Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
Ratatat is a Brooklyn-based electronic rock duo consisting of Mike Stroud and producer Evan Mast. Evan Mast and Mike Stroud first met as students at Skidmore College; when they started working together in 2001, recording several songs under the name "Cherry", Stroud had toured with Dashboard Confessional in 2000. In 2003, the group debuted by releasing the single "Seventeen Years" on Mast's and his brother Eric's record label Audio Dregs in the US and Rex Records in the UK. In the following year, Ratatat supported the band Interpol on their tour. Mike Stroud stepped down as touring member of Ben Kweller's band after two years of touring and after appearing on the 2004 album, On My Way. Having signed for XL Recordings, Ratatat released their self-titled debut album and the single "Germany to Germany"; the album was recorded in Mast's Crown Heights, Brooklyn apartment on his laptop. It is instrumental with the exception of vocal excerpts at the beginning and end of select tracks. In 2004, Ratatat released Ratatat Remixes Vol. 1 in co-operation with Audio Dregs, a compilation of remixed tracks by other artists, thereby garnering the attention of Rolling Stone.
On 22 August 2006, Ratatat released their second album entitled Classics on XL Recordings. On October 6, 2006, Ratatat became the first band to perform a public show inside the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. On October 10, 2006, a new demo album from Ratatat titled; this set of tracks does not appear on any official discography listings. 9 Beats was not an official album, the tracks consist of short instrumental electronic musical pieces and demos for their next mixtape. In 2007, this release was followed by their second volume of remixed tracks, Ratatat Remixes Vol. 2. From June 2007 until October 2008, Ratatat had Martin Bonventre accompany them on their European tour and fall shows in America as the pianist/synthesizer player. Bonventre drew much attention due to his erratic dance movements on stage; the reason for him leaving the performance is unknown. Leading up to the release of Ratatat's third album LP3 on 8 July 2008, their official website showed the videos of the three first singles.
"Shiller", "Shempi" and "Mirando" have all been released on 7" or 12" singles. "Shiller", the first to be released, featured a special b-side, the track "Mahalo", also included on the fourth album, LP4. In 2008, it was rumored that they would be signed by Star Trak Entertainment as the understudies of The Neptunes. Ratatat contributed two songs to Man on the Moon: The End of Day, the debut album by alternative rapper Kid Cudi released September 15, 2009, "Alive" and "Pursuit Of Happiness" featuring MGMT. Cudi and Ratatat performed "Pursuit Of Happiness" together on Late Show with David Letterman on September 11, 2009. According to Mike Stroud in an interview with Paste Magazine released on August 4, 2009, "most of was recorded during the same studio sessions that yielded LP3". Ratatat's fourth album, LP4, was released on June 2010, via XL Recordings. In 2010, Ratatat supported Vampire Weekend on their UK tour at The Brighton Centre and Alexandra Palace. Meanwhile, their song Neckbrace was used in the ski film "The Way I See It" by Matchstick Productions.
In 2011, their track "Mirando" was used in Prada's SS2011 ad campaign. In August 2011, Ratatat was featured in the song "Red Alert" on CSS's new album La Liberación. On September 29, 2012 past collaborator Kid Cudi confirmed that Ratatat would be featured and producing on his upcoming third studio album Indicud, however the collaboration didn't make the final cut after Kid Cudi decided to produce the whole album by himself, with the exception of an additional production by Hit-Boy on the track "Red Eye" featuring Haim. In May 2013 they entered the Austrian Singlecharts after the Austrian network provider A1 used "Loud Pipes" for a radio-advertisement; the band played Coachella Festival and Governor's Ball Music Festival in 2015. They debuted their new song "Cream On Chrome" just a few hours before their night-ending Coachella set on April 11, 2015; the band played a concert in Pomona, California on April 15, 2015, at Primavera Sound in Barcelona in May. In May 2015, the band announced that their fifth album, would be released on July 17, 2015, feature a cover of the 1971 Springwater single "I Will Return".
