President of the Board of Trade
The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade. This is a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, first established as a temporary committee of inquiry in the 17th century, that evolved into a government department with a diverse range of functions; the current holder is the Secretary of State for International Trade. The idea of a Board of Trade was first translated into action by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 when he appointed his son Richard Cromwell to head a body of Lords of the Privy Council and merchants to consider measures to promote trade. Charles II established a Council of Trade on 7 November 1660 followed by a Council of Foreign Plantations on 1 December that year; the two were united on 16 September 1672 as the Board of Plantations. After the Board was re-established in 1696, there were 15 members of the Board - the 7 Great Officers of State, 8 unofficial members, who did the majority of the work; the senior unofficial member of the board was the President of the Board known as the First Lord of Trade.
The board was abolished on 11 July 1782, but a Committee of the Privy Council was established on 5 March 1784 for the same purposes. On 23 August 1786 a new Committee was set up, more focused on commercial functions than the previous boards of trade. At first the President of the Board of Trade only sat in the Cabinet, but from the early 19th century it was a cabinet-level position
Militia (United Kingdom)
The Militia of the United Kingdom were the military reserve forces of the United Kingdom after the Union in 1801 of the former Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland. The militia was transformed into the Special Reserve by the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907. For the period before the creation of the United Kingdom, in the home nations and their colonies, see Militia. A separate voluntary Local Militia was created in 1808 before being disbanded in 1816By 1813 the British Army was experiencing a shortage of manpower to maintain their battalions at full strength; some consideration was given to recruiting foreign nationals, however on 4 November 1813 a bill was introduced to parliament to allow Militia volunteers to serve in Europe. In the event only three battalions were raised and these were sent to serve under Henry Bayly arriving in Bordeaux on 12 April 1814. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Militia fell in to disuse, although regimental colonels and adjutants continued to appear in the Army List.
Whilst muster rolls were still prepared during the 1820s, the element of compulsion was abandoned. For example, the City Of York Militia & Muster Rolls run to 1829, they used a pre-printed form with a printers date of Sept 1828. The Militia was revived by the Militia Act of 1852, enacted during a period of international tension; as before, units were raised and administered on a county basis, filled by voluntary enlistment. It was intended to be seen as an alternative to the army. Training was for 56 days on enlistment the recruits would return to civilian life but report for 21–28 days training per year; the full army pay during training and a financial retainer thereafter made a useful addition to the men's civilian wage. Of course, many saw the annual camp as the equivalent of a paid holiday; the militia thus appealed to agricultural labourers and the like, men in casual occupations, who could leave their civilian job and pick it up again. The militia was a significant source of recruits for the Regular Army, where men had received a taste of army life.
An officer's commission in the militia was a'back door' route to a Regular Army commission for young men who could not obtain one through purchase or gain entry to Sandhurst. Under the Act, Militia units could be embodied by Royal Proclamation for full-time service in three circumstances: 1.'Whenever a state of war exists between Her Majesty and any foreign power'. 2.'In all cases of invasion or upon imminent danger thereof'. 3.'In all cases of rebellion or insurrection'. Until 1852 the militia were an infantry force, but the 1852 Act introduced Artillery Militia units whose role was to man coastal defences and fortifications, relieving the Royal Artillery for active service; some of these units were converted from existing infantry militia regiments, others were newly raised. In 1877 the militia of Anglesey and Monmouthshire were converted to Royal Engineers. Under the reforms introduced by Secretary of State for War Hugh Childers in 1881, the remaining militia infantry regiments were redesignated as numbered battalions of regiments of the line, ranking after the two regular battalions.
An English, Welsh or Scottish regiment would have two militia battalions and Irish regiments three. The militia must not be confused with the volunteer units created in a wave of enthusiasm in the second half of the nineteenth century. In contrast with the Volunteer Force, the similar Yeomanry Cavalry, they were considered rather plebeian; the militia was transformed into the Special Reserve by the military reforms of Haldane in the reforming post 1906 Liberal government. In 1908 the militia infantry battalions were redesignated as "reserve" and a number were amalgamated or disbanded. Numbered Territorial Force battalions, ranking after the Special Reserve, were formed from the volunteer units at the same time. Altogether, 101 infantry battalions, 33 artillery regiments and two engineer regiments of special reservists were formed. Upon mobilisation, the special reserve units would be formed at the depot and continue training while guarding vulnerable points in Britain; the special reserve units remained in Britain throughout the First World War, but their rank and file did not, since the object of the special reserve was to supply drafts of replacements for the overseas units of the regiment.
