Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A.
Ducati Motor Holding S.p. A. is the motorcycle-manufacturing division of Italian company Ducati, headquartered in Bologna, Italy. The company is owned by German automotive manufacturer Audi through its Italian subsidiary Lamborghini, in turn owned by the Volkswagen Group. In 1926 Antonio Cavalieri Ducati and his three sons, Adriano and Bruno Cavalieri Ducati founded Società Scientifica Radio Brevetti Ducati in Bologna to produce vacuum tubes and other radio components. In 1935 they had become successful enough to enable construction of a new factory in the Borgo Panigale area of the city. Production was maintained during World War II, despite the Ducati factory being a repeated target of Allied bombing. Meanwhile, at the small Turinese firm SIATA, Aldo Farinelli began developing a small pushrod engine for mounting on bicycles. A month after the official liberation of Italy in 1944, SIATA announced its intention to sell this engine, called the "Cucciolo" to the public; the first Cucciolos were available alone, to be mounted by the buyer.
In 1950, after more than 200,000 Cucciolos had been sold, in collaboration with SIATA, the Ducati firm offered its own Cucciolo-based motorcycle. This first Ducati motorcycle was a 48 cc bike weighing 98 pounds, with a top speed of 40 mph, had a 15 mm carburetor giving just under 200 mpg‑US. Ducati soon dropped the Cucciolo name in favor of "55M" and "65TL"; when the market moved toward larger motorcycles, Ducati management decided to respond, making an impression at an early-1952 Milan show, introducing their 65TS cycle and Cruiser. Despite being described as the most interesting new machine at the 1952 show, the Cruiser was not a great success, only a few thousand were made over a two-year period before the model ceased production. In 1953, management split the company into two separate entities, Ducati Meccanica SpA and Ducati Elettronica, in acknowledgment of its diverging motorcycle and electronics product lines. Dr. Giuseppe Montano took over as head of Ducati Meccanica SpA and the Borgo Panigale factory was modernized with government assistance.
By 1954, Ducati Meccanica SpA had increased production to 120 bikes a day. In the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling history by producing the fastest 250 cc road bike available, the Mach 1. In the 1970s Ducati began producing large-displacement V-twin motorcycles and in 1973, released a V-twin with the trademarked desmodromic valve design. In 1985, Cagiva planned to rebadge Ducati motorcycles with the "Cagiva" name. By the time the purchase was completed, Cagiva kept the "Ducati" name on its motorcycles. Eleven years in 1996, Cagiva accepted the offer from Texas Pacific Group and sold a 51% stake in the company for US$325 million. In 1999, TPG issued an initial public offering of Ducati stock and renamed the company "Ducati Motor Holding SpA". TPG sold over 65 % of its shares in Ducati. In December 2005, Ducati returned to Italian ownership with the sale of Texas Pacific's stake to Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo and Andrea Bonomi. In April 2012, Volkswagen Group's Audi subsidiary announced its intention to buy Ducati for €860 million.
Volkswagen chairman Ferdinand Piëch, a motorcycle enthusiast, had long coveted Ducati, had regretted that he passed up an opportunity to buy the company from the Italian government in 1984. Analysts doubted a tiny motorcycle maker would have a meaningful effect on a company the size of Volkswagen, commenting that the acquisition has "a trophy feel to it," and, "is driven by VW's passion for nameplates rather than industrial or financial logic". Italian luxury car brand Lamborghini was strengthened under VW ownership. AUDI AG's Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. subsidiary acquired 100 percent of the shares of Ducati Motor Holding S.p. A. on 19 July 2012 for €747 million. Since 1926, Ducati has been owned by a number of companies. 1926–1950 – Ducati family 1950–1967 – Government Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale management 1967–1978 – Government EFIM management 1967–1973 – Headed By Giuseppe Montano 1973–1978 – Headed by Cristiano de Eccher 1978–1985 – VM Group 1985–1996 – Cagiva Group 1996–2005 – Texas-Pacific Group ownership and going public Headed by CEO Federico Minoli, 1996–2001.
