A diary is a record with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's experiences, and/or feelings, excluding comments on current events outside the writer's direct experience. Someone who keeps a diary is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play a role in many aspects of human civilization, including government records, business ledgers, military records. In British English, the word may denote a preprinted journal format. A diary is a collection of notes. Today the term is employed for personal diaries intended to remain private or to have a limited circulation amongst friends or relatives; the word "journal" may be sometimes used for "diary," but a diary has daily entries, whereas journal-writing can be less frequent. Although a diary may provide information for a memoir, autobiography or biography, it is written not with the intention of being published as it stands, but for the author's own use.
In recent years, there is internal evidence in some diaries that they are written with eventual publication in mind, with the intention of self-vindication, or for profit. By extension the term diary is used to mean a printed publication of a written diary; the word diary comes from the Latin diarium. The word journal comes from the same root through Old French jurnal; the earliest use of the word refers to a book in which a daily record was written was in Ben Jonson's comedy Volpone in 1605. The oldest extant diaries come from Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures, although the earlier work To Myself, today known as the Meditations, written in Greek by the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the second half of the 2nd century AD displays many characteristics of a diary. Pillowbooks of Japanese court ladies and Asian travel journals offer some aspects of this genre of writing, although they consist of diurnal records; the scholar Li Ao, for example, kept a diary of his journey through southern China.
In the medieval Near East, Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary of this era which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna' in the 11th century, his diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date much like modern diaries. The precursors of the diary in the modern sense include daily notes of medieval mystics, concerned with inward emotions and outward events perceived as spiritually important. From the Renaissance on, some individuals wanted not only to record events, as in medieval chronicles and itineraries, but to put down their own opinions and express their hopes and fears, without any intention to publish these notes. One of the early preserved examples is the anonymous Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris that covers the years 1405–49, giving subjective commentaries on the current events. Famous 14th- to 16th-century Renaissance examples, which appeared much as books, were the diaries by the Florentines Buonaccorso Pitti and Gregorio Dati and the Venetian Marino Sanuto the Younger.
Here we find records of less important everyday occurrences together with much reflection, emotional experience and personal impressions. In 1908 the Smythson company created the first featherweight diary, enabling diaries to be carried about. Many diaries of notable figures have been published and form an important element of autobiographical literature. Samuel Pepys is the earliest diarist, well known today. Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, into the realm of the personal. Pepys' contemporary John Evelyn kept a notable diary, their works are among the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, consist of eyewitness accounts of many great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Great Fire of London; the practice of posthumous publication of diaries of literary and other notables began in the 19th century. As examples, the Grasmere Journal of Dorothy Wordsworth was published in 1897. Among important U. S. Civil War diaries are those of George Templeton Strong, a New York City lawyer, Mary Chesnut, the wife of a Confederate officer.
The diary of Jemima Condict, living in the area of what is now West Orange, New Jersey, includes local observations of the American Revolutionary War. Since the 19th century the publication of diaries by their authors has become commonplace – notably amongst politicians seeking justification but amongst artists and litterateurs of all descriptions. Amongst late 20th-century British published political diaries, those of Richard Crossman, Tony Benn and Alan Clark are representative, the latter being more indiscreet in the tradition of the diaries of Chips Channon. In Britain in the field of the arts notable diaries were published by James Lees-Milne, Roy Strong and Peter Hall. Harold Nicolson in the mid-20th century covered the arts. One of the m
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
A medical guideline is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis and treatment in specific areas of healthcare. Such documents have been in use for thousands of years during the entire history of medicine. However, in contrast to previous approaches, which were based on tradition or authority, modern medical guidelines are based on an examination of current evidence within the paradigm of evidence-based medicine, they include summarized consensus statements on best practice in healthcare. A healthcare provider is obliged to know the medical guidelines of his or her profession, has to decide whether to follow the recommendations of a guideline for an individual treatment. Modern clinical guidelines identify and evaluate the highest quality evidence and most current data about prevention, prognosis, therapy including dosage of medications, risk/benefit and cost-effectiveness, they define the most important questions related to clinical practice and identify all possible decision options and their outcomes.