The first single from the album, the track "Cream on Chrome", was voted number 52 in the Triple J Hottest 100 of 2015 held in January 2016. This is their second appearance on the annual countdown run by the Australian radio station, after featuring on Kid Cudi's "Pursuit of Happiness", which polled 33rd in the 2009 countdown. Ratatat's live performances bear strong similarities to the performances of the psychedelic rock bands out of San Francisco in the 1960s, with energetic light shows, swirling colors projected onto a screen, clips of movies thrown in. Evan Mast edits the videos that are projected on the screen. Many of them are included on their YouTube account. Ratatat has toured with acts such as Björk, Daft Punk, Vampire Weekend, Mouse on Mars, Franz Ferdinand, CSS, the Faint, Super Furry Animals, Clinic and the Killers. Featured in2012: "Pursuit of Happiness" 3× Platinum
Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions is a satirical novella by the English schoolmaster Edwin Abbott Abbott, first published in 1884 by Seeley & Co. of London. Written pseudonymously by "A Square", the book used the fictional two-dimensional world of Flatland to comment on the hierarchy of Victorian culture, but the novella's more enduring contribution is its examination of dimensions. Several films have been made from the story, including the feature film Flatland. Other efforts have been short or experimental films, including one narrated by Dudley Moore and the short films Flatland: The Movie and Flatland 2: Sphereland; the story describes a two-dimensional world occupied by geometric figures, whereof women are simple line-segments, while men are polygons with various numbers of sides. The narrator is a square, a member of the caste of gentlemen and professionals, who guides the readers through some of the implications of life in two dimensions; the first half of the story goes through the practicalities of existing in a two-dimensional universe as well as a history leading up to the year 1999 on the eve of the 3rd Millennium.
On New Year's Eve, the Square dreams about a visit to a one-dimensional world inhabited by "lustrous points". These points are unable to see the Square as anything other than a set of points on a line. Thus, the Square attempts to convince the realm's monarch of a second dimension. In the end, the monarch of Lineland tries to kill A Square rather than tolerate his nonsense any further. Following this vision, he is himself visited by a three-dimensional sphere. Similar to the "points" in Lineland, the Square is unable to see the sphere as anything other than a circle; the Sphere levitates up and down through the Flatland, allowing Square to see the circle expand and retract. The Square is not convinced until he sees Spaceland for himself; this Sphere visits Flatland at the turn of each millennium to introduce a new apostle to the idea of a third dimension in the hopes of educating the population of Flatland. From the safety of Spaceland, they are able to observe the leaders of Flatland secretly acknowledging the existence of the sphere and prescribing the silencing of anyone found preaching the truth of Spaceland and the third dimension.
After this proclamation is made, many witnesses are massacred or imprisoned, including A Square's brother, B. After the Square's mind is opened to new dimensions, he tries to convince the Sphere of the theoretical possibility of the existence of a fourth spatial dimension; the Square has a dream in which the Sphere visits him again, this time to introduce him to Pointland, whereof the point perceives any communication as a thought originating in his own mind: "You see," said my Teacher, "how little your words have done. So far as the Monarch understands them at all, he accepts them as his own – for he cannot conceive of any other except himself – and plumes himself upon the variety of Its Thought as an instance of creative Power. Let us leave this god of Pointland to the ignorant fruition of his omnipresence and omniscience: nothing that you or I can do can rescue him from his self-satisfaction." The Square recognises the identity of the ignorance of the monarchs of Pointland and Lineland with his own previous ignorance of the existence of higher dimensions.
Once returned to Flatland, the Square cannot convince anyone of Spaceland's existence after official decrees are announced that anyone preaching the existence of three dimensions will be imprisoned. The Square himself is imprisoned for just this reason, with only occasional contact with his brother, imprisoned in the same facility, he does not manage to convince his brother after all they have both seen. Seven years after being imprisoned, A Square writes out the book Flatland in the form of a memoir, hoping to keep it as posterity for a future generation that can see beyond their two-dimensional existence. Men are portrayed as polygons whose social status is determined by their regularity and the number of their sides, with a Circle considered the "perfect" shape. On the other hand, women consist only of lines and are required by law to sound a "peace-cry" as they walk, lest they be mistaken face-to-face for a point; the Square evinces accounts of cases where women have accidentally or deliberately stabbed men to death, as evidence of the need for separate doors for women and men in buildings.