A. 2008–2012 – Performance Motorcycles S.p. A. An investment vehicle formed by Investindustrial Holdings, BS Investimenti and Hospitals of Ontario Pension Plan19 July 2012 – present – Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. AUDI AG acquired 100% of the voting rights of Ducati Motor Holding S.p. A. via Audi's Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. subsidiary From the 1960s to the 1990s, the Spanish company MotoTrans licensed Ducati engines and produced motorcycles that, although they incorporated subtle differences, were Ducati-derived. MotoTrans's most notable machine was the 250 cc 24 Horas. Ducati is best known for high-performance motorcycles characterized by large-capacity four-stroke, 90° V-twin engines, with a desmodromic valve design. Ducati refers to this configuration as L-twin because one cylinder is vertical while the other is horizontal, making it look like a letter "L"
The Audi A8 is a four-door, full-size, luxury sedan manufactured and marketed by the German automaker Audi since 1994. Succeeding the Audi V8, now in its fourth generation, the A8 has been offered with both front- or permanent all-wheel drive—and in short- and long-wheelbase variants; the first two generations employed the Volkswagen Group D platform, with the current generation deriving from the MLB platform. After the original model's 1994 release, Audi released the second generation in late 2002, the third in late 2009, the fourth and current iteration in 2017. Notable for being the first mass-market car with an aluminium chassis, all A8 models have used this construction method co-developed with Alcoa and marketed as the Audi Space Frame. A mechanically-upgraded, high-performance version of the A8 debuted in 1996 as the Audi S8. Produced at Audi's Neckarsulm plant, unlike the donor A8 model, the S8 has been available only in short-wheelbase form and is fitted standard with Audi's quattro all-wheel drive system.
In 1982, Ferdinand Piëch signed an agreement with Aluminum Company of America. The objective was to design and develop a car that would be lighter than any other vehicles in its class. In the late 1980s, it was decided that the target vehicle would be a successor to the V8 flagship introduced in 1988. By 1990, a final design by Chris Bird and Dirk van Braeckel was chosen and frozen for series production in mid-1991. In September 1993, the Audi Space Frame Concept was unveiled at the 1993 Frankfurt Motor Show as a D2 Typ 4D prototype in polished aluminum. Pilot production began in December 1993 and development ended in early 1994, at a total cost of $700 million; the Audi A8 was presented in February 1994 and debuted at the 1994 Geneva Auto Show in March, with full-scale factory production commencing in June 1994, although it was not until October 1996, for the 1997 model year that it became available in North America. Unlike its predecessor, the Audi V8 model, built on an existing steel platform, the A8 debuted on the then-new Volkswagen Group D2 platform, an all aluminium monocoque, marketed as the "Audi Space Frame", which helped to reduce weight and preserve structural rigidity.
The saloon/sedan was offered in both the A8, the A8 L extended or long-wheelbase version. The A8 L adds 5 inches of rear legroom. Updates to the car in 1997 included the addition of six interior airbags; the A8 was designed as a competitor to fellow German rivals Mercedes Benz S Class and the BMW 7 Series. In 1997, Audi introduced the first series production electronic stability control for all-wheel drive vehicles – the world's first production cars with both front and rear side airbags. For 1997, the new A8 was available with either front-wheel drive, or the Torsen-based quattro permanent four-wheel drive; the FWD models are powered by a 2.8-litre V6 engine, producing 142 kW, a 3.7-litre V8 engine producing 171.5 kW, while the quattro received a 4.2-litre V8 producing 220 kW. The A8 is available with standard luxury amenities, including dual-zone climate control and leather interior trim, 14-way power and heated seats, an enhanced Bose audio system. In 1999, Audi's flagship received side curtain airbags, new colours, restructuring of option packages.
