A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second. The term derives from rubber stamps used in offices to stamp the current date, sometimes time, in ink on paper documents, to record when the document was received. Common examples of this type of timestamp are a postmark on a letter or the "in" and "out" times on a time card. In modern times usage of the term has expanded to refer to digital date and time information attached to digital data. For example, computer files contain timestamps that tell when the file was last modified, digital cameras add timestamps to the pictures they take, recording the date and time the picture was taken. A timestamp is the time at which an event is recorded by a computer, not the time of the event itself. In many cases, the difference may be inconsequential: the time at which an event is recorded by a timestamp should be close to the time of the event.
This data is presented in a consistent format, allowing for easy comparison of two different records and tracking progress over time. The sequential numbering of events is sometimes called timestamping. Timestamps are used for logging events or in a sequence of events, in which case each event in the log or SOE is marked with a timestamp. All computer file systems store one or more timestamps in the per-file metadata. In particular, most modern operating systems support the POSIX stat, so each file has 3 timestamps associated with it: time of last access, time of last modification, time of last status change; some file archivers and some version control software, when they copy a file from some remote computer to the local computer, adjust the timestamps of the local file to show the date/time in the past when that file was created or modified on that remote computer, rather than the date/time when that file was copied to the local computer. Examples of timestamps: Wed 01-01-2009 6:00 2005-10-30 T 10:45 UTC 2007-11-09 T 11:20 UTC Sat Jul 23 02:16:57 2005 1256953732 – 07:38, 11 December 2012 1985-102 T 10:15 UTC 1985-W15-5 T 10:15 UTC 20180203073000 ISO 8601 standardizes the representation of dates and times.
These standard representations are used to construct timestamp values. Timestamp can refer to: A time code Unix time, the number of seconds since 00:00:00 UTC on January 1, 1970 ICMP Timestamp A digitally signed timestamp whose signer vouches for the existence of the signed document or content at the time given as part of the digital signature The modification or access time of a file or directory in a computer file system or database A proof of authenticity of a person on sites such as 4chan Bates numbering Timestamping Timestamp-based concurrency control Trusted timestamping Decentralized Trusted Timestamping on the blockchain Linked timestamping
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of called programs; these programs enable computers to perform an wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system, peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system; this term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices; this includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users.
Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century; the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed and versatility of computers have been increasing ever since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element a central processing unit, some form of memory; the processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of the word "computer" was in 1613 in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by English writer Richard Braithwait: "I haue read the truest computer of Times, the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. During the latter part of this period women were hired as computers because they could be paid less than their male counterparts. By 1943, most human computers were women. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations; the Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the 1640s, meaning "one who calculates". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "'calculating machine' is from 1897."
The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "1945 under this name. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years using one-to-one correspondence with fingers; the earliest counting device was a form of tally stick. Record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers; the use of counting rods is one example. The abacus was used for arithmetic tasks; the Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money; the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog "computer", according to Derek J. de Solla Price.
It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, has been dated to c. 100 BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use; the planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century. The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is attributed to Hipparchus. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer and gear-wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in 1235. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the first mechanical geared lunisolar calendar astrolabe, an early fixed-wired knowledge processing machine with a gear train and gear-wheels, c. 1000 AD.
The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry and division, for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in
TASCAM is the professional audio division of TEAC Corporation, headquartered in Montebello, California. Tascam is credited as the inventor of the Portastudio, the first cassette-based multi-track home studio recorders. Tascam introduced the first low-cost mass-produced multitrack recorders with Simul-Sync designed for recording musicians. Tascam manufactured reel-to-reel tape machines and audio mixers for home recordists from the early 1970s through the mid-1990s. Tascam started out as a research and development group to research how to use TEAC's recording technology in musician and recording studio products; the group was called TASC. The founders included Mr. K. Tani, one of the founders of TEAC-Japan and Dr. Abe, a senior TEAC-Japan engineer. In 1971 TASCAM was founded to distribute TASC products in the U. S, it conducted additional market research in the US for the Japanese parent company. The company's first headquarters was at 5440 McConnell Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90066. In 1974 it moved its headquarters to 7733 Telegraph Road, California.
