Failure to comply is considered an attack on their superiority, the perpetrator is considered an "awkward" or "difficult" person. Defiance of their will is a narcissistic injury. Exploitation: Can take many forms but always involves the exploitation of others without regard for their feelings or interests; the other person is in a subservient position where resistance would be difficult or impossible.
Sometimes the subservience is not so much real. This exploitation may result in many short-lived relationships. Bad boundaries: Narcissists do not recognize that they have boundaries and that others are separate and are not extensions of themselves. Others may as well not exist at all; those who provide narcissistic supply to the narcissist are treated as if they are part of the narcissist and are expected to live up to those expectations. In the mind of a narcissist, there is no boundary between self and other. Narcissistic personality disorder affects an estimated 1% of the general population. Although most individuals have some narcissistic traits, high levels of narcissism can manifest themselves in a pathological form as narcissistic personality disorder, whereby the individual overestimates his or her abilities and has an excessive need for admiration and affirmation. NPD was revised in the DSM-5; the general move towards a dimensional view of the Personality Disorders has been maintained.
Some narcissists may have a minimal capability to experience emotions. The Cochrane Collaboration has commissioned two reviews of th
Seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person, to engage in a relationship, to lead astray, as from duty, rectitude, or the like. Strategies of seduction include conversation and sexual scripts, paralingual features, non-verbal communication, short-term behavioural strategies; the word seduction stems from Latin and means "leading astray." As a result, the term may have a negative connotation. Famous seducers from history or legend include Lilith, Giacomo Casanova, the fictional character Don Juan; the emergence of the Internet and technology has supported the availability and the existence of a seduction community, based on discourse about seduction. This is predominately by "pickup artists". Seduction is used within marketing to increase compliance and willingness. Seduction, seen negatively, involves temptation and enticement sexual in nature, to lead someone astray into a behavioural choice they would not have made if they were not in a state of sexual arousal. Seen positively, seduction is a synonym for the act of charming someone—male or female—by an appeal to the senses with the goal of reducing unfounded fears and leading to their "sexual emancipation."
Some sides in contemporary academic debate state that the morality of seduction depends on the long-term impacts on the individuals concerned, rather than the act itself, may not carry the negative connotations expressed in dictionary definitions. Seduction is a popular motif in history and fiction, both as a warning of the social consequences of engaging in the behaviour or becoming its victim, as a salute to a powerful skill. In the Bible, Eve offers the forbidden fruit to Adam. Eve herself was verbally seduced by the serpent, believed in Christianity to be Satan. Sirens of Greek mythology lured sailors to their death by singing them to shipwreck. Famous male seducers, their names synonymous with sexual allure, range from Genji to James Bond. In biblical times, because unmarried females who lost their virginity had lost much of their value as marriage prospects, the Old Testament Book of Exodus specifies that the seducer must marry his victim or pay her father to compensate him for his loss of the marriage price: "And if a man entice a maid, not betrothed, lie with her, he shall endow her to be his wife.
If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins." The Book of Judges in the Old Testament describes Delilah seducing Samson, given great strength by God, but lost his strength when she allowed the Philistines to shave his hair off during his slumber. Males and females both implement the strategy of seduction as a method of negotiating their sexual relationships; this can involve manipulation of other individuals. This is based on desire physical, as well as attraction towards them. Popular phrases used include; these phrases help to demonstrate the extensively pervasive and ubiquitous strategy use within love and relationships amongst humans. Individuals employing such strategies do so subconsciously and will report the feelings and thoughts that they subjectively experienced and are colloquially comparable to ‘attraction’ or'love'. Research has indicated that seduction could substitute or equate to a form of collapsed or condensed courtship.
Evolutionary psychology suggests that this form of sexual enticement can be used in order to cajole desired individuals to engage in sexual intercourse and reproduce. This behaviour is aimed at persuading someone to develop a short-term or long-term sexual relationship with them. Males declare that they adopt the strategy of seduction statistically more than females. From an evolutionary perspective this is due to females’ higher parental investment and the lack of guarantee of male parental investment. Females therefore need to be seduced more prior to engaging in sexual intercourse. Men more wish to engage in more frequent short-term mating, which may require this strategy of seduction used to access the female for intercourse. However, this finding has been contradicted by non-verbal seduction results which indicate that females have more control within this area. Other potential strategies individuals employ to gain access to a mate include courting or having relatives select mates for socioeconomic reasons.
