Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead. Headlamps are often called headlights, but in the most precise usage, headlamp is the term for the device itself and headlight is the term for the beam of light produced and distributed by the device. Headlamp performance has improved throughout the automobile age, spurred by the great disparity between daytime and nighttime traffic fatalities: the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration states that nearly half of all traffic-related fatalities occur in the dark, despite only 25% of traffic travelling during darkness. Other vehicles, such as trains and aircraft, are required to have headlamps. Bicycle headlamps are used on bicycles, are required in some jurisdictions, they can be powered by a battery or a small generator mechanically integrated into the workings of the bicycles. The first horseless carriages used carriage lamps, which proved unsuitable for travel at speed; the earliest lights used candles as the most common type of fuel.
The earliest headlamps, fueled by acetylene or oil, operated from the late 1880s. Acetylene lamps were popular because the flame is resistant to wind and rain; the first electric headlamps were introduced in 1898 on the Columbia Electric Car from the Electric Vehicle Company of Hartford and were optional. Two factors limited the widespread use of electric headlamps: the short life of filaments in the harsh automotive environment, the difficulty of producing dynamos small enough, yet powerful enough to produce sufficient current. A number of manufacturers offered "Prest-O-Lite" acetylene lights as standard equipment for 1904, Peerless made electric headlamps standard in 1908. A Birmingham firm called Pockley Automobile Electric Lighting Syndicate marketed the world's first electric car-lights as a complete set in 1908, which consisted of headlamps and tail lights that were powered by an eight-volt battery. In 1912 Cadillac integrated their vehicle's Delco electrical ignition and lighting system, forming the modern vehicle electrical system.
The Guide Lamp Company introduced "dipping" headlamps in 1915, but the 1917 Cadillac system allowed the light to be dipped using a lever inside the car rather than requiring the driver to stop and get out. The 1924 Bilux bulb was the first modern unit, having the light for both low and high beams of a headlamp emitting from a single bulb. A similar design was introduced in 1925 by Guide Lamp called the "Duplo". In 1927 the foot-operated dimmer switch or dip switch was introduced and became standard for much of the century. 1933–1934 Packards featured tri-beam headlamps, the bulbs having three filaments. From highest to lowest, the beams were called "country passing", "country driving" and "city driving"; the 1934 Nash used a three-beam system, although in this case with bulbs of the conventional two-filament type, the intermediate beam combined low beam on the driver's side with high beam on the passenger's side, so as to maximise the view of the roadside while minimizing glare toward oncoming traffic.
The last vehicles with a foot-operated dimmer switch were the 1991 Ford F-Series and E-Series vans. Fog lamps were new for 1938 Cadillacs, their 1954 "Autronic Eye" system automated the selection of high and low beams. Directional lighting, using a switch and electromagnetically shifted reflector to illuminate the curbside only, was introduced in the rare, one-year-only 1935 Tatra. Steering-linked lighting was featured on the 1947 Tucker Torpedo's center-mounted headlight, was popularized by the Citroen DS; this made it possible to turn the light in the direction of travel when the steering wheel turned, is now adopted technology. The standardized 7-inch round sealed-beam headlamp, one per side, was required for all vehicles sold in the United States from 1940 freezing usable lighting technology in place until the 1970s for Americans. In 1957 the law changed to allow smaller 5.75-inch round sealed beams, two per side of the vehicle, in 1974 rectangular sealed beams were permitted as well. Britain and some other Commonwealth countries, as well as Japan and Sweden made extensive use of 7-inch sealed beams, though they were not mandated as they were in the United States.
This headlamp format was not accepted in continental Europe, which found replaceable bulbs and variations in the size and shape of headlamps useful in car design. This led to different front-end designs for each side of the Atlantic for decades. Technology moved forward in the rest of the world. In 1962 a European consortium of bulb- and headlamp-makers introduced the first halogen lamp for vehicle headlamp use, the H1. Shortly thereafter headlamps using the new light source were introduced in Europe; these were prohibited in the US, where standard-size sealed beam headlamps were mandatory and intensity regulations were low. US lawmakers faced pressure to act, due both to lighting effectiveness and to vehicle aerodynamics/fuel savings. High-beam peak intensity, capped at 140,000 candela per side of the car in Europe, was limited in the United States to 37,500 candela on each side of the car until 1978, when the limit was raised to 75,000. An increase in high-beam intensity to take advantage of the higher allowance could not be achieved without a move to halogen technology, so sealed-beam headlamps with internal halogen burners became available for use on 1979 models in the United States.