Tascam's first products were TEAC brand multitrack recorders. In 1972 it introduced the first low-cost mass-produced multitrack recorders with Simul-Sync: The A3340 4-track recorder with 10.5" tape reels, 7½ and 15 ips speeds w/ manual direction toggle lever The A2340 4-track recorder with 7" tape reels, 3¾ and 7½ ips speeds w/ manual direction toggle lever The A3340S 4-track recorder with 10.5" tape reels, 7½ and 15 ips speeds, the's' designation indicating improved w/ solenoid control The A2340S 4-track recorder with 7" tape reels, 3¾ and 7½ ips speeds, the's' designation indicating improved w/ solenoid controlIn 1973 they introduced the first Tascam branded products: M-10 modular 12x4x2 mixer Series 70H-X MTR Series 70H-8 MTROn March 4, 1973 TEAC merged the Tascam Corporation into TEAC Corporation of America. TEAC-Japan retains the exclusive worldwide rights to the TASCAM brand name for their professional audio related products. In 2013 Gibson Brands Inc. bought a majority stake in TEAC Corporation, the parent company of TASCAM.
In October 2017, TASCAM partnered with Philly punk band the Dead Milkmen and philanthropic record label The Giving Groove to sponsor a remix contest. 144 - 1979, World's first 4 track recorder based on a standard cassette tape, 1982 Bruce Springsteen records Nebraska Album 2006 Mix magazine TECnology hall of fame Porta One Ministudio - 1984, First battery operated portable studio. 388 Studio - 1985 World's first 8 track 1/4" multitrack and mixer combination. 564 - 1997 First MiniDisc based digital Portastudio. 788 - 2000 World's first 24 bit 8 track hard disk Portastudio 2488 24 Track Hard Drive based digital portastudio - 2004 Music Trades Magazine Product of the Year, MIPA Desktop Recording Workstation of the Year DP-02 8 track digital recorder - 2008 Music & Sound Retailer Best New Multitrack recorder TASCAM 80-8 1/2" 8 channel analog reel deck, TASCAM offered an external optional 8 channel dedicated DBX interface module. 1975. 2017 TECnology Hall of Fame Inductee DA-50 Pro DAT - 1989, First US-legal DAT tape recorder with SCMS Copy protection.
MSR-24 24 Track 1" Open Reel Tape Deck - 1990 TEC Award Nominee DA-800/24 DASH 1990, 24 channel digital tape Recorder. DA-88 DTRS 8 Channel Digital Audio Recorder - 1994 TEC Award Winner, 1995 Emmy Award Winner, 1995 NAB Professional's Choice Award winner. DA-30mkII DAT - 1995 TEC Award Winner DA-38 DTRS - 1997 TEC Award Winner DA-98 DTRS - 1997 PAR Excellence Award, 1998 NAB Professional's Choice Award, 1998 TEC Award Winner DA-302 DAT - 1997 World's first Dual DAT deck. 1997 PAR Excellence Award Winner. DA-98HR 24 bit DTRS - 1998 Post Magazine Best Multitrack Digital Recorder. DA-45HR 24 bit DAT - World's First 24 bit DAT Recorder. 1998 PAR Excellence Award Winner, 1998 Keyboard Magazine Key Buy. DA-78HR 24 bit DTRS - 1999 Pro Audio Review PAR Excellence Award, 2000 TEC award Winner MMR-8 / MMR-16 8 channel Hard Disk Recorder - 2000 Emmy Award Winner, 2001 Oscar Scientific Award Winner. MX-2424 24 channel 96 kHz Hard Disk Recorder - 1999 PAR Excellence Award Winner, 2001 TEC Award winner. DS-D98 2 Channel DSD Recorder Based on DA-98HR - 2002 TEC Award Nominee.
