Quintinshill rail disaster
The Quintinshill rail disaster was a multi-train rail crash which occurred on 22 May 1915 outside the Quintinshill signal box near Gretna Green in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. It resulted in the deaths of over 200 people, is the worst rail disaster in British history. Quintinshill box controlled two passing loops, one on each side of the double-track Caledonian Main Line linking Glasgow and Carlisle. At the time of the accident, both passing loops were occupied with goods trains and a northbound local passenger train was standing on the southbound main line; the first collision occurred when a southbound troop train travelling from Larbert to Liverpool collided with the stationary local train. A minute the wreckage was struck by a northbound sleeping car express train travelling from London Euston to Glasgow Central. Gas from the Pintsch gas lighting system of the old wooden carriages of the troop train ignited, starting a fire which soon engulfed all five trains. Only half the soldiers on the troop train survived.
Those killed were Territorial soldiers from the 1/7th Battalion, the Royal Scots heading for Gallipoli. The precise death toll was never established with confidence as some bodies were never recovered, having been wholly consumed by the fire, while the roll list of the regiment was destroyed in the fire; the official death toll was 227, but the army reduced their 215 by one. Not counted in the 227 were four victims thought to be children, but whose remains were never claimed or identified; the soldiers were buried together in a mass grave in Edinburgh's Rosebank Cemetery, where an annual remembrance is held. An official inquiry, completed on 17 June 1915 for the Board of Trade, found the cause of the collision to be neglect of the rules by two signalmen. With the northbound loop occupied, the northbound local train had been reversed onto the southbound line to allow passage of two late running northbound sleepers, its presence was overlooked, the southbound troop train was cleared for passage.
As a result, both were charged with manslaughter in England convicted of culpable homicide after trial in Scotland. After they were released from a Scottish jail in 1916, they were re-employed by the railway company, although not as signalmen; the disaster occurred at Quintinshill signal box, an intermediate box in a remote location, sited to control two passing loops, one on each side of the double-track main line of the Caledonian Railway. On that section of the main line between Carlisle and Glasgow, in British railway parlance, Up is towards Carlisle and Down is towards Glasgow; the area around was thinly-populated countryside with scattered farms. The Ordnance Survey 1:2500 map of 1859 shows a house named Quintinshill at 55.0133°N 3.0591°W, around one-half mile south-south-east of the signal box. The nearest settlement was Gretna, 1.5 miles to the south of the box, on the Scottish side of the Anglo-Scottish border. Responsibility for Quintinshill signal box rested with the stationmaster at Gretna station who, on the day of the accident, was Alexander Thorburn.
The box was staffed on a shift system. In the mornings, a night-shift signaller would be relieved by the early-shift signaller at 6.00 am. On the day of the disaster, George Meakin was the night signalman, while James Tinsley was to work the early day shift. At the time of the accident, normal northbound traffic through the section included two overnight sleeping car expresses, from London to Glasgow and Edinburgh which were due to depart Carlisle at 5.50am and 6.05am. They were followed by an all-stations local passenger service from Carlisle to Beattock, advertised in the public timetable as departing Carlisle at 6.10am but which departed at 6.17am. If the sleepers ran late, the local service could not be held back to depart from Carlisle after them, because precedence would need to be given to the scheduled departure of rival companies' express trains at 6.30am and 6.35am. Any late running of the local train would cause knock-on delays to a Moffat to Glasgow and Edinburgh commuter service, with which the stopper connected at Beattock.
Therefore, in the event of one or both of the sleepers running late, the stopping train would depart at its advertised time of 6.10am, be shunted at one of the intermediate stations or signal boxes to allow the sleeper to overtake it. One of the locations where that could take place was Quintinshill, where there were passing loops for both Up and Down lines. If the Down loop was occupied, as it was on the morning of the accident the northbound local train would be shunted, via a trailing crossover, to the Up main line. Although not a preferred method of operation, it was allowed by the rules and was not considered a dangerous manoeuvre, provided the proper precautions were taken. In the six months before the accident, the 6.17am local train had been shunted at Quintinshill 21 times, on four of those occasions it had been shunted onto the Up line. The disaster occurred on the morning of 22 May. On this morning, both of the northbound night expresses were running late, the northbound local train required to be shunted at Quintinshill, but the Down passing loop was occupied by the 4.50 am goods train from Carlisle.