Both males and females have reported preferring seduction above all other strategies, such as the use of power or aggression, for making a potential partner agree to sexual intercourse. Seduction is related to human mate poaching. Human mate poaching refers to when either a male or female purposefully entices another individual, in an established relationship into sexual relations with them; this is akin to the definition of seduction in the introduction. This is a psychological mechanism which had unconscious and conscious manifestations, that in relation to evolutionary psychology has been adaptive to our ancestors in the past and has continued to be functional in modern society. Human mate poaching is a form of seduction, can be used as a short-term and long-term mating strategy among both sexes. Moreover, there are associated benefits to poaching. Schmitt and Buss investigated the potential costs and benefits across sexes in relation to human mate poaching. Costs for women engaging in poaching behaviours include unwanted pregnancy, transmitted infection and diseases, insecurity about provision
Loneliness is a complex and unpleasant emotional response to isolation. Loneliness includes anxious feelings about a lack of connection or communication with other beings, both in the present and extending into the future; as such, loneliness can be felt when surrounded by other people. The causes of loneliness are varied and include social, mental and physical factors. Research has shown that loneliness is prevalent throughout society, including people in marriages, families and those with successful careers, it has been a long explored theme in the literature of human beings since classical antiquity. Loneliness has been described as social pain—a psychological mechanism meant to motivate an individual to seek social connections. Loneliness is defined in terms of one's connectedness to others, or more as "the unpleasant experience that occurs when a person's network of social relations is deficient in some important way". People can experience loneliness for many reasons, many life events may cause it, such as a lack of friendship relations during childhood and adolescence, or the physical absence of meaningful people around a person.
At the same time, loneliness may be a symptom of another social or psychological problem, such as chronic depression. Many people experience loneliness for the first time, it is a common, though temporary, consequence of a breakup, divorce, or loss of any important long-term relationship. In these cases, it may stem both from the loss of a specific person and from the withdrawal from social circles caused by the event or the associated sadness; the loss of a significant person in one's life will initiate a grief response. Loneliness may occur after the birth of a child, after marriage, or following any other disruptive event, such as moving from one's home town into an unfamiliar community, leading to homesickness. Loneliness can occur within unstable marriages or other close relationships of a similar nature, in which feelings present may include anger or resentment, or in which the feeling of love cannot be given or received. Loneliness may represent a disfunction of communication, can result from places with low population densities in which there are comparatively few people to interact with.
Loneliness can be seen as a social phenomenon, capable of spreading like a disease. When one person in a group begins to feel lonely, this feeling can spread to others, increasing everybody's risk for feelings of loneliness. People can feel lonely when they are surrounded by other people. A twin study found evidence that genetics account for half of the measurable differences in loneliness among adults, similar to the heritability estimates found in children; these genes operate in a similar manner in females. The study found no common environmental contributions to adult loneliness. There is a clear distinction between feeling lonely and being isolated. In particular, one way of thinking about loneliness is as a discrepancy between one's necessary and achieved levels of social interaction, while solitude is the lack of contact with people. Loneliness is therefore a subjective experience. People can be lonely while in the middle of a crowd. What makes a person lonely is the fact that they need more social interaction or a certain type of social interaction, not available.
A person can feel lonely due to not talking to enough people. Conversely, one can be alone and not feel lonely. There have been suggestions that each person has their own optimal level of social interaction. If a person gets too little or too much social interaction, this could lead to feelings of loneliness or over-stimulation. Solitude can have positive effects on individuals. One study found that, although time spent alone tended to depress a person's mood and increase feelings of loneliness, it helped to improve their cognitive state, such as improving concentration. Furthermore, once the alone time was over, people's moods tended to increase significantly. Solitude is associated with other positive growth experiences, religious experiences, identity building such as solitary quests used in rites of passages for adolescents. Loneliness can play an important role in the creative process. In some people, temporary or prolonged loneliness can lead to notable artistic and creative expression, for example, as was the case with poets Emily Dickinson and Isabella di Morra, numerous musicians.
This is not to imply that loneliness itself ensures this creativity, rather, it may have an influence on the subject matter of the artist and more be present in individuals engaged in creative activities. The other important typology of loneliness focuses on the time perspective. In this respect, loneliness can be viewed as either chronic, it has been referred to as state and trait loneliness. Transient loneliness is temporary in nature, caused by something in the environment, is relieved. Chronic loneliness is more permanent, caused by the person, is not relieved. For example, when a person is sick and cannot socialize with friends would be a case of transient loneliness. Once the person got better it would be easy. A person who feels lonely regardless of if they are