Audio signal processing

Audio signal processing is a subfield of signal processing, concerned with the electronic manipulation of audio signals. Audio signals are electronic representations of sound waves—longitudinal waves which travel through air, consisting of compressions and rarefactions; the energy contained in audio signals is measured in decibels. As audio signals may be represented in either digital or analog format, processing may occur in either domain. Analog processors operate directly on the electrical signal, while digital processors operate mathematically on its digital representation; the motivation for audio signal processing began at the beginning of the 20th century with inventions like the telephone and radio that allowed for the transmission and storage of audio signals. Audio processing was necessary for early radio broadcasting, as there were many problems with studio-to-transmitter links; the theory of signal processing and its application to audio was developed at Bell Labs in the mid 20th century.

Claude Shannon and Harry Nyquist's early work on communication theory, sampling theory, Pulse-code modulation laid the foundations for the field. In 1957, Max Mathews became the first person to synthesize audio from a computer, giving birth to computer music. An analog audio signal is a continuous signal represented by an electrical voltage or current, “analogous” to the sound waves in the air. Analog signal processing involves physically altering the continuous signal by changing the voltage or current or charge via electrical circuits. Before the advent of widespread digital technology, analog was the only method by which to manipulate a signal. Since that time, as computers and software have become more capable and affordable and digital signal processing has become the method of choice. However, in music applications, analog technology is still desirable as it produces nonlinear responses that are difficult to replicate with digital filters. A digital representation expresses the audio waveform as a sequence of symbols binary numbers.

This permits signal processing using digital circuits such as digital signal processors and general-purpose computers. Most modern audio systems use a digital approach as the techniques of digital signal processing are much more powerful and efficient than analog domain signal processing. Processing methods and application areas include storage, data compression, music information retrieval, speech processing, acoustic detection, noise cancellation, acoustic fingerprinting, sound recognition and enhancement. Audio signal processing is used when broadcasting audio signals in order to enhance their fidelity or optimize for bandwidth or latency. In this domain, the most important audio processing takes place just before the transmitter; the audio processor here must prevent or minimize overmodulation, compensate for non-linear transmitters, adjust overall loudness to desired level. Active noise control is a technique designed to reduce unwanted sound. By creating a signal, identical to the unwanted noise but with the opposite polarity, the two signals cancel out due to destructive interference.

Audio synthesis is the electronic generation of audio signals. A musical instrument that accomplishes this is called a synthesizer. Synthesizers can either generate new ones. Audio synthesis is used to generate human speech using speech synthesis. Audio effects are systems designed to alter. Unprocessed audio is metaphorically referred to as dry. Delay or echo - To simulate the effect of reverberation in a large hall or cavern, one or several delayed signals are added to the original signal. To be perceived as echo, the delay has to be of order 35 milliseconds or above. Short of playing a sound in the desired environment, the effect of echo can be implemented using either digital or analog methods. Analog echo effects are implemented using bucket-brigade devices; when large numbers of delayed signals are mixed a reverberation effect is produced. Flanger - to create an unusual sound, a delayed signal is added to the original signal with a continuously variable delay; this effect is now done electronically using DSP, but the effect was created by playing the same recording on two synchronized tape players, mixing the signals together.

As long as the machines were synchronized, the mix would sound more-or-less normal, but if the operator placed his finger on the flange of one of the players, that machine would slow down and its signal would fall out-of-phase with its partner, producing a phasing comb filter effect. Once the operator took his finger off, the player would speed up until it was back in phase with the master, as this happened, the phasing effect would appear to slide up the frequency spectrum; this phasing up-and-down the register can be performed rhythmically. Phaser - another way of creating an unusual sound; the phaser effect was a simpler implementation of the flanger effect since delays were difficult to implement with analog equipment. Chorus - a delayed version of the signal is added to the original signal; the delay has to be short in order not to be perceived as echo, but above 5 ms to b

1001 Nights (TV series)

1001 Nights is a Canadian animated television series developed and produced at Big Bad Boo Studios in Vancouver, based on stories from One Thousand and One Nights. The show is co-directed by Shabnam Rezaei and Aly Jetha. Borrowing from the original premise of the classical tales of One Thousand and One Nights, the TV series features Scheherazade, the storyteller, in a Persian court with her sister Donyazad, King Shahryar, Prince Shahzaman and a playful monkey named Maymoon; the show premiered on Teletoon in Canada on December 25, 2011 and on Radio Canada in French-speaking Canada. In the United States, the show premiered on Disney Channel on January 2, 2012; this is the first time a media company has serialized the books of One Thousand and One Nights into an animated TV series for children. This show aired in Turkey on Cartoon Network Another day at King Shahryar's court and another problem presents itself. Does Shahryar have a toothache? Is Maymoon "borrowing" Shahzaman's pistachios? Scheherazade always has a delightful story that will teach everyone a great lesson.