The North American "warm weather package" added a solar sunroof which allows the interior ventilation fans to run, keeping the interior cool while the car is parked with the engine turned off. Changes to all models included a larger passenger-side mirror, a first aid kit located in the rear centre armrest. In 1999 for the 2000 model year came a minor front-end restyle, with new, clear headlights, a revised grille, lower front valance with standard projection fog lamps. On the interior, the seats received a horizontal stitch pattern; the 3.7-litre V8 FWD model was dropped, leaving the 2.8 V6 model and the long-wheelbase and short-wheelbase 4.2-litre quattro. These restyled cars featured revised external door handles and an integrated radio antenna. For 2000, the North American A8 line-up was expanded to include the A8 L. In 2001, Audi introduced its new W12 engine, a compact 6.0-litre unit developed by mating two VR6 engines together at the crankshaft. The engine became available in the A8, though only to European and Asian customers.
From its introduction through its discontinuation in 2003, only 750 of the D2 "W12" models were produced. 2001 marked the debut of the high-performance S8 variant in North American markets. In 2002, the A8 L received standard xenon high-intensity discharge lamp headlights, a heated steering wheel. A tyre pressure monitoring system, an updated Symphony II stereo, new exterior colours were added. For 2002, all A8 variants received a trunk/boot interior release lever to facilitate escape in the event an individual became trapped within. Factory production of this generation ceased at Number 105,092 on August 4, 2002. In 1997, IVM Automotive of Munich, Germany built a two-door Audi A8 Coupé; the car was unveiled at the 1997 Geneva Motor Show. Audi contracted IVM to build the prototype, was considering production of the vehicle; the coupé had shorter than the production A8 saloon. Like the Mercedes-Benz CL-Class, there was no central "B" pillar, giving the car a seamless design with a sloping roofline.
The car included custom leather seats. Audi decided not to put the A8 Coupé into production, citing low
Horch was a car brand manufactured in Germany by August Horch & Cie, at the beginning of the 20th century. It is the direct ancestor of the present day Audi company, which in turn came out of Auto Union, formed in 1932 when Horch merged with DKW, Wanderer and the historic Audi enterprise which August Horch founded in 1910. According to insiders, a resurrection is planned. August Horch and his first business partner Salli Herz established the company on November 14, 1899 in the district of Ehrenfeld, Cologne in Cologne. August Horch had worked as a production manager for Karl Benz. Three years in 1902, he moved the company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On May 10, 1904 he founded Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau; the city of Zwickau was the capital of the South Western Saxon County and one of Saxony's industrial centres at that time. After troubles with the Horch chief financial officer, August Horch founded a second company on 16 July 1909, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH in Zwickau.
He had to rename the company because Horch was a registered brand and he did not hold the rights to the name. On 25 April 1910 the name Audi Automobilwerke was entered in the company's register at the Zwickau registration court. Audi is the Latin translation of horch, from the German verb "horchen", which means "listen!". The Audi name was proposed by a son of one of Horch's business partners from Zwickau. In 1932 both companies from Zwickau merged with Zschopauer Motorenwerke J. S. Rasmussen and the Wanderer car-production facilities to become the Auto Union corporation of Saxony; the Silver Arrow racing cars of the Auto Union racing team in Zwickau - developed by Ferdinand Porsche and Robert Eberan von Eberhorst, driven by Bernd Rosemeyer, Hans Stuck, Tazio Nuvolari and Ernst von Delius - became known the world over in the 1930s. The company began producing 5 hp and 10 hp twin-cylinder engine automobiles near Cologne in 1901; the first Horch had a 4.5 hp engine, with a unique achievement in those days.
It had an open-body design, with lighting provided by lanterns with candles in them. In contrast with the powerful cars of years, the first Horch could reach a top speed of 32 km/h, it was significant at that time because it used a friction clutch, had a drive shaft to power the wheels. The firm soon ran into financial troubles, not surprising considering the pioneering nature of the automobile business at that time. Horch had to seek new partners. In March 1902, August Horch produced a 20 hp four-cylinder car with a shaft drive in Reichenbach in Vogtland. Horch cars were considered more advanced and superior to those being built by Mercedes or Benz. By 1903, Horch had built a car with a four-cylinder engine. In March of the following year, he introduced his new car at the Frankfurt Fair. In 1904, August Horch developed the first six-cylinder engine, which appeared in 1907. In 1906 a Horch automobile driven by Dr. Rudolf Stöss from Zwickau won the Herkomer Competition. In the 1920s, Moritz Stauss, a cosmopolitan Berliner, was the principal stockholder of the Horch company.