Some guidelines contain computation algorithms to be followed. Thus, they integrate the identified decision points and respective courses of action with the clinical judgement and experience of practitioners. Many guidelines place the treatment alternatives into classes to help providers in deciding which treatment to use. Additional objectives of clinical guidelines are to standardize medical care, to raise quality of care, to reduce several kinds of risk and to achieve the best balance between cost and medical parameters such as effectiveness, sensitivity, etc, it has been demonstrated that the use of guidelines by healthcare providers such as hospitals is an effective way of achieving the objectives listed above, although they are not the only ones. Guidelines are produced at national or international levels by medical associations or governmental bodies, such as the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Local healthcare providers may produce their own set of guidelines or adapt them from existing top-level guidelines.
Special computer software packages known as guideline execution engines have been developed to facilitate the use of medical guidelines in concert with an electronic medical record system. The Guideline Interchange Format is a computer representation format for clinical guidelines that can be used with such engines; the USA and other countries maintain medical guideline clearinghouses. In the USA, the National Guideline Clearinghouse maintains a catalog of high-quality guidelines published by various health and medical associations. In the United Kingdom, clinical practice guidelines are published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. In The Netherlands, two bodies—the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and College of General Practitioners —have published specialist and primary care guidelines, respectively. In Germany, the German Agency for Quality in Medicine coordinates a national program for disease management guidelines. All these organisations are now members of the Guidelines International Network, an international network of organisations and individuals involved in clinical practice guidelines.
Checklists have been used in medical practice to attempt to ensure that clinical practice guidelines are followed. An example is the Surgical Safety Checklist developed for the World Health Organization by Dr. Atul Gawande. According to a meta-analysis after introduction of the checklist mortality dropped by 23% and all complications by 40%, but further high-quality studies are required to make the meta-analysis more robust. In the UK, a study on the implementation of a checklist for provision of medical care to elderly patients admitting to hospital found that the checklist highlighted limitations with frailty assessment in acute care and motivated teams to review routine practices, but that work is needed to understand whether and how checklists can be embedded in complex multidisciplinary care. Guidelines may lose their clinical relevance as they age and newer research emerges. 20% of strong recommendations when based on opinion rather than trials, from practice guidelines may be retracted.
The New York Times reported in 2004 that some simple clinical practice guidelines are not followed to the extent they might be. It has been found that providing a nurse or other medical assistant with a checklist of recommended procedures can result in the attending physician being reminded in a timely manner regarding procedures that might have been overlooked. Guidelines may have conflict of interest; as such, the quality of guidelines may vary especially for guidelines that are published on-line and have not had to follow methodological reporting standards required by reputable clearinghouses. Guidelines may make recommendations. In response to many of these problems with traditional guidelines, the BMJ created a new series of trustworthy guidelines focused on the most pressing medical issues called BMJ Rapid Recommendations; the American Heart Association Guidelines for the Prevention of Infective Endocarditis The BMJ Rapid Recommendation guideline on transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis.
Clinical formulation Clinical prediction rule Clinical trial protocol Medical algorithm Treatment Guidelines from The Medical Letter British Columbia Medical Guidelines – In Canada, British Columbia's guidelines and protocol
Voter-verified paper audit trail
Voter verifiable paper audit trail or verifiable paper record is a method of providing feedback to voters using a ballotless voting system. A VVPAT is intended as an independent verification system for voting machines designed to allow voters to verify that their vote was cast to detect possible election fraud or malfunction, to provide a means to audit the stored electronic results, it contains the name of the symbol of the party/individual candidate. The VVPAT must be destroyed by the voter before leaving the room; the VVPAT offers some fundamental differences as a paper, rather than electronic recording medium when storing votes. A paper VVPAT is readable by the human eye and voters can directly interpret their vote. Computer memory requires a device and software, proprietary. Insecure voting machine records could be changed without detection by the voting machine itself, it would be more difficult for voting machines to corrupt records without human intervention. Corrupt or malfunctioning voting machines might store votes other than as intended by the voter unnoticed.
A VVPAT allows voters the possibility to verify that their votes are cast as intended and can serve as an additional barrier to changing or destroying votes. The VVPAT includes a direct recording electronic voting system, to assure voters that their votes have been recorded as intended, it is intended, some argue necessary, as a means by which to detect fraud and equipment malfunction. Depending on election laws the paper audit trail may constitute a legal ballot and therefore provide a means by which a manual vote count can be conducted if a recount is necessary; the solution was first demonstrated and used by AVANTE International Technology, Inc.. In non-document ballot voting systems – both mechanical voting machines and DRE voting machines – the voter does not have an option to review a tangible ballot to confirm the voting system recorded his or her intent. In addition, an election official is unable to manually recount ballots in the event of a dispute; because of this, critics claim there is an increased chance for electoral fraud or malfunction and security experts, such as Bruce Schneier, have demanded voter-verifiable paper audit trails.
