Auchendavy

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Auchendavy
View of the Campsie Fells - geograph.org.uk - 1459454.jpg
View of the Campsie Fells from near Auchendavy Fort[1]
Founded during the reign ofAntoninus Pius
Place in the Roman world
ProvinceBritannia
Stationed military units
Legions
20th
2nd
Location
CountyEast Dunbartonshire
Country United Kingdom

Auchendavy was a Roman fort on the Antonine Wall in Scotland.[2] Much of the site archeology was destroyed by the builders of the Forth and Clyde Canal.[3] Between Bar Hill and Balmuildy the wall roughly follows the southern bank of the River Kelvin;[4] the site of the fort is north of Kirkintilloch's northern border.[5] It can be seen as a mound mid-way between the Forth and Clyde Canal and the road.[6]

Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site,[7] he says, "Auchendavy is distinguished for the large number of antiquities found in and about it." "About it" includes Shirva Farm in Twechar where finds such as several tombstones were found.

Context[edit]

Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men.[8] Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men[9] but probably sheltered women and children[10] as well although the troops were not allowed to marry.[11] There is likely too to have been large communities of civilians around the site.[12]

Altars[edit]

A centurion called Marcus Cocceius Firmus dedicated as many as five altars found at Auchendavy,[13] he was a soldier with the Second Augusta Legion.[14] A sandstone altar to Jupiter and Victory was found in a pit to the south-west of the Roman fort at Auchendavy. There is also an altar to Silvanus. Similarly, a sandstone altar, dedicated to the Presiding Spirit of the Land of Britain, was found near Auchendavy fort. Again a sandstone altar to Diana and Apollo, was found near Auchendavy fort, yet another altar to Mars was also discovered. It also has dedications to: Minerva, parade-ground goddesses, Hercules, Epona and Victory.[15]

RIB 2174.[16] Altar dedicated to Diana and Apollo, it has been scanned and a video produced.[17]
RIB 2175.[18] Altar dedicated to the Genius of the land of Britain, it has been scanned and a video produced.[19]
RIB 2176.[20] Altar dedicated to Jupiter and Victorious Victory, it has been scanned and a video produced.[21]
RIB 2177.[22] Altar dedicated to Silvanus, it has been scanned and a video produced.[23]
RIB 2178.[24] Altar dedicated to Silvanus, it has been scanned and a video produced.[25]

Other Finds[edit]

A distance slab by the 20th Legion Valiant was found.[26] A fragment of a male torso was found too.[27]

Gordon and others speak of coins; a gold solidus of Trajan is mentioned; the ballista bullets are said to have been upwards of fifty in number. Two iron mallets were also found.[28]

RIB 2173. Distance Slab of the Twentieth Legion[29] George MacDonald calls in no. 2 in the 2nd edition of his book The Roman Wall in Scotland. He argues, over many pages, that was originally "somewhere east of Auchendavy".[30]
RIB 2184. Distance slab of the Twentieth Legion.[31] George MacDonald calls in no. 4 in the 2nd edition of his book The Roman Wall in Scotland and describes it as belonging to Eastfield Farm.[32] It was found at Eastermains Farm, it has been scanned and a video produced.[33]
RIB 2185. Distance Slab of the Sixth Legion.[34] George MacDonald calls in no. 3 in the 2nd edition of his book The Roman Wall in Scotland.[35] It was found on near the discovery site of the 20th Legion's slab: on Eastermains Farm (which adjoins Whitehill), west of Inchbelly Bridge, east of Kirkintilloch,[36] it has been scanned and a video produced.[37] It is similar to two other distance slabs of the Sixth Legion as shown below.
Weathered Distance Slab of the Sixth Legion.[38] George MacDonald calls in no. 7 in the 2nd edition of his book The Roman Wall in Scotland.[39] It was found on East Millichen Farm, Summerston,[40] it has been scanned and a 3D model[41] and a video[42] have been produced.
RIB 2196. Distance Slab of the Sixth Legion[43] George MacDonald calls in no. 8 in the 2nd edition of his book The Roman Wall in Scotland and describes it as belonging to Castlehill or its neighbourhood.[44]

Many other artefacts have also been found at Shirva, near Twechar.[45]

View from the air above Auchendavy towards Shirva, Twechar and the Firth of Forth

References[edit]