He succeeded in making the Horch brand desirable by introducing art into the advertising of their products. He recognized. In 1923, Paul Daimler worked for Horch as the chief engineer for 8-cylinder engines. Horch vehicles were subsequently the first to introduce 8-cylinder engines in series production. In 1909, the supervisory board of the corporation forced out Horch. Horch went on to found Audi as Audiwerke GmbH, which became effective on 25 April 1910; the name was a solution to the legal dispute with his old company over use of the Horch brand and a clever play of words. In 1928, the company was acquired by Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen, owner of DKW who had bought the remains of the US automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker in the same year; the Rickenbacker purchase included their manufacturing equipment for eight-cylinder engines. On 29 June 1932, Audi, DKW and Wanderer merged to form the Auto Union AG, Chemnitz affiliated group; the current Audi four-ring logo is the Auto Union logo that represents the merger of these four brands.
In the 1930s, Horch introduced a new line of smaller and cheaper, but still presentable, V8 automobiles. In 1936, Horch presented the 25,000th 8-cylinder luxury car in Zwickau; the Auto Union Grand Prix racing cars types A to D, were developed and built by a specialist racing department of Horch works in Zwickau between 1933 and 1939. Between 1935 and 1937 Auto Union cars won 25 races, driven by Ernst von Delius, Tazio Nuvolari, Bernd Rosemeyer, Hans Stuck and Achille Varzi. Auto Union became a major supplier of vehicles to the German Wehrmacht, such as Heavy standard passenger car, Medium standard passenger car and Half-track Sd. Kfz. 11. Civilian production was suspended after March 1940. After the war the Auto Union AG at Chemnitz was dissolved and in Ingolstadt, West Germany the new Auto Union GmbH was founded, where civilian car production continued. Due to widespread poverty in postwar Germany, only small DKW vehicles with two stroke engines were produced. After Auto Union was purchased in 1964 by the Volkswagenwerk AG, the old brand Audi was introduced aga
Four-wheel drive called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, is linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive". However, "four-wheel drive" refers to a set of specific components and functions, intended off-road application, which complies with modern use of the terminology. 4WD systems were used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions; the terms used by various manufacturers reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. SAE International's standard J1952 recommends only the term All-Wheel-Drive with additional sub classifications which cover all types of AWD/4WD/4x4 systems found on production vehicles.
Four-by-four or 4x4 is used to refer to a class of vehicles in general. Syntactically, the first figure indicates the total number of wheels, the second indicates the number that are powered. So 4x2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. A 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which provide torque to two axle ends each. If this vehicle were a truck with dual rear wheels on two rear axles, so having ten wheels, its configuration would still be formulated as 6x4. During World War II, the U. S. military would use spaces and a capital'X' – like "4 X 2" or "6 X 4". Four-wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market the term refers to a system, optimized for off-road driving conditions; the term "4WD" is designated for vehicles equipped with a transfer case which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically.
All-wheel drive was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, six-wheel drive on 6×6s, so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s. Today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles; when referring to heavy vehicles the term is applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8 drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. This is coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems are not intended for more extreme off-road use; when used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles, it refers to a system that applies torque to all four wheels and/or is targeted at improving on-road traction and performance, rather than for off-road applications. Some all-wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles.
An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors. Individual-wheel drive is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor; this system has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and SLS AMG Electric; this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Per the SAE International standard J1952, AWD is the preferred term for all the systems described above; the standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories. Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential.
The definition notes. Full-Time AWD systems drive both rear axles at all times via a center differential; the torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed; the definition does not address exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system"; the standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may provide the primary vehicle propulsion. An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by an internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor; when the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle. At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle.