As of 2010 halogen sealed beams dominate the sealed-beam market, which has declined steeply since replaceable-bulb headlamps were permitted in 1983. High-intensity discharge systems appeared in the early 1990s, first in the BMW 7 Series. 1996's Lincoln Mark VIII was an early Americ
2006 Paris Motor Show
The 2006 Paris Motor Show took place from 30 September to 15 October 2006, in Paris expo Porte de Versailles, France. Paris Motor Show Official website Mondial de l'Automobile 2006 Gallery
Iron Man 2
Iron Man 2 is a 2010 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Iron Man, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures. It is the sequel to 2008's Iron Man, is the third film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Directed by Jon Favreau and written by Justin Theroux, the film stars Robert Downey Jr. as Tony Stark / Iron Man, alongside Gwyneth Paltrow, Don Cheadle, Scarlett Johansson, Sam Rockwell, Mickey Rourke, Samuel L. Jackson. Six months after the events of Iron Man, Tony Stark is resisting calls by the United States government to hand over the Iron Man technology while combating his declining health from the arc reactor in his chest. Meanwhile, rogue Russian scientist Ivan Vanko has developed the same technology and built weapons of his own in order to pursue a vendetta against the Stark family, in the process joining forces with Stark's business rival, Justin Hammer. Following the successful release of Iron Man in May 2008, Marvel Studios announced and set to work on producing a sequel.
In July of that same year Theroux was hired to write the script, Favreau was signed to return and direct. Downey and Jackson were set to reprise their roles from Iron Man, while Cheadle was brought in to replace Terrence Howard in the role of James Rhodes. In the early months of 2009, Rourke and Johansson filled out the supporting cast, filming took place from April to July of that year. Like its predecessor the film was shot in California, except for a key sequence in Monaco. Iron Man 2 premiered at the El Capitan Theatre on April 26, 2010, was released in the United States on May 7, 2010; the film received positive reviews and was commercially successful, grossing over $623.9 million at the worldwide box office, making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 2010, receiving an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects. The third installment of the Iron Man series, Iron Man 3, was released on May 3, 2013. In Russia, the media covers Tony Stark's disclosure of his identity as Iron Man.
Ivan Vanko, whose father Anton Vanko has just died, sees this and begins building a miniature arc reactor similar to Stark's. Six months Stark is a superstar and uses his Iron Man suit for peaceful means, resisting government pressure to sell his designs, he reinstitutes the Stark Expo to continue his father Howard's legacy. The palladium core in the arc reactor that keeps Stark alive and powers the armor is poisoning him, he cannot find a substitute. Growing reckless and despondent about his impending death, choosing not to tell anyone about his condition, Stark appoints his personal assistant Pepper Potts CEO of Stark Industries, hires Stark employee Natalie Rushman to replace her as his personal assistant. Stark competes in the Monaco Historic Grand Prix, where he is attacked in the middle of the race by Vanko, who wields electrified whips. Stark dons his portable armor and defeats Vanko, but the suit is damaged. Vanko explains. Impressed by Vanko's performance, Stark's rival, Justin Hammer, fakes Vanko's death while breaking him out of prison and asks him to build a line of armored suits to upstage Stark.
