New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Christopher Rolleston was an English-born colonial public servant in Australia. Rolleston was born 27 July 1817 in Watnall, the second son of Rev. John Rolleston and Dorthy Burdette. A prominent colonial civil servant in New South Wales, Rolleston served as the Register-General of New South Wales. During his time as registrar general he was responsible for the launch of compulsory registration of births and marriages, he served in a range of previous roles including Commissioner of Crown Lands in the Darling Downs, private secretary to the Governor of New South Wales, Sir William Denison, as well as auditor-general. His commercial appointments included director, European Assurance Society, the Mercantile Bank of Sydney and the Australian Gas Light Company, a superannuation fund commissioner, he served as the president and a trustee of the Australian Club. For his lifelong service to colonial New South Wales he was appointed CMG in 1879; the Condition and Resources of New South Wales — A lecture delivered at Sydney, December 12, 1866.
Christopher Rolleston at the Australian Dictionary of Biography Works written by or about Christopher Rolleston at Wikisource Mennell, Philip. "Rolleston, Christopher". The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co – via Wikisource
An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, statutory records and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern. It attempts to ensure that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law. Auditing has become such a ubiquitous phenomenon in the corporate and the public sector that academics started identifying an "Audit Society"; the auditor perceives and recognises the propositions before them for examination, obtains evidence, evaluates the same and formulates an opinion on the basis of his judgement, communicated through their audit report. Any subject matter may be audited. Auditing is a safeguard measure since ancient times. Audits provide third party assurance to various stakeholders that the subject matter is free from material misstatement; the term is most applied to audits of the financial information relating to a legal person.
Other areas which are audited include: secretarial & compliance audit, internal controls, quality management, project management, water management, energy conservation. As a result of an audit, stakeholders may evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management and the governance process over the subject matter; the word audit is derived from a Latin word "audire" which means "to hear". During the medieval times when manual book-keeping was prevalent, auditors in Britain used to hear the accounts read out for them and checked that the organisation's personnel were not negligent or fraudulent. Moyer identified. Chatfield documented that early United States auditing was viewed as verification of bookkeeping detail. An information technology audit, or information systems audit, is an examination of the management controls within an Information technology infrastructure; the evaluation of obtained evidence determines if the information systems are safeguarding assets, maintaining data integrity, operating to achieve the organization's goals or objectives.
These reviews may be performed in conjunction with a financial statement audit, internal audit, or other form of attestation engagement. Due to strong incentives to misstate financial information, auditing has become a legal requirement for many entities who have the power to exploit financial information for personal gain. Traditionally, audits were associated with gaining information about financial systems and the financial records of a company or a business. Financial audits are performed to ascertain the validity and reliability of information, as well as to provide an assessment of a system's internal control; as a result of this, a third party can express an opinion of the person / organisation / system in question. The opinion given on financial statements will depend on the audit evidence obtained. Due to constraints, an audit seeks to provide only reasonable assurance that the statements are free from material error. Hence, statistical sampling is adopted in audits. In the case of financial audits, a set of financial statements are said to be true and fair when they are free of material misstatements – a concept influenced by both quantitative and qualitative factors.
But the argument that auditing should go beyond just true and fair is gaining momentum. And the US Public Company Accounting Oversight Board has come out with a concept release on the same. Cost accounting is a process for verifying the cost of manufacturing or producing of any article, on the basis of accounts measuring the use of material, labor or other items of cost. In simple words, the term, cost audit means a systematic and accurate verification of the cost accounts and records, checking for adherence to the cost accounting objectives. According to the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants, cost audit is "an examination of cost accounting records and verification of facts to ascertain that the cost of the product has been arrived at, in accordance with principles of cost accounting."In most nations, an audit must adhere to accepted standards established by governing bodies. These standards assure third parties or external users that they can rely upon the auditor's opinion on the fairness of financial statements or other subjects on which the auditor expresses an opinion.
The audit must therefore be accurate, containing no additional misstatements or errors. In the US, audits of publicly traded companies are governed by rules laid down by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, established by Section 404 of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002; such an audit is called an integrated audit, where auditors, in addition to an opinion on the financial statements, must express an opinion on the effectiveness of a company's internal control over financial reporting, in accordance with PCAOB Auditing Standard No. 5. There are new types of integrated auditing becoming available that use unified compliance material. Due to the increasing number of regulations and need for operational transparency, organizations are adopting risk-based audits that can cover multiple regulations and standards from a single audit event; this is a new but necessary approach in some sectors to ensure that all the necessary governance requirements can be met without duplicating effort from both audit and audit hosting resources.