In addition to the above primary classifications the J1952 standard notes seconda
A W12 engine is a twelve cylinder piston internal combustion engine in a W configuration. W12 engines have been manufactured in two distinct configurations; the original W12 configuration used three banks of four cylinders coupled to a common crankshaft, with 60° angles between the banks. These were used in several aircraft engine designs from the 1920s, notably the Napier Lion and various French engines; the more recent configuration, used in the Volkswagen Group W12, uses four rows of three cylinders merged into two'cylinder banks', coupled to a common crankshaft. The Napier Lion was a broad arrow-style W12 engine produced by Napier at Acton, West London, from 1917 to the late 1930s; this alloy engine had a capacity of 24 litres and produced from 450 to 900 horsepower. It was used in many racing cars by John Cobb and Malcolm Campbell, racing aircraft such as the Supermarine S.5 Schneider Cup winner, speed boats such as Hubert Scott-Paine's Miss Britain III. The 500 hp Farman 12We was one of their best selling engines in the 1920s.
They built a W18. Lorraine manufactured their 12E Courlis aircraft engine in the 1930s. Sunbeam built. In the late 1980s, two W12 engines were built for use in Formula One. In France, Guy Negre produced the MGN which had three banks of four cylinders offset so that each crankpin accommodated three connecting rods side-by-side; the MGN had a novel system of cylindrical rotary valves located at the top of the combustion chambers, making the engine notably compact. The engine was tested in an AGS Formula One car, in a Norma sports car, but never raced; the other W12 Formula One engine was the Life F35 built in Italy by Life Racing Engines. The chief engineer for this project was Franco Rocchi, who had designed and built an experimental 498 cubic centimetres W3 engine when he was at Ferrari in 1967 as an investigation into the viability of a W18 F1 engine. Rocchi's W3 engine used a central master connecting rod, with a slave rod locating onto each side of the master rod, rather than directly onto the crank pin.
This meant that there was no offset between the cylinders, the crankpin did not have to be unusually long. A similar arrangement was employed for the Life W12 engine. Life Racing Engines failed to attract the interest of an existing team, so they acquired an F1 chassis, built for another team and tried to enter F1 on their own account in 1990; the engine proved to be unreliable and lacking in power. The car never got out of prequalifying in 14 attempts; the W12 powered Audi Avus prototype was shown at the 1991 Tokyo Motor Show. The engine was described as a traditional W12 with three banks of four cylinders each set at 60° to each other; the DOHC W12 engine was said to produce 509 hp at 5800 rpm. At the 2001 Tokyo Motor Show, Volkswagen Group showcased a prototype Volkswagen Nardò W12 Coupé, a mid-engined, rear-wheel drive supercar powered by a 6.0-litre W12 engine, producing 600 horsepower. A week before, the W12 Coupe broke the 24‑hour world endurance record. A total distance of 7,085.7 kilometres was covered at an average speed of 295.24 kilometres per hour, breaking the old record by 12 kilometres per hour.
Production of the W12 Coupé was subsequently cancelled. Volkswagen Group produces W12 engines, it is constructed by mating two narrow-angle 15° VR6 engines at an inclined angle of 72°. The narrow angle of each set of cylinders allows just two overhead camshafts to drive each pair of banks, so just four are needed in total. Note that this design differs from the W18 engine that Volkswagen Group produced for its Bugatti concept cars of 1998 and 1999. Due to this distinction, the Volkswagen Group's W12 engine is sometimes described as a "WR12"; the advantage of the W12 engine is its compact packaging - in essence the same advantages of the parent VR6 engine over a straight six - in that the cylinders are much more placed along the axis of the crankshaft. This reduced engine length allows Audi and Bentley to build 12-cylinder sedans with all-wheel drive, whereas a conventional V12 engine could only have a rear-wheel drive configuration as it would have no space in the engine bay for a differential and other components required to power the front wheels.
The 6.0 L W12 in the Audi A8L W12 appears smaller overall than the 4.2 L V8 that powers the Audi A8 4.2 variants. The 2011 Audi A8L W12 debuted a revised 6.3-litre directly injected version of the W12 engine with 500 PS. The Volkswagen Group W12 engine is used in some high-end luxury models: Audi Avus quattro Audi A8L W12 Bentley Continental GT Bentley Continental Supersports Bentley Continental Flying Spur Bentley Bentayga Spyker C12 La Turbie Spyker C12 Zagato Spyker D12 Peking-to-Paris Volkswagen Phaeton W12 Volkswagen Touareg W12 Volkswagen GTI W12-650 Volkswagen W12
Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese and tractors Lamborghini Trattori in Pieve di Cento, Italy. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi. Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p. A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era. Lamborghini grew during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis; the firm's ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978. American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group V'Power Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and V'Power sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the group's Audi division.