She will use the court characters in her stories. There are a number of recurring characters such as Sinbad and Dina and Samir and Harun al-Rashid. A red herring is presented in each episode such as a flying carpet which leaves room for the stories to continue. Voiced by Nicole Oliver Confident and older than her years, Scheherazade is savvy, quick-witted, no nonsense in her dealings with Donyazad and Shahzaman, she is the wife of King Shahryar. She serves the role of mother and peace-keeper and it is through her that we are told many captivating stories. Scheherazade is the daughter of Majid, Shahryar's vizier. Voiced by Colin Murdock Shahryar is older than his wife Scheherazade, has little experience or knowledge of what it takes to make a good king, he is unintentionally selfish, arrogant and spoiled. He is innocent and childlike because he is a prince, catered to his entire life, he says whatever is on his mind, no matter how stupid it might sound. When Scheherazade is telling a story to the kids, Shahryar is listening in and will draw the wrong message.

Voiced by Tabitha St. Germain Donyazad is Scheherazade's younger sister, she is ten years old, bright and feisty. She loves and respects her older sister who has become her mother figure. Donyazad tussles with Shahazman. Although they are not related, they have a typical brother-sister relationship, they are close to one another but are at odds. Of the two, Donyazad is the smarter. She's more sensitive and aware. Voiced by Cathy Weseluck Shahzaman is Shahryar's eleven-year-old brother and therefore, he is a prince, he is a younger version of Shahryar, i.e. spoiled with a sense of entitlement. Though he's a prince, he is like any other a boy who loves sports, games and play time, he gets into mischief and he endlessly teases Donyazad. He's a practical joker and insensitive to other people's feelings. Still, he's loveable and when faced with issues, he and Donyazad make a good team. Voiced by Peter Kelamis Majid is Shahryar's vizier, i.e. high counselor. He is Scheherazade's father, he is about fifty years old and the wise and learned man of the court.

Majid finds himself trying to calm Shahryar down when the king is throwing a temper tantrum. He is sycophantic towards Shahryar whereas Scheherazade is subtler in her approach. She's able to change Shahryar's behavior just by telling him a story. Whereas Majid is afraid of his son in law, Scheherazade has no trouble standing up to him. Voiced by Scott McNeil Maymoon is a mischievous pet monkey who belongs to Shahzaman, he is a regular member of the court. He outwits Shahryar and like all the other characters is used as a character in Scheherazade's stories; the idea for the show came to co-creator Shabnam Rezaei in a dream. Her father read stories from One Nights in her native country Iran. Together with partner Aly Jetha and Creative Director Chad Van De Keere, story editor Randy Rogel as well as the Big Bad Boo team, they formulated the 1001 Nights TV series, which would be appropriate for a modern audience. 1001 Nights came in the # 1 show at the 2011 at the Mip Junior awards among 1027 other children's properties.

It was # 6 in the Top 30 that year. 1001 Nights was nominated for four awards in 2010. 1001 Nights was nominated for two awards in 2011. 1001 Nights was nominated and won three Leo Awards in 2012. 1001 Nights was nominated for two Leo Awards and won one in 2013. 1001 Nights TV series website Big Bad Boo 1001 Nights Property Page 1001 Nights on IMDb

Destined to Win

Destined to Win is a live album from Karen Clark Sheard. Entertainment One Music alongside Karew Music released the album on July 21, 2015; this album became her highest-charting album in her solo career. She worked in the production of this album. Reviewing the album for The New York Times, Ben Ratliff states, "There are three or four places on the record — and they are extended sequences, not just moments — when a listener can start to worry: Do I deserve these riches?" Andy Kellman, awarding the album four stars at AllMusic, writes, "this is another worthy addition to the Clark Sheard catalog." Rating the album three and a half stars from New Release Today, Dwayne Lacy says, "the'less is more' approach shows that 10 total songs are enough for a complete album." Bob Marovich, indicating in a four star review by the Journal of Gospel Music, responds, "Destined to Win reminds listeners of the church's—and gospel music’s—mandate to encourage the discouraged and give heart to the disheartened."

Assigning the album a five stars rating for Gospel Pundit, Erik Justin "E. J." Gaines replies, "Destined To Win is a powerful declaration of faith and victory, marked by the impeccable and unparalleled vocals of one of gospel music’s greatest treasures."