During what he believes is his final birthday party, Stark gets drunk while wearing the Iron Man suit. Disgusted, Stark's best friend, U. S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel James Rhodes tries to restrain him; the fight ends in a stalemate, so Rhodes confiscates the armor for the U. S. Air Force. Nick Fury, director of S. H. I. E. L. D. Approaches Stark, revealing "Rushman" to be Agent Natasha Romanoff and that Howard Stark was a S. H. I. E. L. D. Founder whom Fury knew personally. Fury explains that Vanko's father jointly invented the arc reactor with Stark, but when Anton tried to sell it for profit, Stark had him deported; the Soviets sent Anton to the gulag. Fury gives Stark some of his father's old material. With the aid of his computer J. A. R. V. I. S. Stark synthesizes it; when he learns Vanko is still alive, he places the new element in his arc reactor and ends his palladium dependency. At the Expo, Hammer unveils Vanko's armored drones, led by Rhodes in a weaponized version of the prototype armor. Stark arrives to warn Rhodes, but Vanko remotely takes control of both the drones and Rhodes' armor and attacks Stark.
Hammer is arrested while Romanoff and Stark's bodyguard Happy Hogan go after Vanko at Hammer's factory. Vanko escapes. Stark and Rhodes together defeat his drones. Vanko commits suicide by blowing up his suit, along with the defeated drones. At a debriefing, Fury informs Stark that because of Stark's difficult personality, S. H. I. E. L. D. Intends to use him only as a consultant. Stark and Rhodes receive medals for their heroism. In a post-credits scene, S. H. I. E. L. D. Agent Phil Coulson reports the discovery of a large hammer at the bottom of a crater in a desert in New Mexico. Robert Downey Jr. as Tony Stark / Iron Man: A billionaire who escaped captivity in Afghanistan with a suit of armor he created, he now struggles to keep his technology out of the government's hands. Downey and Favreau, handed a script and worked from it on the first movie, conceived part of the film's story themselves. On Stark being a hero, Downey said "It's kind of heroic, but kind of on his own behalf. So I think there's a bit of an imposter complex and no sooner has he said,'I am Iron Man –' that he's now wondering what that means.
If you have all this cushion like he does and the public is on your side and you have immense wealth and power, I think he
A concept car is a car made to showcase new styling and/or new technology. They are shown at motor shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not be mass-produced. General Motors designer Harley Earl is credited with inventing the concept car, did much to popularize it through its traveling Motorama shows of the 1950s. Concept cars never go into production directly. In modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, regulatory compliance, cost. A "production-intent" prototype, as opposed to a concept vehicle, serves this purpose. Concept cars are radical in engine or design; some use non-traditional, exotic, or expensive materials, ranging from paper to carbon fiber to refined alloys. Others have unique layouts, such as gullwing doors, 3 or 5 wheels, or special abilities not found on cars; because of these impractical or unprofitable leanings, many concept cars never get past scale models, or drawings in computer design.
Other more traditional concepts can be developed into drivable vehicles with a working drivetrain and accessories. The state of most concept cars does not represent the final product. A small proportion of concept cars are functional to any useful extent, some cannot move safely at anything above 10 mph. Inoperative "mock-ups" are made of wax, metal, plastic or a combination thereof. If drivable, the drivetrain is borrowed from a production vehicle from the same company, or may have defects and imperfections in design, they can be quite refined, such as General Motors' Cadillac Sixteen concept. After a concept car's useful life is over, the cars are destroyed; some survive, either in a company's museum or hidden away in storage. One unused but operational concept car that languished for years in the North Hollywood, shop of car customizer George Barris, Ford Motor Company's "Lincoln Futura" from 1954, received a new lease on life as the Batmobile in the Batman series that debuted in 1966 on the ABC Television Network.
Auto show Car design Concept art Pre-production car Production vehicle Product lifecycle management Proof-of-concept Prototype Serial production Show car Concept cars at HowStuffWorks Old Concept Cars Concept Cars & Car Design Information Information on over 250 concept cars Comparison of concept car and production version Concept Cars Index Car Concepts Concept Car Concept Cars at www.allcarindex.com - The index of concept cars is dedicated to the showcars and concept automobiles
The Lamborghini Huracán is a sports car manufactured by Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini replacing the previous V10 offering, the Gallardo. The Huracán made its worldwide debut at the 2014 Geneva Auto Show, was released in the market in the second quarter of 2014; the LP 610-4 designation comes from the fact that this car has 610 metric horsepower and 4 wheel drive, while LP stands for "Longitudinale Posteriore", which refers to the longitudinal mid-rear engine position. The Huracán's name is inspired by a Spanish fighting bull. Names from historical Spanish fighting bulls has been the traditional naming scheme of most Lamborghini car models. Huracán was a bull known for its courage that fought in 1879. Huracan is the Mayan god of wind and fire; the Huracán maintains the 5.2-litre aspirated Audi/Lamborghini V10 engine from the Gallardo, tuned to generate a maximum power output of 449 kW. To ensure its balance and performance, the car is mid-engined; the engine has both direct fuel injection and multi-point fuel injection.