The purpose of an assessment is to calculate a value for it. Although the process of producing an assessment may involve an audit
Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales. It is held by a coalition of the Liberal Party and the National Party; the Government of New South Wales, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, the federal law prevails; the New South Wales Constitution says: "The Legislature shall, subject to the provisions of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, have power to make laws for the peace and good government of New South Wales in all cases whatsoever."
The Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of New South Wales, which consists of the Crown, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, the two Houses, the New South Wales Legislative Council and the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers; the Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the formal repository of power, exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales and the Cabinet. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly.
Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of New South Wales and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Constitution Amendment Pledge of Loyalty Act 2006 No. 6 was enacted to amend the Constitution Act 1902 to require Members of the New South Wales Parliament and its Ministers to take a pledge of loyalty to Australia and to the people of New South Wales instead of swearing allegiance to the Queen her heirs and successors, to revise the oaths taken by Executive Councillors. The Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006; the following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, represented by the Governor of New South Wales. The government ministers are listed in order of seniority as listed on the Parliament of New South Wales website and were sworn on by the Governor with effect from 2 April 2019, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers.
All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales. List of New South Wales government agencies Local government areas of New South Wales New South Wales Ministry New South Wales Shadow Ministry Public Service Association of NSW Government of New South Wales website New South Wales Government Annual Reports and Other Publications The Constitution of New South Wales
Roads and Maritime Services
Roads and Maritime Services is an agency of the New South Wales Government responsible for building and maintaining road infrastructure and managing the day-to-day compliance and safety for roads and waterways. The agency was created on 1 November 2011 from a merger of the Roads & Traffic Authority and NSW Maritime. Planning responsibilities were transferred to Transport for NSW, created on the same day. In April 2019, it was revealed that the agency is to cease to exist with all of its functions transferred to Transport for NSW. Roads and Maritime Services manages 4,787 bridges and 17,623 km of state roads and highways, including 3,105 km of national highways, employs 6,900 staff in more than 180 offices throughout NSW, including 129 Motor Registries Offices. Roads and Maritime Services is responsible for the registration of vehicles and the issuing of driver licences in New South Wales, including testing and administering of licences. Additionally, RMS produces photo cards for identification of non-drivers and issues photographic firearms licences and security licences for the New South Wales Police Firearms Registry, Commercial Agents and Private Inquiry Agents cards and Mobility Parking Permits.
Within NSW, the Transport Management Centre is responsible for managing special events and unplanned incidents and disseminating information to motorists. It is the central point for identifying and directing the response to incidents such as crashes and spills, it passes on information to the public through the media, the RMS call centre and variable message signs along routes. In 1999 the NSW Transport Management Centre established Traffic Commander and Traffic Emergency Patrol services throughout the Greater Urban Area of Sydney to provide 24-hour 365-day-a-year coverage to "Manage the traffic arrangements around an incident scene and return the road to normal operating conditions with the utmost urgency."Traffic Commanders take command of traffic management arrangements at an incident and liaise with other response agencies such as the Police, assist in clearing the road and minimising the effects and disruption to traffic. Traffic Commanders exercise command and control of RMS resources at the outer perimeter with regard to traffic management such as the coordination of Traffic Emergency Patrols.
Traffic Emergency Patrols vans patrol major road routes and respond to unplanned incidents with the aim of returning the road to normal operating conditions as soon as possible. Both Traffic Commanders and TEP units carry a wide array of traffic management devices such as traffic cones, barrier boards and road signage. Both are permitted to use and display red and blue emergency lighting and are designated as'emergency vehicles'.'Role of the TMC' The current Memorandum of Understanding between various Government agencies in NSW states that the TMC has the following responsibilities:The TMC will: Coordinate RMS/TNSW Traffic Commanders or appropriate resources to incidents on the road network. Accept responsibility for traffic management from the incident inner perimeter or event perimeter into the rest of the road network. Clear the road and make it safe. Communicate traffic management arrangements to the media. Assist in the timely provision of heavy lift and other towing/salvage services to clear the road.