Two southbound trains were due to pass through the box's section of track - a special freight train consisting of empty coal wagons, a special troop train. With the Down loop occupied, night shift signalman Meakin decided to shunt the local passenger train onto the Up main line. At this point, the southbound empty coal train w
Gomshall railway station
Gomshall railway station serves the village of Gomshall in Surrey, England. The station, all trains serving it, are operated by Great Western Railway, it is on 35 miles 21 chains measured from London Charing Cross via Redhill. The station was opened by the Reading and Reigate Railway on 20 August 1849, was named Gomshall and Shere Heath. On 12 May 1980, the name was simplified to Gomshall; as the older names suggest, it serves the nearby village of Shere. It has been unmanned since 1967; the station is 35 miles 21 chains from Charing Cross, has two platforms, which can each accommodate a three-coach train. Gomshall Station has two staggered platforms. A gated foot crossing had been in use to access both until 25 November 2016 when it was replaced by a permanent bridge with ramped and stepped access. On 20 February 1904, a troop train, en route to Southampton, hauled by C class No. 294 was derailed at Gomshall station. There were no fatalities but the locomotive crew and four soldiers of the Northumberland Fusiliers were injured.
Trains are two-hourly off-peak and hourly peak-time, with additional Gatwick Airport services stopping at peak-time. There are 28 week-day services that call at Gomshall, 14 to Reading, 12 to Redhill and 2 to Gatwick Airport. There are 18 Saturday services that call at Gomshall, 9 to Reading, 8 to Redhill and 1 to Gatwick Airport. There are 16 Sunday services that call at Gomshall, 8 to Reading, 6 to Redhill and 2 to Gatwick Airport
A track circuit is a simple electrical device used to detect the absence of a train on rail tracks, used to inform signallers and control relevant signals. The basic principle behind the track circuit lies in the connection of the two rails by the wheels and axle of locomotives and rolling stock to short out an electrical circuit; this circuit is monitored by electrical equipment to detect the absence of the trains. Since this is a safety appliance, fail-safe operation is crucial. On the other hand, false occupancy readings are disruptive to railway operations and are to be minimized. Track circuits allow railway signalling systems to operate semi-automatically, by displaying signals for trains to slow down or stop in the presence of occupied track ahead of them, they help prevent dispatchers and operators from causing accidents, both by informing them of track occupancy and by preventing signals from displaying unsafe indications. A track circuit has power applied to each rail and a relay coil wired across them.
When no train is present, the relay is energised by the current flowing from the power source through the rails. When a train is present, its axles short the rails together. Circuits through the relay contacts therefore report; each circuit detects a defined section such as a block. These sections are separated by insulated joints in both rails. To prevent one circuit from falsely powering another in the event of insulation failure, the electrical polarity is reversed from section to section. Circuits are powered at low voltages; the relays and the power supply are attached to opposite ends of the section to prevent broken rails from electrically isolating part of the track from the circuit. A series resistor limits the current. In some railway electrification schemes, one or both of the running rails are used to carry the return current; this prevents use of the basic DC track circuit because the substantial traction currents overwhelm the small track circuit currents. Where DC traction is used on the running line or on tracks in close proximity DC track circuits cannot be used if 50 Hz AC electrification is used 50 Hz AC track circuits cannot be used.