The original militiamen soon disappeared, the battalions became training units pure and simple. The Special Reserve reverted to its militia designation in 1921 to Supplementary Reserve in 1924, though the units were placed in "suspended animation" until disbanded in 1953; the term militiaman was revived in 1939. In the aftermath of the Munich Crisis Leslie Hore-Belisha, Secretary of State for War, wished to introduce a limited form of conscription, an unheard of concept in peacetime, it was thought that calling the conscripts'militiamen' would make this more acceptable, as it would render them distinct from the rest of the army. Only single men aged 20–22 were to be conscripted, after six months full-time training would be discharged into the reserve; the first intake was called up, but the Second World War was declared soon afterwards, the militiamen lost their identity in the expanding army. Two units still maintain their militia designation in the Army Reserve; these are the Jersey Field Squadron.
Royal Northumberland Fusiliers
The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army. Raised in 1674 as the 5th Regiment of Foot, it was given the regional designation'Northumberland' in 1782 and granted the distinction of being a Fusilier regiment in 1836, becoming 5th Regiment of Foot; the regiment adopted the title Northumberland Fusiliers when regimental numbers were abolished under the Childers Reforms of 1881 and became the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers on 3 June 1935. In 1968, the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, after service in many wars, including both World War I and World War II, were amalgamated with the other regiments in the Fusilier Brigade–the Royal Fusiliers, the Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers and the Lancashire Fusiliers–to form the present Royal Regiment of Fusiliers; the regiment was part of the Dutch service and known as the Irish Regiment, or Viscount Clare's Regiment, under the command of Daniel O'Brien, 3rd Viscount Clare. In the following year the colonelcy passed to John Fenwick and the "Irish" designation was discontinued and the regiment was referred to as a "Holland Regiment".
The regiment was transferred to the British Service on 5 June 1685, establishing its order of precedence as the 5th Regiment of the Line. Like most other regiments, it was known by the names of the colonels who successively commanded it at the time until it became the 5th Regiment of Foot in 1751; the regiment took part in the Irish campaign of 1690–1691, was present at the Battle of the Boyne, the Second Siege of Athlone and the 1691 Siege of Limerick. In 1692 the unit sailed for Flanders. In 1695 they were part of the allied forces. With the ending of the war by the Treaty of Ryswick they returned to England in 1697; the regiment spent the years 1707–1713 in Spain. They were one of four English regiments who fought a rearguard action with their Portuguese allies at Campo Maior in 1709, fought an action on the River Caia. During the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727, the regiment formed part of the garrison of Gibraltar which withheld the Spanish during the four-month-long siege. On 1 July 1751 a royal warrant provided that in future regiments would not be known by their colonels' names, but by their "number or rank".
Accordingly, Lieutenant-General Irvine's Regiment was redesignated as the 5th Regiment of Foot. The next major conflict in which the 5th foot was involved was the Seven Years' War; the regiment took part in the Raid on Cherbourg in 1758, the Battle of Warburg in 1760, the Battle of Kirch Denkern in 1761 and the Battle of Wilhelmsthal in 1762. The 5th left Ireland on 7 May 1774, for Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony, their presence was necessary because of strong civil unrest in the area. Arriving in July, 1774 the 5th camped near the town. On 19 April 1775, the Light Infantry and Grenadier Companies participated in the march to Concord, the resulting fighting at Lexington and the march back to Boston. Casualties were five men killed, three officers and 15 men wounded, one man captured. On 17 June 1775, after being under siege by American forces for two months, the regiment participated in the attack on the fortifications at Breed's Hill. After spending two months on board ship in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the 5th sailed to New York to participate in the effort to capture the city from the Americans.
