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Attorney general

In most common law jurisdictions, the attorney general or attorney-general is the main legal advisor to the government. The plural is attorneys general or attorney generals. In some jurisdictions, attorneys general have executive responsibility for law enforcement, prosecutions or responsibility for legal affairs generally. In practice, the extent to which the attorney general provides legal advice to the government varies between jurisdictions, between individual office-holders within the same jurisdiction bdepending on the level and nature of the office-holder's prior legal experience. Where the attorney general has ministerial responsibility for legal affairs in general, the ministerial portfolio is equivalent to that of a Minister of Justice in some other countries; the term was used to refer to any person who holds a general power of attorney to represent a principal in all matters. In the common law tradition, anyone who represents the state in criminal prosecutions, is such an attorney.

Although a government may designate some official as the permanent attorney general, anyone who came to represent the state in the same way could, in the past, be referred to as such if only for a particular case. Today, however, in most jurisdictions, the term is reserved as a title of the permanently appointed attorney general of the state, sovereign or other member of the royal family. Civil law jurisdictions have similar offices, which may be variously called "public prosecutor general", "procurators", "advocates general", "public attorneys", other titles. Many of these offices use "attorney general" or "attorney-general" as the English translation of the title, although because of different historical provenance, the nature of such offices is different from that of attorneys-general in common law jurisdictions. In regard to the etymology of the phrase Attorney General, Steven Pinker writes that the earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1292: "Tous attorneyz general purrount lever fins et cirrographer".

The phrase was borrowed from Anglo-Norman French when England was ruled by Normans after the conquest of England in the 11th-century. As a variety of French, spoken in the law courts, universities and in sections of the gentry and the bourgeoisie, the term relating to government got introduced into English; the phrase attorney general is composed of a noun followed by the postpositive adjective general and as other French compounds its plural form appears as "attorneys generals". As compared to major generals, a term that originates from French and has a postpositive adjective, it appears as "attorney generals". Steven Pinker writes: "So if you are challenged for saying attorney-generals, mother-in-laws, passerbys... you can reply,'They are the model of the modern major general.'" Attorneys-General in common law jurisdictions, jurisdictions with a legal system, derived from the common law tradition, share a common provenance. In Australia, the Attorney-General is the chief law officer of the Crown and a member of the Cabinet.

The Attorney-General is the minister responsible for legal affairs and public security, the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation. Christian Porter is the current Attorney-General; the Australian states each have separate attorneys-general, who are state ministers with similar responsibilities to the federal minister with respect to state law. Functions of the state and federal attorneys-general include the administration of the selection of persons for nomination to judicial posts, authorizing prosecutions. In normal circumstances, the prosecutorial powers of the Attorney-General are exercised by the Director of Public Prosecutions and staff. Statutory criminal law provides that prosecutions for certain offences require the individual consent of the Attorney-General; this is for offences whose illegality is of a somewhat controversial nature or where there is perceived to be a significant risk that prosecutions of a political nature may be embarked upon. The Attorney-General generally has the power to issue certificates conclusive of certain facts.

The Attorney-General has the power to issue a nolle prosequi with respect to a case, which authoritatively determines that the state does not wish to prosecute the case, so preventing any person from doing so. For the attorneys-general of the various states and territories of Australia see: Attorney-General of the Australian Capital Territory Attorney-General of New South Wales Attorney-General of the Northern Territory Attorney-General of Queensland Attorney-General of South Australia Attorney-General of Tasmania Attorney-General of Victoria Attorney-General of Western Australia The Attorney General of Canada is a separate title held by the Canadian Minister of Justice, a member of the Cabinet; the Minister of Justice is concerned with questions of policy and their relationship to the justice system. In their role as attorne

Jason R. Moore

Jason R. Moore is a Jamaican-American actor based in Los Angeles, California. Jason Moore was born in Kingston, but grew up in Albany, New York, he moved to New York City after graduating college, soon after acquired roles on television series such as Law & Order: Special Victims Unit and The Unusuals. Moore secured a small role in his first movie The Sorcerer's Apprentice, followed by Killjoy Goes to Hell, other short films. After moving to Los Angeles, Moore was cast as Curtis Hoyle for a Marvel series The Punisher. Jason R. Moore on IMDb

Leitzaran

The Leitzaran is a river and a valley in the Navarre and the Basque Country. It flows into the river Oria from its right, its source is in the Leitza municipality in Navarre, it is 42 kilometres long. It enters into Gipuzkoa in a place called Urto, it takes water from the municipalities of Areso, Elduain, Villabona and Andoain and has an area of 124.02 square kilometres, of which 69.72 square kilometres belongs to Gipuzkoa. The Gipuzkoan part of its basin is known as "Valle de Leizaran", it shapes up in the "Macizo de Cinco Villas", formed by materials formed in the Paleozoic slate and sandstone, fold during the Hercynian orogeny; the Leitzaran is crooked and shows several meanders. The gipuscoan Leitzaran is bounded in the east by the river Urumea’s valley, divided by the Adarra-Mandoegi mountain chain. Altzadi in this chain separates the gipuscoan and the navarre Leitzaran; the dividing line in the west starts in Arizmendi and joins the Uzturre-Ipuliño chain in Belabieta. This mountains separates the valley from Zelai and Elduain, as well as the small valleys in the area of Amasa-Villabona.

The shorelines of the Leitzaran and those of its tributaries Ubaran and Malo were declared Protected Biotopes on 29 September 1995. They have a total area of 0.74 square kilometres. Despite its dehumanised appearance, the trace of man is strong. There are plenty of prehistoric monuments and grazing has been long-practised; the most significant industry was the blast furnaces and the river was useful to them. Minerals came from the valley itself, but there were some imported from Somorrostro; the river’s waters have powered flour watermills and small hydroelectric power stations as well, some of them still functioning. In order to carry the minerals from the Bizkotx mines a railway was built from the mines to Andoain. Afterwards, its two ends were lengthened to Pamplona and to Lasarte, a place where it joined up to the Ferrocarriles Vascongados, where it could provide services to Donostia; this railway was popularly called "Tren del Plazaola" and "Tren-txiki". A big part of the Plazaola railway’s course is being recovered for leisure as a greenway.

List of rivers of Spain