Chaplain of His Holiness
A Chaplain of His Holiness is a priest to whom the Pope has granted this title. They are addressed as Monsignor and have certain privileges with respect to ecclesiastical dress, lower ranks of Privy Chamberlains were abolished, making Chaplain of His Holiness the first of the three ranks of Monsignor. The role of Chaplain of His Holiness dates to the time of Pope Urban VIII, such Chaplains have provided unpaid service since the pontificate of Pope Pius VI. Once the candidate has passed all the requirements, a rescript is drawn up by the Secretariat of State attesting to their promotion to this ecclesiastical rank. The members of the chapters of one church in Rome and the cathedral in Lodi hold this title durante munere, the title no longer expires but requires renewal on the death of the Pope who granted it
A papal legate or Apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters, the legate is appointed directly by the pope. The term legation is applied both to a mandate and to the territory concerned. In the High Middle Ages, papal legates were often used to strengthen the links between Rome and the parts of Christendom. More often than not, legates were learned men and skilled diplomats who were not from the country they were accredited to. The Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as legate to England in the early 13th century. Papal legates often summoned legatine councils, which dealt with church government, during the Middle Ages, a legatine council was the usual means that a papal legate imposed his directives. There are several ranks of papal legates in diplomacy, some of which are no longer used, a nuncio performs the same functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges.
Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party and this highest rank is normally awarded to a priest of cardinal rank. It is an investiture and can either be focused or broad in scope. The legate a latere is the ego of the Pope. The legatus natus would act as the representative in his province. Although limited in their jurisdiction compared to legati a latere, a legatus natus were not subordinate to them, literally sent legate, possessing limited powers for the purpose of completing a specific mission. This commission is normally focused in scope and of short duration, some administrative provinces of the Papal states in Italy were governed by a Papal Legate. This has been the case in Benevento, in Pontecorvo and in Viterbo, in four cases, including Bologna, this post was awarded exclusively to Cardinals, the Velletri post was created for Bartolommeo Pacca. The title could be changed to Apostolic Delegate, as happened in Frosinone in 1827, Papal diplomacy Nuncio – an envoy whose diplomatic status is recognized by the receiving state – usually a titular archbishop.
Papal apocrisiarius List of papal legates to England Other Pontifical legate Catholic Encyclopedia, Legate WorldStatesmen - Italy to 1860 - Papal State Maseri, de Legatis et Nunciis Apostolicis Iudiciis Ecclesiasticis Civilibus et Criminalibus Oneribusque Civitatum Cameralibus et Communitativis. Commentatio Canoncia de Legatis et Nuntiis Pontificum, die englische Legation des Cardinals Guido Fulcodi, des spaeteren P. Clemens IV
Before the establishment of patriarchs, metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church. They presided over synods of bishops, and were granted privileges by canon law. The Early Church structure generally followed the Roman imperial practice, with one bishop ruling each city, the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province, called suffragans. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops, the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds even if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see and it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, and determine the agenda. It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council, no provincial council can be called if the metropolitan see is vacant.
As of April 2006,508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops,27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, see Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, similarly, a metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province. The metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province, a major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only slightly from that regarding a patriarchal Church, there are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops, in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are generally designated as archbishops.
In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence, some Eastern Orthodox Churches have functioning metropolitans on the middle level of church administration. In Romanian Orthodox Church there are six regional metropolitans who are the chairmen of their respective synods of bishops, for example, Metropolitan of Oltenia has regional jurisdiction over four dioceses. On the other hand, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches title of metropolitan is only honorary, in Serbian Orthodox Church, honorary title of metropolitan is given to diocesan bishops of some important historical sees. For example, diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral is given the title of metropolitan. Diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Dabar-Bosnia is given the title of metropolitan. Non-canonical Eastern Orthodox Churches generally use metropolitan title according to traditions of usage in Churches from which they were split
The concepts of multifaith, generic and/or humanist chaplaincy are gaining increasing support, particularly within healthcare and educational settings. School chaplains are a fixture in religious and, more recently, in religious schools the role of the chaplain tends to be educational and liturgical. In secular schools the role of the chaplain tends to be that of a mentor, Chaplains provide care for students by supporting them during times of crisis or need. Many chaplains run programs to promote the welfare of students and parents including programs to help deal with grief. Chaplains build relationships with students by participating in extra activities such as breakfast programs, lunchtime groups. School chaplains can liaise with external organisations providing support services for the school, with stagnant incomes and rising prices putting pressure on independent school budgets, cutting the post of school chaplain can seem an easy saving. In Australia chaplains in schools have, been funded by the federal government.