  1. ^ "near Auchendavy". Open Street Map. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  2. ^ "Auchendavy; Antonine Wall". CANMORE. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
  3. ^ "Grim's Dyke - Destruction". Antoninewall.co.uk. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  4. ^ Roy, William. "Map of the Scottish Lowlands". National Library for Scotland. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  5. ^ "OS 25 inch map 1892-1949, with Bing opacity slider". National Library of Scotland. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  6. ^ "The Auchendavy Antonine Fort". Roman Britain. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  7. ^ Macdonald, Sir George (1934). The Roman wall in Scotland, by Sir George Macdonald (2d ed., rev., enl., and in great part rewritten ed.). Oxford: The Clarendon press. pp. 285–289. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Soldier". Frontiers of the Roman Empire. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  9. ^ Miller, S. N. (1952). The Roman Occupation Of South Western Scotland Being Reports Of Excavations And Surveys Carried Out Under The Auspices Of The Glasgow Archaeological Society By John Clarke, J. M. Davidson, Anne S. Robertson, J. K. St. Joseph, Edited For The Society With An Historical Survey By S. N. Miller. Glasgow: Robert Maclehose & Company Limited. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  10. ^ "Children". Frontiers of the Roman Empire. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  11. ^ "Roman child's leather shoe". A History of the World. BBC. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  12. ^ Rohl, Darrell, Jesse. "More than a Roman Monument: A Place-centred Approach to the Long-term History and Archaeology of the Antonine Wall" (PDF). Durham Theses. Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online ref: 9458. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  13. ^ "The Antonine Wall: Rome's Final Frontier Teachers' Resource Pack" (PDF). The Antonine Wall: Rome’s Final Frontier. Glasgow University. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  14. ^ Birley, Eric (1953). Roman Britain and The Roman army collected papers. Kendal: Titus Wilson and Son. pp. 87–103. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  15. ^ "altar to Mars, Minerva, parade-ground goddesses, Hercules, Epona and Victory". Hunterian Museum & Art Gallery Collections: GLAHM F.27. University of Glasgow. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  16. ^ "RIB 2174. Altar dedicated to Diana and Apollo". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  17. ^ "Altar to Diana and Apollo, Auchendavy". Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  18. ^ "RIB 2175. Altar dedicated to the Genius of the land of Britain". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  19. ^ "Altar to the Presiding Spirit of Britain, Auchendavy". Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  20. ^ "RIB 2176. Altar dedicated to Jupiter and Victorious Victory". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  21. ^ "Altar to Jupiter and Victory, Auchendavy". Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  22. ^ "RIB 2177. Altar dedicated to Mars, Minerva, the Goddesses of the Parade-ground, Hercules, Epona, and Victory". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  23. ^ "Altar to Mars, Auchendavy". Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  24. ^ "RIB 2178. Altar dedicated to Silvanus". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  25. ^ "Altar to Silvanus, Auchendavy". Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  26. ^ "Distance Slabs". Antonine Wall. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  27. ^ "male torso (frag)". Hunterian Museum & Art Gallery Collections: GLAHM F.45. University of Glasgow. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  28. ^ "Auchendavy". The Antonine Wall. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  29. ^ "RIB 2173. Distance Slab of the Twentieth Legion". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  30. ^ Macdonald, Sir George (1934). The Roman wall in Scotland, by Sir George Macdonald (2d ed., rev., enl., and in great part rewritten ed.). Oxford: The Clarendon press. pp. 365–366, 370, 372, 381, 393. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  31. ^ "RIB 2184. Distance Slab of the Sixth Legion". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  32. ^ Macdonald, Sir George (1934). The Roman wall in Scotland, by Sir George Macdonald (2d ed., rev., enl., and in great part rewritten ed.). Oxford: The Clarendon press. pp. 367–369. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  33. ^ "Distance slab of the 20th Legion, Eastermains, Kirkintilloch". Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  34. ^ "RIB 2185. Distance Slab of the Sixth Legion". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  35. ^ Macdonald, Sir George (1934). The Roman wall in Scotland, by Sir George Macdonald (2d ed., rev., enl., and in great part rewritten ed.). Oxford: The Clarendon press. p. 366-367. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  36. ^ "OS 25 inch map 1892-1949, with Bing opacity slider". National Library of Scotland. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  37. ^ "Distance Slab of the Second Legion, Duntocher". Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  38. ^ "East Millichen". Canmore. Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  39. ^ Macdonald, Sir George (1934). The Roman wall in Scotland, by Sir George Macdonald (2d ed., rev., enl., and in great part rewritten ed.). Oxford: The Clarendon press. p. 376-377. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  40. ^ "OS 25 inch map 1892-1949, with Bing opacity slider". National Library of Scotland. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  41. ^ "Distance Slab from the Antonine Wall (A.1942.18)". Sketchfab. glasgowmuseums. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  42. ^ "A.1942.18EastMillichenSlab". Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  43. ^ "RIB 2196. Distance Slab of the Sixth Legion". Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  44. ^ Macdonald, Sir George (1934). The Roman wall in Scotland, by Sir George Macdonald (2d ed., rev., enl., and in great part rewritten ed.). Oxford: The Clarendon press. pp. 377–381. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  45. ^ "OS 25 inch 1892-1949". National Library of Scotland. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 26 October 2017.