New products and model lines were introduced to the brand's portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand. In the late 2000s, during the worldwide financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghini's sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. Lamborghini produces sports cars and V12 engines for offshore powerboat racing. Lamborghini produces the V12-powered Aventador and the V10-powered Huracán along with the Urus SUV powered by a twin-turbo V8 engine. Manufacturing magnate Italian Ferruccio Lamborghini founded the company in 1963 with the objective of producing a refined grand touring car to compete with offerings from established marques such as Ferrari; the company's first models, such as the 350 GT, were released in the mid-1960s and were noted for their refinement and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era.
Lamborghini grew during its first ten years, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. Ferruccio Lamborghini sold ownership of the company to Georges-Henri Rossetti and René Leimer and retired in 1974; the company went bankrupt in 1978, was placed in the receivership of brothers Jean-Claude and Patrick Mimran in 1980. The Mimrans purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and invested in the company's expansion. Under the Mimrans' management, Lamborghini's model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 high performance off-road vehicle; the Mimrans sold Lamborghini to the Chrysler Corporation in 1987. After replacing the Countach with the Diablo and discontinuing the Jalpa and the LM002, Chrysler sold Lamborghini to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group V'Power Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and V'Power sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the group's Audi division.
New products and model lines were introduced to the brand's portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini. In the late 2000s, during the worldwide financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghini's sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent; as of the 2018 model year, Lamborghini's automobile product range consists of three model lines, two of which are mid-engine two-seat sports cars while the third one is a front engined, all-wheel drive SUV. The V12-powered Aventador line consists of the LP 740 -- roadster; the V10-powered Huracán line includes the all-wheel-drive LP 610-4 coupé and spyder, the low cost rear-wheel-drive LP 580-2 coupé and spyder and the most powerful, track oriented LP 640-4 Performanté coupé and spyder. With the intention of doubling its sales volume by 2019, Lamborghini added an SUV named Urus in its line-up, powered by a twin-turbo V8 engine and utilises a front engine, all-wheel drive layout. Motori Marini Lamborghini produces a large V12 marine engine block for use in World Offshore Series Class 1 powerboats.
A Lamborghini branded marine engine displaces 8,171 cc and outputs 940 hp. In the mid-1980s, Lamborghini produced a limited-production run of a 1,000 cc sports motorcycle. UK weekly newspaper Motor Cycle News reported in 1994 – when featuring an example available through an Essex motorcycle retailer – that 24 examples were produced with a Lamborghini alloy frame having adjustable steering head angle, Kawasaki GPz1000RX engine/transmission unit, Ceriani front forks and Marvic wheels; the bodywork was plastic and integrated with front fairing merged into fuel tank and seat cover ending in a rear tail-fairing. The motorcycles were produced by French business Boxer Bikes. Lamborghini licenses its brand to manufacturers that produce a variety of Lamborghini-branded consumer goods including scale models, accessories, bags and laptop computers. In contrast to his rival Enzo Ferrari, Ferruccio Lamborghini had decided early on that there would be no factory-supported racing of Lamborghinis, viewing motorsport as too expensive and too draining on company resources.
This was unusual for the time, as many sports car manufacturers sought to demonstrate the speed and technical superiority through motorsport participation. Enzo Ferrari in particular was known for considering his road car business a source of funding for his participation in motor racing. Ferruccio's policy led to tensions between him a
The Audi e-tron family is a series of electric and hybrid concept cars shown by Audi from 2009 onwards. In 2012 Audi unveiled a plug-in hybrid version, the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron, released to retail customers in Europe in August 2014, slated for the U. S. in 2015. An SUV called'e-tron' with 355 kilometers range and the A9 sedan with a 95 kWh battery are scheduled for production around 2018, with Norway being among the first markets; the 320 kW e-tron Sportback coupé with a 95 kWh battery, was unveiled in April 2017, to be produced in 2019. Audi considers a sell price level of €100/kWh as suitable for higher-priced cars, but not for cheaper cars made in high volume; the e-tron GT is an all-electric sportback that will have 248 miles of range and will be built on the same platform as the Porsche Taycan.. It was unveiled at the 2018 Los Angeles Auto Show, it uses the same powertrain as the Audi e-tron Quattro SUV, unveiled in September 2018 in San Francisco. The e-tron GT is driven by two synchronous electric motors.