HD-P2 Portable Timecode enabled CF card 2 channel recorder - 2006 PAR Award Winner. DV-RA1000HD DVD and Hard Drive based 2 Channel Master DSD Recorder - 2007 TEC Award Winner. X-48 48 channel 96 kHz Hard Disk Recorder. - 2008 TEC Award Nominee DR-100 2 Channel Hand Held Recorder - 2009 TEC Award Nominee HS-P82 8 Channel Dual CF Media Field Recorder - 2009 PAR Excellence Award, 2010 Good Design Award DR-03 Portable Handheld Recorder - 2010 Music & Sound Retailers Best Multitrack Award DR-680 8 channel portable SD card recorder - 2011 TEC Award Nominee DR-40 Handheld 4-track recorder - 2012 EM Magazine Editors Choice Awards DR-60D 4 track recorder for DSLR Cameras - 2013 NAB Best of Show Award M-5 Analog Mixer - The Model 5 was released in 1975 in conjunction w/ the 80-8 eight channel 1/2 inch reel tape deck. It came as an 8x4x2 board, expandable to 12 channels w/ optional talkback module M-700 Analog Mixer - 1989 dubbed "the Baby SSL" M-3700 Analog Mixer - 1992 TEC Award Nominee M-2600 Analog Mixer - 1995 TEC Award Nominee M-1600 Analog Mixer - 1997 TEC Award Nominee TM-D8000 Digital Audio Mixer - 1996 Blue Ribbon Best of AES Convention, 1998 TEC Award Nominee TM-D4000 Digital Audio Mixer - 2000 TEC Award Nominee X-9 Digital Four Channels DJ Mixer - 2000 DM-24 Digital Audio Mixer - 2002 TEC Award winner DM-4800 64 channel Digital Audio Mixer - 2007 TEC Award Nominee 2007 Good Design Award US-428 - 2001 TEC Award Nominee FW-1884 - FireWire Audio and Control Surface - 2003 PAR Excellence Award US-122 - 2004 Soundcheck magazine Best Audio/MIDI Hardware US-2400 - 24 Fader USB Controller - 2004 Mix Magazine NAMM Show Cer
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content. These techniques are used to reduce data size for storing and transmitting content; the different versions of the photo of the cat to the right show how higher degrees of approximation create coarser images as more details are removed. This is opposed to lossless data compression; the amount of data reduction possible using lossy compression is much higher than through lossless techniques. Well-designed lossy compression technology reduces file sizes before degradation is noticed by the end-user; when noticeable by the user, further data reduction may be desirable. Lossy compression is most used to compress multimedia data in applications such as streaming media and internet telephony. By contrast, lossless compression is required for text and data files, such as bank records and text articles, it can be advantageous to make a master lossless file which can be used to produce additional copies from.
This allows one to avoid basing new compressed copies off of a lossy source file, which would yield additional artifacts and further unnecessary information loss. It is possible to compress many types of digital data in a way that reduces the size of a computer file needed to store it, or the bandwidth needed to transmit it, with no loss of the full information contained in the original file. A picture, for example, is converted to a digital file by considering it to be an array of dots and specifying the color and brightness of each dot. If the picture contains an area of the same color, it can be compressed without loss by saying "200 red dots" instead of "red dot, red dot...... red dot." The original data contains a certain amount of information, there is a lower limit to the size of file that can carry all the information. Basic information theory says; when data is compressed, its entropy increases, it cannot increase indefinitely. As an intuitive example, most people know that a compressed ZIP file is smaller than the original file, but compressing the same file will not reduce the size to nothing.
Most compression algorithms can recognize when further compression would be pointless and would in fact increase the size of the data. In many cases, files or data streams contain more information than is needed for a particular purpose. For example, a picture may have more detail than the eye can distinguish when reproduced at the largest size intended. Developing lossy compression techniques as matched to human perception as possible is a complex task. Sometimes the ideal is a file that provides the same perception as the original, with as much digital information as possible removed; the terms'irreversible' and'reversible' are preferred over'lossy' and'lossless' for some applications, such as medical image compression, to circumvent the negative implications of'loss'. The type and amount of loss can affect the utility of the images. Artifacts or undesirable effects of compression may be discernible yet the result still useful for the intended purpose. Or lossy compressed images may be'visually lossless', or in the case of medical images, so-called Diagnostically Acceptable Irreversible Compression may have been applied.
More some forms of lossy compression can be thought of as an application of transform coding – in the case of multimedia data, perceptual coding: it transforms the raw data to a domain that more reflects the information content. For example, rather than expressing a sound file as the amplitude levels over time, one may express it as the frequency spectrum over time, which corresponds more to human audio perception. While data reduction is a main goal of transform coding, it allows other goals: one may represent data more for the original amount of space – for example, in principle, if one starts with an analog or high-resolution digital master, an MP3 file of a given size should provide a better representation than a raw uncompressed audio in WAV or AIFF file of the same size; this is because uncompressed audio can only reduce file size by lowering bit rate or depth, whereas compressing audio can reduce size while maintaining bit rate and depth. This compression becomes a selective loss of the least significant data, rather than losing data across the board.
Further, a transform coding may provide a better domain for manipulating or otherwise editing the data – for example, equalization of audio is most expressed in the frequency domain rather than in the raw time domain. From this point of view, perceptual encoding is not about discarding data, but rather about a better representation of data. Another use is for backward compatibility and graceful degradation: in color television, encoding color via a luminance-chrominance transform domain means that black-and-white sets display the luminance, while ignoring the color information. Another example is chroma subsampling: the use of color spaces such as YIQ, used in NTSC, allow one to reduce the resolution on the components to accord with human perception – humans have highest resolution for black-an
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0