They took part in the Battle of Long Island and the Battle of White Plains, the capture of Fort Washington, New York, the capture of Fort Lee, New Jersey. They spent the winter of 1776-1777 quartered near New York City and were involved in skirmishes with the American forces, they were part of Howe's campaign to capture Philadelphia, being engaged in the Battle of Brandywine Creek, where they broke the Continental Army's center at Chadds Ford, capturing five cannon. On the retreat through New Jersey, on 28 June 1778, the regiment was involved in the fighting at Monmouth Court House. While in New York, the 5th participated in several raids and skirmishes, including a raid on Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, they embarked from New York on 3 November 1778, for the French West Indies, landing on 13 December 1778, on the island of Saint Lucia. The 5th was captured a four-cannon battery. On 18 December 1778, a force of 9,000 French troops landed on St. Lucia; the small British force of 1,400 men occupied a hill located on the neck of a peninsula.
The French were raw soldiers trained to fight in the classic European style of linear battles. The French advanced on the British force several times; the British, veterans of colonial fighting, inflicted a stinging defeat on the French. The French lost 400 killed and 1100 wounded to the British losses of ten killed and 130 wounded, which included two officers from the 5th Foot. After two years in the West Indies, the 5th Foot was sent to Ireland in December 1780, they were still in Ireland when hostilities between Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, the former Colonies ended in 1783. On 1 August 1782, all those regiments of the line that did not have a special title were given a county designation; the primary purpose was to improve recruiting, but no links were formed with the counties after which the regiments were named. The 5th became the "5th Regiment of Foot": the county being chosen as a compliment to the colonel, Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland; the regiment embarked for Portugal in July 1808 for service in the Peninsula War.
The regiment fought in the Battle of Roliça and the Battle of Vimeiro in August 1808, the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 and the Battle of Bussaco in Sep
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election; as president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism." Born in Staunton, Wilson spent his early years in Augusta and Columbia, South Carolina. After earning a Ph. D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University, Wilson taught at various schools before becoming the president of Princeton. As governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913, Wilson broke with party bosses and won the passage of several progressive reforms, his success in New Jersey gave him a national reputation as a progressive reformer, he won the presidential nomination at the 1912 Democratic National Convention.
Wilson defeated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to win the 1912 presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to serve as president since the American Civil War. During his first term, Wilson presided over the passage of his progressive New Freedom domestic agenda, his first major priority was the passage of the Revenue Act of 1913, which lowered tariffs and implemented a federal income tax. Tax acts implemented a federal estate tax and raised the top income tax rate to 77 percent. Wilson presided over the passage of the Federal Reserve Act, which created a central banking system in the form of the Federal Reserve System. Two major laws, the Federal Trade Commission Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act, were passed to regulate and break up large business interests known as trusts. To the disappointment of his African-American supporters, Wilson allowed some of his Cabinet members to segregate their departments. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
He won re-election by a narrow margin in the presidential election of 1916, defeating Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes. In early 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany after Germany implemented a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, Congress complied. Wilson presided over war-time mobilization but devoted much of his efforts to foreign affairs, developing the Fourteen Points as a basis for post-war peace. After Germany signed an armistice in November 1918, Wilson and other Allied leaders took part in the Paris Peace Conference, where Wilson advocated for the establishment of a multilateral organization known as the League of Nations; the League of Nations was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles and other treaties with the defeated Central Powers, but Wilson was unable to convince the Senate to ratify that treaty or allow the United States to join the League. Wilson suffered a severe stroke in October 1919 and was incapacitated for the remainder of his presidency.
He retired from public office in 1921, died in 1924. Scholars rank Wilson as one of the better U. S. presidents, though he has received strong criticism for his actions regarding racial segregation. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born to a Scots-Irish family in Staunton, Virginia, on December 28, 1856, he was the third of four children and the first son of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow, who were slaveholders. Wilson's paternal grandparents had immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland in 1807, settling in Steubenville, Ohio, his grandfather James Wilson published a pro-tariff and anti-slavery newspaper, The Western Herald and Gazette. Wilson's maternal grandfather, Reverend Thomas Wodrow, migrated from Paisley, Scotland to Carlisle, before moving to Chillicothe, Ohio in the late 1830s. Joseph met Jessie while she was attending a girl's academy in Steubenville, the two married on June 7, 1849. Soon after the wedding, Joseph was ordained as a Presbyterian priest and assigned to serve as a pastor in Staunton.