To accommodate this, AC track circuits use alternating current signals instead of direct current but the AC frequency is in the range of audio frequencies, from 91 Hz up to 10 kHz. The relays are arranged to detect the selected frequency and to ignore DC and AC traction frequency signals. Again, failsafe principles dictate that the relay interprets the presence of the signal as unoccupied track, whereas a lack of a signal indicates the presence of a train; the AC signal can be coded and locomotives equipped with inductive pickups to create a cab signalling system. There are two common approaches to provide a continuous path for traction current that spans multiple track circuit blocks; the simplest method installs insulated track circuit joints on only one of the two rails with the second being a path for the return current and a ground for the track circuit rail. This has the disadvantage of only being able to detect breaks in one rail so the more popular two rail system uses impedance bonds to permit traction current to pass between isolated track circuit blocks while blocking current at track circuit frequencies.
AC circuits are sometimes used in areas where conditions introduce stray currents, which interfere with DC track circuits. In some countries, AC-immune DC track circuits are used on AC electrified lines; this is the predominant method of track circuiting on overhead electrified parts of the UK rail network. One method provides 5 V DC to the rails, one of the rails being the traction return and the other being the signal rail; when a relay is energised and attached to the track, normal voltage is 5 V DC. When there is a break in the circuit and there is no train, the voltage rises to 9 V DC which provides a good means for fault finding; this system filters out the voltage induced in the rails from the overhead lines. These track circuits are limited in length to about 300m. Modern track is continuously welded, the joints being welded during installation; this offers many benefits to all but the signalling system, which no longer has natural breaks in the rail to form the block sections. The only method to form discrete blocks in this scenario is to use different audio frequencies in each block section.
To prevent the audio signal from one section passing into an adjacent section, pairs of simple tuned circuits are connected across the rails at the section boundary. The tuned circuit incorporates the circuit to either apply the transmitted signal to the track or recover the received signal from the other end of the section. Consider a railway with two block sections as in the diagram. Section 1 has frequency A received at the right-hand end. Section 2 continues from the right hand end of section 1 where frequency B is injected and received at the right-hand end of section 2. There is a gap between where frequency A is received and frequency B is injected; this is referred to as a'tuned zone' and is a section of track where the amplitude of frequency A reduces in the direction of section 2 and the amplitude of frequency B reduces in the direction of section 1. The tuned zone can be of the order of 20 m long. Advantages of jointless track circuits: Eliminates insulated block joints, a component liable to mechanical failure and maintenance.
A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate relative to each other about a fixed axis of rotation: all other translations or rotations being prevented, thus a hinge has one degree of freedom. Hinges may be made of moving components. In biology, many joints function as hinges like the elbow joint. There are many types of door hinges; the main types include: Spring hinge a spring-loaded hinge made to provide assistance in the closing or the opening of the hinge leaves. A spring is a component of a hinge, that applies force to secure a hinge closed or keep a hinge opened. Barrel hinge a sectional barrel secured by a pivot. A barrel is a component of a hinge, that has a hollow cylinder shaped section where the rotational bearing force is applied to the pivot, may have a screw shaped section for fastening and/or driving the pivot. Pivot hinges which pivot in the top of the door frame.
Referred to as a double-acting floor hinge. This type is found in ancient dry stone buildings and in old wooden buildings; these are called haar-hung doors. They are a low cost alternative for use with light weight doors. Butt/Mortise hinges in threes or fours, which are inset into the door and frame. Most residential hinges found in the U. S. are made of steel, although mortise hinges for exterior doors are made of brass or stainless steel to prevent corrosion. Case hinges Case hinges are similar to a butt hinge however more of a decorative nature most used in suitcases and the like. Continuous hinges, or piano hinges This type of hinge is known as a piano hinge, it runs the entire length of panel, or box. Continuous hinges are manufactured without holes; these hinges come in various thicknesses, pin diameters, knuckle lengths. Concealed hinges Used for furniture doors, they are made of two parts: One part is the hinge cup and the arm, the other part is the mounting plate. Called "cup hinge", or "Euro hinge", as they were developed in Europe and use metric installation standards.