Non-document ballot voting systems allow only a recount of the "stored votes". These "stored votes" might not represent the correct voter intent if the machine has been corrupted or suffered malfunction. A fundamental hurdle in the implementation of paper audit trails is the performance and authority of the audit. Paper audit systems increase the cost of electronic voting systems, can be difficult to implement require specialized external hardware, can be difficult to use. In the United States, 27 states require a paper audit trail by statute or regulation for all direct recording electronic voting machines used in public elections. Another 18 states use them either statewide or in local jurisdictions. Five US states have no paper trail. In India, the voter-verified paper audit trail system was introduced in 8 of 543 parliamentary constituencies as a pilot project in Indian general election, 2014. VVPAT was implemented in Lucknow, Bangalore South, Chennai Central, Raipur, Patna Sahib and Mizoram constituencies.
Voter-verified paper audit trail was first used in an election in India in September 2013 in Noksen in Nagaland. VVPAT along with EVMs was used on a large-scale for the first time in India, in 10 assembly seats out of 40 in Mizoram Legislative Assembly election, 2013. VVPAT -fitted EVMs was used in entire Goa state in the 2017 assembly elections, the first time that an entire state in India saw the implementation of VVPAT. Voter-verified paper audit trail system which enables electronic voting machines to record each vote cast by generating the EVM slip, will be introduced in all 543 Lok sabha constituencies in 2019 Indian general election; when a voter casts a vote on a direct-recording voting machine, the voter "has no knowledge through his senses that he has accomplished a result. The most that can be said, is, if the machine worked as intended he... has voted." This observation was made by Horatio Rogers in 1897, it remains as true with DRE voting machines as it was with the early mechanical voting machines that Rogers spoke about.
In 1899, Joseph Gray addressed this problem with a mechanical voting machine that recorded votes in its mechanism and punched those votes on a paper ballot that the voter could inspect before dropping it in a ballot box. Gray explained that "in this manner, we have a mechanical check for the tickets, while the ticket is a check upon the register." This check is only effective, of course, if there is an audit to compare the paper and mechanical records. The idea of creating a parallel paper trail for a direct-recording voting mechanism remained dormant for a century, until it was rediscovered by Rebecca Mercuri, who suggested the same idea in 1992; the Mercuri method, as some have called it, was refined in her Ph. D. dissertation in October 2000. The first commercial voting systems to incorporate voter verified paper audit trail printers were the Avante Vote Trakker and a retrofit to the Sequoia AVC Edge called the VeriVote Printer. Avante's system saw its first trial use in 2002, in 2003, the state of Nevada required the use of VVPAT technology statewide and adopted the Sequoia system.
It is notable that, in Avante's design, the shield preventing
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers in or out of the system. The specification of what types of transfers are excluded varies in the closed systems of physics, chemistry or engineering. In nonrelativistic classical mechanics, a closed system is a physical system that doesn't exchange any matter with its surroundings, isn't subject to any net force whose source is external to the system. A closed system in classical mechanics would be considered an isolated system in thermodynamics. Closed systems are used to limit the factors that can affect the results of specific problem or experiment. In thermodynamics, a closed system can exchange energy but not matter, with its surroundings. An isolated system cannot exchange any heat, work, or matter with the surroundings, while an open system can exchange energy and matter. For a simple system, with only one type of particle, a closed system amounts to a constant number of particles. However, for systems which are undergoing a chemical reaction, there may be all sorts of molecules being generated and destroyed by the reaction process.
In this case, the fact that the system is closed is expressed by stating that the total number of each elemental atom is conserved, no matter what kind of molecule it may be a part of. Mathematically: ∑ j = 1 m a i j N j = b i where N j is the number of j-type molecules, a i j is the number of atoms of element i in molecule j and bi is the total number of atoms of element i in the system, which remains constant, since the system is closed. There will be one such equation for each different element in the system. In thermodynamics, a closed system is important for solving complicated thermodynamic problems, it allows the elimination of some external factors that could alter the results of the experiment or problem thus simplifying it. A closed system can be used in situations where thermodynamic equilibrium is required to simplify the situation; this equation, called Schrödinger's equation, describes the behavior of an isolated or closed quantum system, that is, by definition, a system which does not interchange information with another system.