It combines the benefits of both of these systems. To increase its efficiency, the Huracán's engine includes a start-stop system. With a curb weight of 1,553 kg, the Huracán LP610-4 has a power-to-weight ratio of 2.55 kg per horsepower. 0–97 km/h: 2.5 seconds 0–300 km/h: 27.6 seconds 0–1⁄4 mile: 10.4 seconds at 217 km/h 0–1 km: 19.1 seconds at 272.20 km/h Maximum speed: 341 km/h The Huracán has an electronically controlled all-wheel drive system, which aims to increase the traction on various surfaces and the overall performance of the car. The car has Lamborghini's new ` Doppia Frizione' gearbox; the transmission performs differently depending on the mode. The Huracán will only be available with an automatic transmission; the Huracán has a magnetically controlled suspension system. It utilises magnetorheological dampers to quickly change how the suspension acts, ensuring performance as well as usability; the Huracan has various components in common with the second generation of the Audi R8. This is due to the sharing of Volkswagen's sports car technology among both of the cars.
The Huracán has various interior options for more comfort inside the car. It has a choice for full electric control and heating of the sport seats in addition to the standard lengthwise alignment and electric backrest; the car has an optional navigation system and leather upholstering. The Huracán is one of the first sports cars moving the infotainment system out of the center stack: Lamborghini Infotainment System; the result: a display that lets the driver decide what they want to see. It is the first Lamborghini automobile to use the 12.3 inch TFT virtual cockpit from parent company Audi, available with high-definition 3D computer graphics, Google Earth GPS navigation and Multi Media Interface-like menu and dashboard controls, all powered by Nvidia Tegra 3. Various aspects of the Huracán are technologically advanced; the car has full LED headlamps. The Huracán has optional "Lamborghini Dynamic Steering" to add to the standard power steering; the Dynamic Steering changes the steering performance from normal, comfortable steering to a racing feeling.
The main control for changing the car's performance according to driving conditions is the mode selector ANIMA. ANIMA controls the engine, the transmission, LDS, the all-wheel drive, magnetorheological suspension, the electronic stability control; the Lamborghini Piattaforma Inerziale carries out precise measurements of the vehicle movements using on board sensors linked to ANIMA via high-speed FlexRay CAN bus. The driver can select street, sport, or race mode to alter how systems like the engine or transmission respond while driving. Changes from Gallardo included full LED illumination, a 12.3 inch full-colour TFT instrument panel, Fine Nappa leather and Alcantara interior upholstery, redesigned dashboard and central tunnel, Iniezione Diretta Stratificata direct and indirect gasoline injections, engine Stop & Start technology, EU6 emissions regulation compliance, Lamborghini Doppia Frizione 7-speed dual-clutch transmission with 3 modes, 20-inch wheels, carbon-ceramic braking system, optional Lamborghini Dynamic Steering variable steering system and MagneRide electromagnetic damper control.