A 90-kWh lithium-ion battery powers the e-tron GT's electric engines. In December, Audi confirmed that the e-tron GT will make an appearance in the 2019 film Avengers: Endgame; as this car is still in concept phase, much of its performance specifications are still uncertain. The car will have one per wheel. Together, these motors will produce 3,320 pound-feet of torque. Top speed for the e-tron is limited to 222 kilometres per hour, it will be able to travel 150 miles on full charge. In concept form, the e-tron is equipped with conceptual technology: technology that communicates with other cars, road signs, etc; the first e-tron concept car was shown at the 2009 International Motor Show Germany. A two-seater, similar in appearance to the Audi R8 but smaller, is powered by four UQM Technologies motors, providing four-wheel drive. Together, these produce 313 PS and 4,500 N⋅m of torque, resulting in an acceleration of 0 to 100 km/h in 4.8 seconds. A 470 kg 42.4 kWh lithium-ion battery is located in front of the rear axle and provides a range of 248 km with a full charge taking 6–8 hours from a normal household socket.
It has ceramic disc brakes as well as regenerative braking. In 2010 Audi began a development program with the objective to manufacture a limited production R8 e-tron; the R8 e-tron made a brief appearance in the 2013 Marvel Studios release of Iron Man 3. After developing 10 prototypes for research and development purposes, in May 2013 Audi decided to cancel production of the electric car due to its limited all-electric range as battery technology had not advanced as as Audi had expected, making the R8 e-tron unviable for series production. In March 2014 Audi announced it will build the R8 e-tron upon request; the carmaker explained that their latest development work resulted in an increased range from 215 km to 450 km. The Detroit showcar Audi e-tron includes 2 electric motors driving the rear wheels with a combined output of 204 PS and 2,650 N⋅m, lithium-ion batteries behind passenger compartment and ahead of the rear axle, adaptive matrix beam LED headlight modules with clear glass covers automatic light assistance system, Audi Space Frame with doors, lids and roof made of a fiber-reinforced plastic.
The concept car can accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 5.9 seconds. The vehicle was unveiled in 2010 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. A similar production model, based on a future mid-engined automotive platform codenamed 9X1, shared with Porsche and Volkswagen, is under development; the Audi A1 e-tron concept car, an electric variant of the Audi A1 production model, was first shown at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show. The A1 e-tron is a series plug-in hybrid, powered by an electric motor from UQM with a continuous output of 45 kW, a peak output of 75 kW. A 254 cc Wankel engine is used to power a 15 kW range-extending generator. Shown at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, this roadster is a plug-in hybrid powered by a 221 kW twin-turbo TDI 3.0 L V6 diesel engine driving the rear wheels, plus two electric motors together producing 64 kW powering the front wheels. Acceleration to 100 km/h is achieved in 4.4 seconds. Audi presented the e-tron Spyder in January 2011 at the Las Vegas Consumer Electronics Show, near identical to the Paris show car, but this time painted bright red.
The car was advertised with the same performance specifications, including an electronically limited top speed of 155 mph. The Audi A3 e-tron is an all-electric car variant of the Audi A3 production model; the A3 e-tron is powered by an electric motor under the hood which sends power from the rear- and mid-mounted battery packs to the front wheels. The 26.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack provides an optimal range of around 92 mi, but between 70 to 75 mi in real driving conditions. Top speed is limited to 89 mph. Audi deployed a fleet of 17 all-electric A3 by mid-2012 as part of a testing program in the U. S; the testing is conducted among Audi's engineers and company employees, the company has no plans t