Australian chaplains assist school communities to support the spiritual, Chaplaincy services are provided by non denominational companies. As of August 2013 there are 2339 chaplains working in Australian secular schools, similarly, in Scotland the focus of school chaplaincy is on welfare and building positive relationships joining students on excursions and sharing meals. Chaplains are non-denominational and act as a link between the community and society. Like Australian chaplains it is expected that they will not proselytise, in Ireland chaplaincy takes a very different approach in which chaplains are expected to teach up to four hours of class instruction per week and are usually Catholic. Chaplaincy duties include visiting homes, religious services and celebrations, Chaplains often oversee programs on campus that foster spiritual, ethical and political and cultural exchange, and the promotion of service. Each day communities respond to disasters or emergencies. Most often, these incidents are managed effectively at the local level, there are some incidents that may require a collaborative approach that includes personnel from,1.
A combination of specialties or disciplines,3, Chaplain Fellowship Disaster Response certifies first responder chaplain for crisis and disaster response. At the scene of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, for example, New York City Fire Department Chaplain Fr. Judge was killed by flying debris from the South Tower when he re-entered the lobby of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, environmental chaplaincy is an emerging field within chaplaincy. Environmental chaplains provide spiritual care in a way that honors humanitys deep connection to the earth, environmental chaplains may bear witness to the Earth itself and represent the merging of science and spirituality
A curate is a person who is invested with the care or cure of souls of a parish. In this sense curate correctly means a parish priest, but in English-speaking countries the term curate is used to describe clergy who are assistants to the parish priest. The duties or office of a curate are called a curacy, the term is derived from the Latin curatus. In other languages, derivations from curatus may be used differently, in French, the curé is the chief priest of a parish, as is the Italian curato, the Spanish cure, and the Filipino term kura pároko, which is derived from Spanish. In the Catholic Church, the English word curate is used for a priest assigned to a parish in a subordinate to that of the parish priest. The parish priest is the priest who has responsibility for the parish. He may be assisted by one or more priests, referred to as curates, assistant priests. In the Church of England today, curate refers to priests who are in their first post after ordination, once in possession of their benefices and vicars enjoyed a freehold, and could only be removed after due legal process, and for a restricted number of reasons.
Perpetual curates were placed on a footing in 1838 and were commonly styled vicars. Clergy who assist the curate were, and are, properly called assistant curates, a house provided for an assistant curate is sometimes colloquially called a curatage. Assistant curates are licensed by the bishop, but only at the request of the curate, for example, Geoffrey Francis Fisher served as Curate of Trent near Sherborne after retiring as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1961. With the 1968 Pastoral Measure and subsequent legislation, the Church of England has undergone a process of reform which still continues today. Ministers in the Church of England whose main income comes from sources other than their work as clergy may be termed Self Supporting Ministers or Curate. Terms like rector and curate were carried overseas with the spread of Anglicanism, in Anglican parishes with a Charismatic or evangelical tradition, the roles of curates are usually seen as being an assistant leader to the overall leader, often in a larger team of pastoral leaders.
Many of the larger Charismatic and Evangelical parishes have larger ministry teams with a number of leaders, some ordained. Originally a bishop would entrust a priest with the cure of souls of a parish, when, in medieval Europe, this included the legal freehold of church land in the parish, the parish priest was a perpetual curate, an assistant would be a curate. The words perpetuus and temporalis distinguish their appointments but not the length of service, a curate is appointed by the parish priest and paid from parish funds. A perpetual curate is a priest in charge of a parish who was appointed, as the church became more embedded into the fabric of feudal Europe, various other titles often supplanted curate for the parish priest
Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, refers to the leader of an administrative area. A prefects office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, the words prefect and prefecture are used, more or less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages, especially Romance languages. They did have authority in their prefecture such as controlling prisons. The Praetorian prefect began as the commander of a generals guard company in the field. From the Emperor Diocletians tetrarchy they became the administrators of the four Praetorian prefectures, Praefectus urbi, or praefectus urbanus, city prefect, in charge of the administration of Rome. Praefectus vigilum, commander of the Vigiles, Praefectus aerarii, nobles appointed guardians of the state treasury. Praefectus aerarii militaris, prefect of the military treasury Praefectus annonae, Praefectus alae, commander of a cavalry unit. Praefectus cohortis, commander of a cohort, Praefectus fabrum, officer in charge of fabri, i. e. well-trained engineers and artisans.