Before he was two years old, Woodrow Wilson and his family moved to Georgia. Wilson's earliest memory was of standing near the front gate of the Augusta parsonage on an autumn day in 1860, when a strange passerby said that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming. By 1861, both of Wilson's parents had come to identify with the Southern United States and they supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War. Wilson's father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States after it split from the Northern Presbyterians in 1861, he became minister of the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta, the family lived there until 1870. After the end of the Civil War, Wilson began attending a nearby school, where classmates included future Supreme Court Justice Joseph Rucker Lamar and future ambassador Pleasant A. Stovall. Though Wilson's parents placed a high value on education, he struggled with reading and writing until the age of thirteen because of developmental dyslexia.
From 1870 to 1874, Wilson lived in Columbia, South Carolina, where his father was a theology professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary. In 1873, Wilson became a communicant member of the Columbia First Presbyterian Church. Wilson attended Davidson College in North Carolina for the 1873–74 school year, but transferred as a freshman to the College of New Jersey, he studied political philosophy and history, joined t
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 30th president of the United States from 1923 to 1929. A Republican lawyer from New England, born in Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics becoming governor, his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. The next year, he was elected vice president of the United States, he succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small government conservative and as a man who said little and had a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, left office with considerable popularity; as a Coolidge biographer wrote: "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions.
That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength". Scholars have ranked Coolidge in the lower half of those presidents, he is praised by advocates of smaller government and laissez-faire economics, while supporters of an active central government view him less favorably, though most praise his stalwart support of racial equality. John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4, 1872, the only US president to be born on Independence Day. He was the elder of the two children of John Calvin Coolidge Sr. and Victoria Josephine Moor. Coolidge Junior was called by his middle name, Calvin. Coolidge Senior engaged in many occupations and developed a statewide reputation as a prosperous farmer and public servant, he held various local offices, including justice of the peace and tax collector and served in the Vermont House of Representatives as well as the Vermont Senate. Coolidge's mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer.
She was chronically ill and died from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of 15 of appendicitis, when Coolidge was 18. Coolidge's father married a Plymouth schoolteacher in 1891, lived to the age of 80. Coolidge's family had deep roots in New England. Another ancestor, Edmund Rice, arrived at Watertown in 1638. Coolidge's great-great-grandfather named John Coolidge, was an American military officer in the Revolutionary War and one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth, his grandfather Calvin Galusha Coolidge served in the Vermont House of Representatives. Coolidge was a descendant of Samuel Appleton, who settled in Ipswich and led the Massachusetts Bay Colony during King Philip's War. Coolidge attended Black River Academy and St. Johnsbury Academy, before enrolling at Amherst College, where he distinguished himself in the debating class; as a senior, he graduated cum laude. While at Amherst, Coolidge was profoundly influenced by philosophy professor Charles Edward Garman, a Congregational mystic, with a neo-Hegelian philosophy.
Coolidge explained Garman's ethics forty years later: here is a standard of righteousness that might does not make right, that the end does not justify the means, that expediency as a working principle is bound to fail. The only hope of perfecting human relationships is in accordance with the law of service under which men are not so solicitous about what they shall get as they are about what they shall give, yet people are entitled to the rewards of their industry. What they earn is theirs, no matter how small or how great, but the possession of property carries the obligation to use it in a larger service... At his father's urging after graduation, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to become a lawyer. To avoid the cost of law school, Coolidge followed the common practice of apprenticing with a local law firm, Hammond & Field, reading law with them. John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates, introduced Coolidge to law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County.
In 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. With his savings and a small inheritance from his grandfather, Coolidge opened his own law office in Northampton in 1898, he practiced commercial law. As his reputation as a hard-working and diligent attorney grew, local banks and other businesses began to retain his services. In 1903, Coolidge met Grace Anna Goodhue, a University of Vermont graduate and teacher at Northampton's Clarke School for the Deaf, they married on October 4, 1905 at 2:30 p.m. in a small ceremony which took place in the parlor of Grace's family's house, following a vain effort at postponement by Grace's mother. The newlyweds went on a honeymoon trip to Montreal planned for two weeks but cut short by a week at Coolidge's request. After 25 years he wrote of Grace, "for a quarter of a century she has borne with my infirmities and I have rejoiced in her graces"; the Coolidges had two sons: John and Calvin Jr.. Calvin Jr. died at age 16 from blood poisoning. On June 30, 1924 Calvin Jr had played tennis with his brother on the White House tennis courts without putting on socks and developed a blister on one of his toes.