In the world of Flatland, classes are distinguished by the "Art of Hearing", the "Art of Feeling", the "Art of Sight Recognition". Classes can be distinguished by the sound of one's voice, but the lower classes have more developed vocal organs, enabling them to feign the voice of a Polygon or a Circle. Feeling, practised by the lower classes and women, determines the configuration of a person by feeling one of its angles; the "Art of Sight Recognition", practised by the upper classes, is aided by "Fog", which allows an observer to determine the depth of an object. With this, polygons with sharp angles relative to the observer will fade more than polygons with more gradual angles. Colour of any kind is banned in Flatland after Isosceles workers painted themselves to impersonate noble Polygons; the Square describes these events, the ensuing class war at length. The population of Flatland can "evolve" through the "Law of Nature", which states: "a male child shall have one more side than his father, so that each generation shall rise one step in the scale of development and nobility.
Thus the s
Frank Schültge is a German author and producer, working under the pseudonym F. S. Blumm. Schültge received classical guitar lessons in his youth, but developed a growing interest in noise music, he played in various groups that were influenced by the sound of Sonic Youth, The Melvins, Gastr Del Sol. In 1990, Schültge began a teacher training programme in music and art, passed the staatsexamen in 1996. In 1997 he moved to Berlin in order to concentrate on working as composer. Schültge has collaborated with a number of other musicians, including the Cologne multi-instrumentalist Harald "Sack" Ziegler as the duo Sack & Blumm, with Marcel Türkowsky as Kinn. In addition, he worked with Christian Berner and producing radio plays for public broadcast by SWR, WDR, Deutschlandradio. In 2007, he began work with Ella Blixt as the duo Bobby & Blumm, producing the minimalist folk-influenced albums Everybody Loves... in 2008, A Little Big in 2010. He worked with Jana Plewa in 2008 as the group The Kat Cosm, along with guest musicians Sven Kacirek and Harald Ziegler, releasing the album Swaying Boldly Afar.
1998: Esst Obst - EP 2000: Bettvanille Weiter - EP 2000: Six Mbiras - Split-CD 2001: Mondkuchen - CD 2002: Ankern CD 2004:... And Friends - Sesamsamen - CD 2005: Zweite Meer - CD 2006: Summer Kling - CD 2010: Up Up Treasures - Split-CD 2013: Food 2017: Welcome - Album 1994: Die Auch: Im Ernst - LP 1998: Sack & Blumm: Die fünfte Dengelophonie - EP 1999: Sack & Blumm: Sylvester Orchester 2000 - EP 1999: Sack & Blumm: Sack & Blumm - CD 1999: Ström: Hönigtier/Fensterkreuz - EP 2000: Ström: Wellenbrecher - CD 2000: Sack & Blumm: Shy Noon - CD 2000: Sack & Blumm: 2x5 - EP 2000: Rebresch & Blumm: Hörcomics - CD 2001: Sack & Blumm: Zack Bumm - 2002: Blumm & Möbius: 20 Locked Grooves - CD 2003: Sack & Blumm: Kind Kind - CD 2003: Kinn: Kinn - CD 2005: Kinn: Karlshorst - CD 2007: Anne Laplantine & F. S. Blumm: FA - EP 2007: F. S. Blumm & Luca Fadda: F. S. Blumm meets Luca Fadda - CD 2008: Old Splendifolia: Swaying Boldly Afar - CD 2008: Bobby & Blumm: Everybody Loves... - CD 2009: Sack & Blumm: Returns - CD 2009: David Grubbs & F.
S. Blumm: Back To The Plants - CD 2010: Bobby & Blumm: A Little Big - CD 2010: F. S. Blumm & Nils Frahm: Music For Lovers Music Versus Time - CD 2010: F. S. Blumm + Bradien: Up Up Treasures|Trim - 2011: F. S. Blumm / Lucrecia Dalt*: Cuatro Covers - EP 2013: F. S. Blumm & Nils Frahm: Music For Wobbling Music Versus Gravity - CD 2016: F. S. Blumm & Nils Frahm: Tag Eins Tag Zwei - CD 2008: Wurfsendung 108: Im Wartesaal der Gerechtigkeit. Director: Frank Schültge/Jan Theiler, Performed by: Tonio Arango, Katharina Burowa, Christian Gaul, Steffen Scheumann. EIG. F. S. Blumm website F. S. Blumm discography at Discogs F. S. Blumm biography at Morr Music F. S. Blumm at Ahornfelder