Most such concealed hinges offer the advantage of full in situ adjustability for standoff distance from the cabinet face as well as pitch and roll by means of two screws on each hinge. Butterfly hinges, or Parliament Hinges These were known as dovetail hinges from the 17th century onwards and can be found on old desks and cabinets from about 1670 until the 18th century; the form of these hinges varied between manufacturers, their size ranged from the large for heavy doors to the tiniest decorative hinge for use on jewellery boxes. Many hinges of this type were exported to America to support the home trade's limited supply, they are still found to be both cheap and decorative on small items. Flag hinges A flag hinge can be taken apart with a fixed pin on one leaf. Flag hinges can swivel a full 360 degrees around the pin. Flag hinges are manufactured as a left hand configuration. Strap used on many kinds of interior and exterior doors and cabinets. H used on flush-mounted doors. Small H hinges tend to be used for cabinets hinges, while larger hinges are for passage doors or closet doors.
HL hinges Large HL hinges were common for passage doors, room doors and closet doors in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. On taller doors H hinges were used in the middle along with the HL hinges. Other types include: Counterflap hinge Flush hinge Coach hinge Rising Butt hinge Double action spring hinge Double action non-spring Tee hinge Friction hinge Security hinge Cranked hinge or stormproof hinge Lift-off hinge Self closing hinge Since at least medieval times there have been hinges to draw bridges for defensive purposes for fortified buildings. Hinges are used in contemporary architecture where building settlement can be expected over the life of the building. For example, the Dakin Building in Brisbane, was designed with its entrance ramp on a large hinge to allow settlement of the building built on piles over bay mud; this device was effective until October 2006, when it was replaced due to damage and excessive ramp slope. Hinges appear in large structures such as elevated railroad viaducts.
These are included to reduce or eliminate the transfer of bending stresses between structural components in an effort to reduce sensitivity to earthquakes. The primary reason for using a hinge, rather than a simpler device such as a slide, is to prevent the separation of adjacent components; when no bending stresses are transmitted across the hinge it is called a zero moment hinge. People have developed a variety of self-actuating, self-locking hinge designs for spacecraft deployable structures such as solar array panels, synthetic aperture radar antennas, radiators, etc. Pin The rod that holds the leaves together, inside the knuckle. Knuckle The hollow—typically circular—portion creating the joint of the hinge through which the pin is set; the knuckles of either leaf alternate and interlock with the pin passing through all of them. Leaf The portions that extend laterally from the knuckle and revolve around the pin. End play Axial movement between the leaves along the axis of the pin; this motion allows the leaves to rotate without binding and is determined by the typical distance between knuckles when both edges of the leaves are aligned.
Gauge Thickness of the leaves. Hinge width Len
Mechanical railway signalling installations rely on lever frames for their operation to interlock the signals, track locks and points to allow the safe operation of trains in the area the signals control. Located in the signal box, the levers are operated either by the signalman or the pointsman; the world's largest lever frame is thought to have been in the Spencer Street No.1 signal box in Melbourne, decommissioned in 2008. The largest operational lever frame, meanwhile, is located at Severn Bridge Junction in Shrewsbury, it contains 180 levers, although most of them have been taken out of use; the lever frame is located in the signal box, which can be a building at ground level or a tower, separated from or connected to an existing station building. Early lever frames were built as ground frames next to the track, without any form of shelter and were operated by traincrew and not permanently staffed. In England, lever frames with the pivot underneath the floor of the signal box were common.
This design's short lever angle is a major disadvantage, as it requires more force to move the lever. Therefore especially in Germany, lever frames with pivots inside the signaller's room were used, that allow for a lever angle of 180°. By the movement of individual levers, points, track locks, level crossing gates or barriers and sometimes movable bridges over waterways are operated via wires and rods; the signaller chooses the correct combination of points, facing point locks and signals to operate, which will control the movement of each train through their area of control. The lever frame contains interlocking designed to ensure that the levers cannot be operated to create a conflicting train movement; each interlocking installation is unique to the location controlled. The interlocking may be achieved a combination of both. Signals or points located some distance away from the signal box are sometimes electrically rather than mechanically operated. Movement of the controlling lever operates an electrical circuit controller.