So if an isolated system is in some pure state |ψ ∈ H at time t, where H denotes the Hilbert space of the system, the time evolution of this state. I ℏ ∂ ∂ t Ψ = H ^ Ψ where i is the imaginary unit, ħ is the Planck constant divided by 2π, the symbol ∂/∂t indicates a partial derivative with respect to time t, Ψ is the wave function of the quantum system, Ĥ is the Hamiltonian operator. In chemistry, a closed system is where no reactants or products can escape, only heat can be exchanged freely. A closed system can be used. In an engineering context, a closed system is a bound system, i.e. defined, in which every input is known and every resultant is known within a specific time. Glossary of systems theory Closed-circuit television Dynamical system Isolated system Open system Sense and Respond Thermodynamic system
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission is an independent agency of the United States federal government; the SEC holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, other activities and organizations, including the electronic securities markets in the United States. In addition to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which created it, the SEC enforces the Securities Act of 1933, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, other statutes; the SEC was created by Section 4 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1933. The SEC has a three-part mission: to protect investors. To achieve its mandate, the SEC enforces the statutory requirement that public companies and other regulated companies submit quarterly and annual reports, as well as other periodic reports. In addition to annual financial reports, company executives must provide a narrative account, called the "management discussion and analysis", that outlines the previous year of operations and explains how the company fared in that time period.
MD&A will also touch on the upcoming year, outlining future goals and approaches to new projects. In an attempt to level the playing field for all investors, the SEC maintains an online database called EDGAR online from which investors can access this and other information filed with the agency. Quarterly and semiannual reports from public companies are crucial for investors to make sound decisions when investing in the capital markets. Unlike banking, investment in the capital markets is not guaranteed by the federal government; the potential for big gains needs to be weighed against that of sizable losses. Mandatory disclosure of financial and other information about the issuer and the security itself gives private individuals as well as large institutions the same basic facts about the public companies they invest in, thereby increasing public scrutiny while reducing insider trading and fraud; the SEC makes reports available to the public through the EDGAR system. The SEC offers publications on investment-related topics for public education.
The same online system takes tips and complaints from investors to help the SEC track down violators of the securities laws. The SEC adheres to a strict policy of never commenting on the existence or status of an ongoing investigation. Prior to the enactment of the federal securities laws and the creation of the SEC, there existed so-called blue sky laws, they were enacted and enforced at the state level and regulated the offering and sale of securities to protect the public from fraud. Though the specific provisions of these laws varied among states, they all required the registration of all securities offerings and sales, as well as of every U. S. stockbroker and brokerage firm. However, these blue sky laws were found to be ineffective. For example, the Investment Bankers Association told its members as early as 1915 that they could "ignore" blue sky laws by making securities offerings across state lines through the mail. After holding hearings on abuses on interstate frauds, Congress passed the Securities Act of 1933, which regulates interstate sales of securities at the federal level.
The subsequent Securities Exchange Act of 1934 regulates sales of securities in the secondary market. Section 4 of the 1934 act created the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission to enforce the federal securities laws; the Securities Act of 1933 is known as the "Truth in Securities Act" and the "Federal Securities Act", or just the "1933 Act". Its goal was to increase public trust in the capital markets by requiring uniform disclosure of information about public securities offerings; the primary drafters of 1933 Act were Huston Thompson, a former Federal Trade Commission chairman, Walter Miller and Ollie Butler, two attorneys in the Commerce Department's Foreign Service Division, with input from Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis. For the first year of the law's enactment, the enforcement of the statute rested with the Federal Trade Commission, but this power was transferred to the SEC following its creation in 1934. In 1934, Roosevelt named his friend Joseph P. Kennedy, a self-made multimillionaire financier and a leader among the Irish-American community, as the insider-as-chairman who knew Wall Street well enough to clean it up.
Two of the other five commissioners were Ferdinand Pecora. Kennedy added a number of intelligent young lawyers, including William O. Douglas and Abe Fortas, both of whom became Supreme Court justices. Kennedy's team defined the mission and operating mode for the SEC, making full use of its wide range of legal powers; the SEC had four missions. First and most important was to restore investor confidence in the securities market, which had collapsed because of doubts about its internal integrity, fears of the external threats posed by anti-business elements in the Roosevelt administration. Second, in terms of integrity, the SEC had to get rid of the penny-ante swindles based on fake i