Provide close support to the Site Controller for traffic control within an incident outer perimeter. Develop and deploy Traffic Emergency Patrol teams for specific routes. Develop a joint framework and lead in the development of traffic management plans and incident response plans. Coordinate the response of specialised resources to support traffic management. At the request of Police or a Combat Agency, display warnings and alerts on the Variable Message Signs in accordance with approved guidelines; this may include warnings associated with floods. Assist in the conduct of Green Light Corridors As part of its duty to provide major road infrastructure, RMS is responsible for the provision of several car ferries; these ferries are all toll-free, include: Berowra Waters Ferry, across Berowra Waters Lawrence Ferry, across the Clarence River Mortlake Ferry, across the Parramatta River in Sydney Sackville Ferry, across the Hawkesbury River near the village of Sackville Speewa Ferry, across the Murray River between New South Wales and Victoria Ulmarra Ferry, across the Clarence River Webbs Creek Ferry, across the Hawkesbury River in the village of Wisemans Ferry Wisemans Ferry, across the Hawkesbury River in the village of Wisemans Ferry Wymah Ferry, across the Murray River between New South Wales and Victoria RMS is responsible for light operation in the following 13 lighthouses: Point Danger Lighthouse Fingal Head Light Ballina Head Light Evans Head Light Tacking Point Lighthouse Crowdy Head Light Point Stephens Light Norah Head Light Barrenjoey Head Lighthouse Kiama Light Warden Head Light Brush Island Light Burrewarra Point Light Key road building projects that Roads and Maritime Services are undertaking either directly, through contractors or via public/private partnerships, include: On-going completion of a four-lane dual carriageway of the Princes Highway from the Jervis Bay turnoff to link up with the Sydney Orbital Network near Mascot Pacific Highway Upgrade: On-going completion of the upgrading of the Pacific Highway to continuous dual carriageway standard between the Hexham and Tweed Heads, by 2020.
WestConnex and Sydney Gateway, by 2023 NorthConnex, by 2020 Western Harbour Tunnel & Beaches Link, by 2026 Western Sydney Airport Motorway, by 2026 Previously Roads and Maritime Services maintained separate offices, which were the most widespre
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was established. Due to its pivotal role in Australia's early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, its east–west axis runs from a chain of parkland that includes Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Farm Cove on Sydney Harbour in the east. At the 2016 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 17,252. "Sydney CBD" is occasionally used to refer not only to the CBD proper, but its nearby inner suburbs such as Pyrmont, Haymarket and Woolloomooloo. The Sydney CBD is Australia's main financial and economic centre, as well as a leading hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region.
The city centre employs 13% of the Sydney region's workforce. Based on industry mix and relative occupational wage levels it is estimated that economic activity generated in the city in 2015/16 was $118 billion. Culturally, the city centre is Sydney's focal point for entertainment, it is home to some of the city's most significant buildings and structures. The Sydney CBD is an area of densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by several parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Wynyard Park. George Street is the Sydney CBD's main north–south thoroughfare; the streets run on a warped grid pattern in the southern CBD, but in the older northern CBD the streets form several intersecting grids, reflecting their placement in relation to the prevailing breeze and orientation to Circular Quay in early settlement. The CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream.
Bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east -- west. Pitt Street is the retail heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall and the Sydney Tower. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House and the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Prior to European settlement in New South Wales, the area around Sydney was home to the Gadigal tribes of Indigenous Australians; the colony of New South Wales founded Sydney at the Rocks in 1788 and established a city in 1842. In the midst of World War 1, on Valentine's day, riots racked the CBD, in what has come to be known as the Central Station Riots of 1916. A substantial segment of the violence was concentrated in the Central area; these riots involved five thousand military recruits who refused to comply with extraneous parade orders. During the riots they caused significant damage to buildings. People with "foreign" names were targeted; the recruits clashed with soldiers. A number of eight people sustained injuries.
Because this incident occurred in the middle of the Great War the state discouraged media coverage. Only a fifth of the rioters were court-marshalled; these riots spurred the introduction of lockout laws for pubs after 6pm. This law was only lifted in 1955; the Sydney central business district has many heritage-listed buildings including: Administratively, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, in particular through the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. Independent Alex Greenwich has represented the Sydney seat since the 2012 by-election, triggered by the resignation of previous independent Clover Moore, the Lord Mayor of Sydney, due to introduced state laws preventing dual membership of state parliament and local council; the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies.
The financial services industry in particular occupies much of the available office space, with companies such as the Westpac, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Deutsche Bank, Macquarie Bank, AMP Limited, Insurance Australia Group, AON, Allianz, HSBC, AXA, ABN Amro, RBC and Bloomsbury Publishing all having offices. Church Hill is a northerly district in the Central Business district of Australia, it is so named because the earliest churches in Australia were formed on this site, including St Patrick's, St Philip's and Scots Church The significance of Church Hill dates back to the time of Governor Arthur Phillip, who mandated compulsory Sunday church attendance for all convicts, until they rebelled and burned down the area’s first church in 1798. The area gained greater prominence as Church Hill on Wednesday 1 October 1800, when incoming Governor Philip Gidley King had the foundation stone laid for St Philip’s Church, which subsequently he proclaimed one of Australia’s first two parishes in 1802.
The site where St Patrick’s Church stands is where the Roman Catholic Eucharist was first preserved in Australia, in May 1818. Celebrations for the bicentenary of this occasion were held in St Patrick’s Church on Sunday 6 May 2018. A proposed stop on the tram network under construction on George Street may be named Church Hill. Sydney's CBD is serviced by commuter rail, light