Praefectus legionis agens vice legati, equestrian acting legionary commander, Praefectus orae maritimae, official in charge with the control and defense of an important sector of sea coast. Praefectus socium, Roman officer appointed to a function in an ala sociorum. For some auxiliary troops, specific titles could even refer to their peoples, less important provinces though were entrusted to prefects, military men who would otherwise only govern parts of larger provinces. The most famous example is Pontius Pilate, who governed Judaea at a time when it was administered as an annex of Syria, septimius Severus, after conquering Mesopotamia, introduced the same system there too. Praefectus urbi, a prefect of the era who guarded the city during the annual sacrifice of the Latin. His former title was custos urbi, especially in Medieval Latin, præfectus was used to refer to various officers—administrative, judicial, etc. —usually alongside a more precise term in the vernacular. The term is used by the Roman Catholic Church, which based much of its canon law terminology on Roman law, the Roman Curia has the nine Prefects of all the Congregations as well as the two of the Papal Household and of the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.
The title attaches to the heads of some Pontifical Council, who are titled president. For example, the president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue is the prefect of the Commission for Religious Relations with Muslims, traditionally these Curial officials are Cardinals, hence often called Cardinal-Prefect or Cardinal-President. There was a custom that those who were not cardinals when they were appointed were titled Pro-Prefect or Pro-President, these officials would be appointed prefect or president after their elevation to the Sacred College
A vicar general is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority and possesses the title of local ordinary. The title normally occurs only in Western Christian churches, such as the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, the title for the equivalent officer in the Eastern churches is protosyncellus. The term is used by religious orders of men in a similar manner. In the Catholic Church, a bishop must appoint at least one vicar general for his diocese. The vicar general by virtue of office is the agent in administration. Vicars general must be priests, auxiliary bishops, or coadjutor bishops—if a coadjutor bishop exists for a diocese, other auxiliary bishops are usually appointed vicars general or at least episcopal vicars. A vicar general is an ordinary and, as such, acquires his powers by virtue of office. He is to possess a doctorate or at least a licentiate in law or theology or be truly expert in these fields. These might include issues concerning religious institutes or the faithful of a different rite and these too must be priests or auxiliary bishops.
The equivalent officer in the Eastern Churches is called the syncellus, priests appointed as vicars general or episcopal vicars are freely appointed or removed by the diocesan bishop, and are appointed for a fixed duration. They lose their office when the term expires, or when the see falls vacant. Auxiliary bishops may be removed from the office of vicar general, an auxiliary bishop who is an episcopal vicar, or a coadjutor bishop who is vicar general, may only be removed from office for a grave reason. A coadjutor bishop has the right of succession, so if the see falls vacant he becomes the bishop immediately. These offices should not be confused with the vicar forane or dean/archpriest, the appointment of a vicar general is a useful tool for a diocesan bishop who has additional functions attached to his episcopate. The most notable example is in the diocese of Rome, the Vicar General of Rome serves the same role for the suburbicarian diocese of Ostia, the traditional see of the Dean of the College of Cardinals, since it was merged with the diocese of Rome.