The main competitors of the Huracán include the McLaren 650S, the Audi R8, the Ferrari 458 Speciale and the 488 GTB. Extra options that increase the price of the car include interior enhancements, special paint schemes, improved suspension, a lifting system, as well as multiple components optionally available in carbon fibre, rather than aluminium. Taiwan models went on sale for NT$15,080,000; the Huracán LP 610-4 Polizia is the official police car variant produced for the Italian State Police, after the two Gallardos used by the Polizia Stradale were destroyed in the course of patrol duty. This model sports various features exclusive to the car, such as blue Polizia body colour, white stripes and lettering following the Huracán's dynamic design language, a video system positioned in the centre of the cabin with a camera fitted next to the rear view mirror, a police computer, recording equipment behind the seats, a Proof Video Data Syst
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles The mid-engine, rear-wheel drive format can be considered the original layout of automobiles. A 1901 Autocar was the first gasoline-powered automobile to use a drive shaft and placed the engine under the seat; this pioneering vehicle is now in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. Mounting the engine in the middle instead of the front of the vehicle puts more weight over the rear tires, so they have more traction and provide more assistance to the front tires in braking the vehicle, with less chance of rear-wheel lockup and less chance of a skid or spin out. If the mid-engine vehicle is rear-drive the added weight on the rear tires can improve acceleration on slippery surfaces, providing much of the benefit of all wheel drive without the added weight and expense of all wheel drive components; the mid-engine layout makes ABS brakes and traction control systems work better, by providing them more traction to control.
The mid-engine layout may make a vehicle safer, since an accident can occur if a vehicle cannot stay in its own lane around a curve or is unable to stop enough. Mid-engine design is a way to provide additional empty crush space in the front of the automobile between the bumper and the windshield, which can be used in a frontal collision to absorb more of the impact force to minimize penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle. In most automobiles, in sports cars ideal car handling requires balanced traction between the front and rear wheels when cornering, in order to maximize the possible speed around curves without sliding out; this balance is harder to achieve when the heavy weight of the engine is located far to the front or far to the rear of the vehicle. Some automobile designs strive to balance the fore and aft weight distribution by other means, such as putting the engine in the front and the transmission and battery in the rear of the vehicle. Another benefit comes, it makes it easier for the suspension to absorb the force of bumps so the riders feel a smoother ride.
But in sports cars the engine position is once again used to increase performance and the smoother ride is more than offset by stiffer shock absorbers. This layout allows the transmission and motor to be directly bolted to each other—with independent suspension on the driven wheels; the largest drawback of mid-engine cars is restricted rear passenger space. The engine in effect pushes the passenger compartment forward towards the front axle. Exceptions involve larger vehicles of unusual length or height in which the passengers can share space between the axles with the engine, which can be between them or below them, as in some Toyota vans, large trucks and buses; the mid-engine layout was common in single-decker buses in the 1950s and 1960s, e.g. the AEC Reliance. The Ferrari Mondial is to date the only successful example of a true mid-engined convertible with seating for 4 and sports car / supercar performance. A version of the Lotus Evora with a removable roof panel is anticipated but no definite date is known.
Like any layout where the engine is not front-mounted and facing the wind, the traditional "engine-behind-the-passengers" layout makes engine cooling more difficult. This has been a problem in some cars, but this issue seems to have been solved in newer designs. For example, the Saleen S7 employs large engine-compartment vents on the sides and rear of the bodywork to help dissipate heat from its high-output engine. Mid engined cars are more dangerous than front-engined cars if the driver loses control - although this may be harder to provoke due to the superior balance - and the car begins to spin; the moment of inertia about the center of gravity is low due to the concentration of mass between the axles and the spin will occur the car will rotate faster and it will be harder to recover from. Conversely, a front-engined car is more to break away in a progressive and controllable manner as the tires lose traction. Super and race cars have a mid-engined layout, as these vehicles' handling characteristics are more important than other requirements, such as usable space.
In dedicated sports cars, a weight distribution of about 50% front and rear is pursued, to optimise the vehicle's driving dynamics – a target, only achievable by placing the engine somewhere between the front and rear axles. The term "mid-engine" has been applied to cars having the engine located between the driver and the rear drive axles; this layout is referred to as layout. The mechanical layout and packaging of an RMR car is different from that of a front-engine or rear-engine car; when the engine is in front of the driver, but behind the front axle line, the layout is sometimes called a front mid-engine, rear drive, or FMR layout instead of the less-specific term front-engine. In vehicle layout FMR is the same as FR, but handling differs as a result of the difference in weight distribution; some vehicles could be classified as FMR depending on the factory installed engine. Most classical FR cars such as the Ford Models T and A would qualify as a FMR engine car. Additionally, the distinction between FR and FMR is a flu