The blister subsequently
Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III. It is named in honour of St Michael and St George; the Order of St Michael and St George was awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, can be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs; the Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.
People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander, it is the traditional award for members of the FCO. The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi, its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael subduing Satan in battle; the Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse.
The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947. The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817, it was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean". In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
In 1965 the order was opened to women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967. The British Sovereign appoints all other members of the Order; the next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Grand Masters include: 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 1850–1904: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales 1910–1917: None 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis 1967–present: Prince Edward, Duke of KentThe Order included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers; the Usher of the Order is known as the Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords. Prelate – The Rt. Rev. David Urquhart Chancellor – Rt Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Secretary – Sir Simon McDonald Registrar – Sir David Manning King of Arms – Sir Jeremy Greenstock Lady Usher of the Blue Rod – Dame DeAnne Julius Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions, which vary by rank: The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star; the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold, it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately.
In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows. At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used: The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders, it is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and
Royal Society of Edinburgh
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland, it was established in 1783. As of 2017, it has more than 1,660 Fellows; the Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history. Fellowship includes people from a wide range of disciplines – science & technology, humanities, social science and public service. At the start of the 18th century, Edinburgh's intellectual climate fostered many clubs and societies. Though there were several that treated the arts and medicine, the most prestigious was the Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge referred to as the Medical Society of Edinburgh, co-founded by the mathematician Colin Maclaurin in 1731. Maclaurin was unhappy with the specialist nature of the Medical Society, in 1737 a new, broader society, the Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Sciences and Natural Knowledge was split from the specialist medical organisation, which went on to become the Royal Medical Society.
The cumbersome name was changed the following year to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society. With the help of University of Edinburgh professors like Joseph Black, William Cullen and John Walker, this society transformed itself into the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783 and in 1788 it issued the first volume of its new journal Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; as the end of the century drew near, the younger members such as Sir James Hall embraced Lavoisier's new nomenclature and the members split over the practical and theoretical objectives of the society. This resulted in the founding of the Wernerian Society, a parallel organisation that focused more upon natural history and scientific research that could be used to improve Scotland's weak agricultural and industrial base. Under the leadership of Prof. Robert Jameson, the Wernerians first founded Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society and the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, thereby diverting the output of the Royal Society's Transactions.
Thus, for the first four decades of the 19th century, the RSE's members published brilliant articles in two different journals. By the 1850s, the society once again unified its membership under one journal. During the 19th century the society contained many scientists whose ideas laid the foundation of the modern sciences. From the 20th century onward, the society functioned not only as a focal point for Scotland's eminent scientists, but the arts and humanities, it still continues to promote original research in Scotland. In February 2014, Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was announced as the society's first female president, taking up her position in October; the Royal Society has been housed in a succession of locations: 1783–1807 – College Library, University of Edinburgh 1807–1810 – Physicians' Hall, George Street. The Royal Medals are awarded annually, preferably to people with a Scottish connection, who have achieved distinction and international repute in either Life Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Arts and Social Sciences or Business and Commerce.
The Medals were instituted in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II, whose permission is required to make a presentation. Past winners include: The Lord Kelvin Medal is the Senior Prize for Physical and Informatics Sciences, it is awarded annually to a person who has achieved distinction nationally and internationally, who has contributed to wider society by the accessible dissemination of research and scholarship. Winners are required to deliver a public lecture in Scotland; the award is named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, a famous mathematical physicist and engineer, Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Senior Prize-winners are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world; the Keith medal has been awarded every four years for a scientific paper published in the society's scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery. It is awarded alternately for papers on Environmental Sciences; the medal was founded in 1827 as a result of a bequest by Alexander Keith of Dunnottar, the first Treasurer of the Society.
The Makdougall Brisbane Prize has been awarded biennially, preferably to people working in Scotland, with no more than fifteen years post-doctoral experience, for particular distinction in the promotion of scientific research and is awarded sequentially to research workers in the Physical Sciences, Engineering Sciences and Biological Sciences. The prize was founded in 1855 by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, the long-serving fourth President of the Society. The'Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize Lectureship' is a quadrennial award to re