The Vicar General of Rome, who is normally a cardinal, the current Vicar General of Rome is Cardinal Agostino Vallini. A similar example is found in the United States and this had the status of an apostolic vicariate, and functioned as the equivalent of a diocese defined by quality rather than by geography. The archbishop had two separate administrations and two sets of vicars general to manage each and this arrangement ended with the establishment of the wholly separate Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA
A pastor is usually an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, the term may be abbreviated to Pr or Ps, a pastor gives advice and counsel to people from the community or congregation. The word pastor derives from the Latin noun pastor which means shepherd and relates to the Latin verb pascere - to lead to pasture, set to grazing, cause to eat. The term pastor relates to the role of elder within the New Testament, many Protestant churches call their ministers pastors. Present-day usage of the word is rooted in the Biblical image of shepherding, the Hebrew Bible uses the Hebrew word רעה. English-language translations of the New Testament usually render the Greek noun ποιμήν as shepherd, the two words occur a total of 29 times in the New Testament, most frequently referring to Jesus. For example, Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd in John 10,11, the same words in the familiar Christmas story refer to literal shepherds. 1 Corinthians 9,7 - Paul says, of himself and the apostles, in the United States, the term pastor is used by Catholics for what in other English-speaking countries is called a parish priest.
The Latin term used in the Code of Canon Law is parochus, the parish priest is the proper clergyman in charge of the congregation of the parish entrusted to him. Many Protestants use the term pastor as a title or as a job title, United Methodists, for example, ordain to the office of deacon and elder, each of whom can use the title of pastor depending upon their job description. These pastors may be lay people, seminary students, or seminary graduates in the ordination process, and cannot exercise any functions of clergy outside the charge where they are appointed. The use of the pastor can be regional in some denominations, including some parts of the Methodist, Seventh-day Adventist, American Churches of Christ. The use of the pastor to refer to the common Protestant title of modern times dates to the days of John Calvin. Both men, and other Reformers, seem to have revived the term to replace the Catholic priest in the minds of their followers, the pastor was considered to have a role separate from the board of presbyters.
In some Lutheran churches, ordained clergy are called priests, while in others the term pastor is preferred, ordained clergy are called priests in the Episcopal Church, as in all other branches of the Anglican Communion. Bercot, David W. Will The Real Heretics Please Stand Up, newAdvent. org, The Catholic Encyclopedias entry on the term pastor. LifeWay. com, Articles to help the pastor in the roles of preacher, leader and person
An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations, an acolyte is anyone who performs duties such as lighting altar candles. In others, the term is used for one who has been inducted into a particular liturgical ministry, the word acolyte is derived from the Greek word ἀκόλουθος, meaning an attendant, via Late Latin acolythus. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches, the nearest equivalent of acolyte is the altar server, at one time there was a rank of minor clergy called the taper-bearer responsible for bearing lights during processions and liturgical entrances. However, this rank has long ago been subsumed by that of the reader, the functions of an acolyte or taper-bearer are therefore carried out by readers, subdeacons, or by non-tonsured men or boys who are sometimes called acolytes informally. Also, the term altar-boys is often used to refer to young altar servers, subdeacons wear their normal vestments consisting of the sticharion and crossed orarion and servers traditionally wear the sticharion alone.
In recent times, however, in many of the North American Greek Orthodox Churches, for the sake of uniformity, readers do not cross the orarion while wearing it, the uncrossed orarion being intended to slightly distinguish a reader from a subdeacon. In the Russian tradition, readers wear only the sticharion, if a server has not been tonsured, he must remove the sticharion before he can receive Holy Communion. In the early church, a taper-bearer was not permitted to enter the sanctuary, however, servers are permitted to go in, but they are not permitted either to touch the Holy Table or the Table of Oblation. Until 1972, the acolyte was the holder of the highest of four minor orders, by Pope Paul VIs motu proprio Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972, the term minor orders has been replaced by that of ministries. Two such ministries, those of reader and acolyte, are to be throughout the Latin Church. A prescribed interval, as decided by the Holy See and the episcopal conference, is to be observed between receiving them.
Candidates for diaconate and for priesthood must receive both ministries and exercise them for time before receiving holy orders. The two ministries are not reserved solely for candidates for orders, but can be conferred- in their formal, institutional permanent form- only on men. The ministries are conferred by the ordinary, either a bishop or, in the case of religious institutes. The motu proprio assigned to the acolyte the functions previously reserved for the subdeacon, the functions of the acolyte are specified in the motu proprio, and have been indicated in the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, no. 98, which says, The acolyte is instituted to serve at the altar and to assist the priest and deacon. In particular, it is his responsibility to prepare the altar, in the ministry of the altar, the acolyte has his own functions, which he must perform personally
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see