In the UK, it is practice to cut short the handles of any levers controlling electrical apparatus, to remind signalmen that little effort is required to move them. Mechanical lever frames and interlocking have now been replaced by modern, much larger electrical or electronic route interlockings located in Power Signal Boxes and more Integrated Electronic Control Centres which are able to control much larger areas of the rail network. A mechanical lever frame is designed to harness mechanical advantage to operate switch points, signals or both under the protection of the interlocking logic; the levers are connected to field appliances via solid pipes or taut wires such that the full travel of the lever will reliably cause full travel in the appliance. Each lever is engaged with the interlocking logic such that movement of the lever is only possible when all necessary conditions are met; the interlocking may be mechanical, electric or both with the apparatus being mounted horizontally behind the lever frame or vertically below it.
To assist the operator in determining their functions, each lever in a frame will be uniquely labelled, one common method being to number the levers in order from left to right. A lever's identification may be painted on its side or engraved on a badge or plate fitted either to the lever or behind it; this may be accompanied by a description of the lever's function. A large track diagram is positioned within easy view of the operator, which shows each lever number adjacent to symbols representing the items of equipment that they operate. Levers are coloured according to the type of equipment they control, the code of colours varying between different railway administrations. For example, in British practice, the following code applies: a red lever controls a stop signal or shunt signal, a yellow lever controls a distant signal, a black lever controls a set of points, a blue lever controls a facing point lock, a white lever is spare. Brown levers are used to lock level crossing gates. In Germany, signal levers are red, whilst levers for points and track locks are blue, route lock levers are green.
Individual numbers and letters are used to indicate each individual item a lever operates in Germany as well. Some mechanical frames were combined with a set of electric levers or switches to more efficiently work electrically powered signals or other non-mechanically operated devices; the switch points would be left under mechanical operation as the other devices used comparatively little electrical power and could be run off of batteries or a low capacity railroad-operated power system. A power operated interlocking frame uses some form of power assist to operate switches and other interlocking appliances in the field; the power can come from hydraulic, pneumatic or electric sources with direct acting or low voltage electric control. The use of mechanical levers is retained in order to engage a mechanical interlocking component, in addition to switches or valves needed to actuate the field appliances. In hydraulic lever frames, moving the lever operates a hydraulic valve rather than wires and rods.
To prevent accidents, operating a set of points requires pulling the actual lever for the points and a secondary check lever. The points are moved by a hydraulic motor; this type of power frame has the disadvantage of a low distance between points and signal box and a slow operating speed. It was common in Italy and F
Burntisland railway station
Burntisland railway station is a railway station in the town of Burntisland, Scotland. The station is on the Fife Circle Line; the Edinburgh and Northern Railway chose Burntisland as its southern terminus, opening its main line north across Fife to Lindores & Cupar in September 1847. These were extended by the following summer to Hilton Junction, near Perth, Tayport. From Burntisland, a ferry service ran across the River Forth to Granton in the northern suburbs of Edinburgh, from where trains could be taken to various destinations across central and south-west Scotland; the current station dates from 1890, when the Forth Rail Bridge and associated connecting lines were opened to provide a direct route across the Forth estuary to Edinburgh Waverley. On 14 April 1914, an express passenger train hauled by NBR H class locomotive 872 Auld Reekie was in collision with a freight train, being shunted; the cause of the accident was an error by the signalman. Two people were killed. Two trains per hour call at the station off peak, running southbound to Inverkeithing and Edinburgh and northbound to Kirkcaldy & Glenrothes with Thornton.
One of the latter continues along the western side of the Fire Circle line back to Edinburgh via Cowdenbeath. Evenings see an hourly service, with some through trains beyond Kirkcaldy to Dundee or Perth, whilst on Sundays an hourly service operates each way around the Circle
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate