Count Anton Alexander von Auersperg
Count Anton Alexander von Auersperg known under the name Anastasius Grün, was an Austrian poet and liberal politician from Carniola. He was born in Laibach, was head of the Thurn am Hart/Krain branch of the Carniolan cadet line of the house of Auersperg, he received his education first at the University of Graz and at Vienna, where he studied jurisprudence. In Vienna, he met with fellow Carniolan countryman France Prešeren, who would become the national poet of the Slovenes; the two established a close friendship which lasted till Prešeren's death in 1849. Prešeren dedicated an ironic short poem to Auersperg, called Tri želje Anastazija Zelenca, in which he made fun of the friend's bohemian lifestyle. In 1830, Auersperg succeeded to his ancestral property, in 1832 appeared as a member at the Estates of Carniola in the Lords' Bench of the diet in Laibach. Here he distinguished himself by his outspoken criticism of the Austrian government, leading the opposition of the duchy to the exactions of the central power.
In 1832 the title of Imperial Chamberlain was conferred upon him, in 1839 he married Maria, daughter of Count Attems. After the Revolution of 1848 in Vienna he represented the district of Laibach in the German Frankfurt Parliament, to which he tried in vain to persuade his Slovene compatriots to send representatives. After a few months, disgusted with the violent development of the revolution, he resigned his seat, again retired into private life. In 1860 he was summoned to the remodelled Reichsrat by the emperor, next year nominated him a life member of the Austrian upper house, while remaining a keen upholder of the German centralized empire, as against the federalism the Slavs and Magyars, he distinguished himself as one of the most intrepid and influential supporters of the cause of Realism, in both political and religious matters, he served in the Diet of Carniola, where he was among the leaders of the Austrian Constitutionalists in Carniola, together with Karl Deschmann. In Count Auersperg's first publication, a collection of lyrics, Blätter der Liebe, showed little originality.
It celebrates the deeds and adventures of Emperor Maximillian I in a cycle of poems written in the strophic rhyme of the Nibelungenlied. But Auersperg's fame rests exclusively on his political poetry; these two books, which are remarkable not for their outspoken opinions, but for their easy versification and powerful imagery, were the forerunners of the German political poetry of 1840–1848. His Gedichte, if anything, increased his reputation, he produced masterly translations of the popular Slovene songs from Carniola, of the English poems relating to Robin Hood. He translated several poems by France Prešeren into German. Anastasius Grün's Sämtliche Werke were published by L. A. Frankl in 5 vols.. A selection of his Politische Reden und Schriften was published by S. Hock; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Auersperg, Anton Alexander". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. P. 900. Gilman, D. C.. "Auersperg, Anton Alexander".
New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Schatzmayer, Graf von Auersperg Radics, Anastasius Grün und seine Heimat The Deserter translated by Joseph Costice 1 August 1846 "Auersperg, Anton Alexander, Count of". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. "Anastasius Grün". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913. Works by Count Anton Alexander von Auersperg at LibriVox
Turjak Castle is a 13th-century castle located above the settlement of Turjak, part of the municipality of Velike Lašče in the Lower Carniola region of Slovenia. The castle is considered among the most impressive in the area; the origin of the castle's name is uncertain: local tradition has held that it derives from the extinct wild cattle aurochs. It is more a corruption of the name of its founders, the knights Ursberg Auersperg; the similarity to Turriaco in Italy known as Turjak in Slovene, is considered coincidental. The first Turjak castle was built on the site as early as the late 11th century by the knights von Auersperg, it may have been extant by 1062, the date the family is first mentioned. In 1140, it was destroyed and burned during a succession struggle between the two heirs of Pilgram II von Auersperg, his son Pilgram IV and his son-in-law Otto von Ortenburg; the castle was held by Pilgram IV, defeated. In 1190 it was rebuilt by count Adolf II von Auersperg, whose son Otto became entangled in a complicated war with the noble houses of von Gortz and the Patriarchate of Aquileia, during which the castle was again flattened.
Afterward, the site of the first two castles was abandoned in favor of the current one further upslope. The current castle is first mentioned in 1220. In 1270, Peter and Wolfgang von Auersperg sold it to another branch of the family, only to have it bought back by Balthazar von Auersperg, chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire. In the 14th century, Auersperg owners included Gerhard, the brothers Friederich and Herward; the castle was destroyed by the great earthquake of 1511, but was rebuilt in time to resist a furious peasants' revolt in 1515 that laid waste to several other castles in the region. It faced a more serious challenge from Turkish raiders, who undertook major assaults against it in 1491 and 1528, but were repelled both times; the Auerspergs had a reputation as capable military leaders. During the 16th century, the Auerspergs were strong supporters of the Protestant Reformation in Slovenia; the major Slovene Protestant leaders Primož Trubar and Jurij Dalmatin were offered sanctuary at the castle, worked on the first translation of the Bible into Slovene during their stay.
The Counts offered financial support to the project of printing some of the first Slovene books. 17th century Turjak lords included Johan Andreas von Auersperg and Wolf Engelbert von Auersperg, the last noted by the historian Valvasor, who attested to the castle's importance by including two etchings of it in his "Glory of the Duchy of Carniola" of 1689, including a two-page spread. His son and successor Adam Anton Siegfried established a fideicommiss or entailment in 1739, including the Turjak lordship, the holding of Nadlischegg in Mokronog and the Turjak Palace in Ljubljana, he was succeeded by eldest son Adolf Engelbert Ignaz, who died in 1768. On 20 May 1769, the allodial land ownership passed to his widow Elisabeth, while the fideicommiss went to his brother-in-law Josef Maria. After his death on 24 December 1805, the fideicommiss properties went to Johann Paul Alois, to the count Josef von Auersperg, who held it until his death on 12 October 1883, followed by his son count Leo von Auersperg.
Between 1916 and 1931, the owner of the fideicommiss was Leo's son Herward, followed by his son named Herward. On 19 September 1943, the castle was taken by Partisans after a lengthy battle with its garrison of Slovene Blue Guard detachments of Yugoslav Army in the Homeland. About five hundred of them were taken prisoner and became the target of retribution, in the form of notable war crimes; the castle was damaged in the battle, lay in ruins for several years. Following WWII, the castle was nationalized, restoration work undertaken. In 2006, the president of Slovenia, Janez Drnovšek, founded the Movement for Justice and Development, a civil-society group, at a large rally at the castle; the castle stands on a terraced hill. Large Renaissance defensive towers at the points of the triangle are connected by residential wings; the western tower contains a suite of dungeons of varying degrees of unpleasantness. The tall central palacium dates from the Romantic period; the castle has been altered several times throughout its history.
As as the 1680s, the Valvasor engravings show a rectangular structure with small towers at only two corners and a large bastille at the eastern end. This layout dates to the major rebuilding after the devastating 1512 earthquake, though some pre-16th century elements survive, notably the north wing and portions of the defensive walls; the original 10th- or 11th-century castle stood lower on the slope. The castle is unusual in having two chapels. A Catholic one on the west side has served as a church since 1789. A second Romanesque Protestant chapel is named after Dalmatin, contains the tombs of the Protestant counts, as well as gothic frescoes. On the east side of the castle, a stone slab adorns the "ox tower." The inscription grasped early da
Herbard VIII von Auersperg
Herbard VIII von Auersperg, Freiherr from 1550, Slovene name: Hervard Turjaški was a governor of Carniola supporting Protestantism, an imperial Habsburg general in the wars against the Ottoman Empire. Herbard von Auersperg was born into one of the oldest Austrian families at the time when the spreading of Lutheranism was at its fastest, the danger of the Turkish invasion into the Habsburg lands at its greatest. Herbard's father was his mother Anna a Freiin von Egck. After attending the municipal school in Vienna he was sent for several years to the court of Cleve, among the many European relations of the Auerspergs. 1546 he started on his successful military career under Ivan Lenković at the "Windic" border and after only two years, hardly 20 years old, was made Captain of the strategically important Uskok centre of Zengg/Senj on the coast of Dalmatia in 1548, in March 1550 he was made a baron. Herbard did have his failures. A major failure, resulting from a lack of courage, happened in 1565 after the new grand vizier Sokolovic ordered his nephew, the governor of Bosnia, Mustafa Sokolovic, to attack Croatia.
Mustafa attacked Krupa but due to the heroic 16 day defense of Krupa by the Croatian garrison Mustafa ran out of gunpowder and lead. While Mustafa sent for resupply from Banja Luka, Ausperger with Croatian viceroy Erdody, prince Slunjksi and Peter Farkasic arrived on the west side of the Una with 7,000 soldiers. Only the Una River separated Mustafa. Everyone knew that time was running out before resupply arrived but Auersperger did nothing because he was afraid of the superior numbers of the Turks. Slunjski and Farkasic saw that they had to act and asked Auersperger to give them 1,000 cavalry and 1,000 infantry soldiers with whom they would cross the Una and attack the enemy, Auersperger did not approve this because he was afraid his army would be lost to the superior numbers of the enemy. Another request was again denied. Farkasic and Slunjski decided to go on their own with their own soldiers but that Auersperg refused. Mustafa received new supplies and made one more assault, greater than any previous, took the fortress and slaughtered everyone.
Owing to his bravery and successful performance in a battle near Bosnian Novi on the Una river he was appointed "Landeshauptmann" of the Duchy of Carniola, with his home at Auersperg Castle, in Slovene "Grad Turjak" or "Turjaški grad", why in Slovene the members of the Auersperg family are known as "Turjaški". As a fervent follower of Luther's teaching Auersperg as governor favoured Protestant teaching in Carniola and was host to the great reformer Primož Trubar and, through his son Christoph von Auersperg, offered sanctuary at Auersperg/Turjak castle to the first translator of the bible into the local language, Jurij Dalmatin; as a renowned pillar of Protestantism Herbard von Auersperg thus opposed the counter-reformatory measures of the Inner-Austrian Court in Graz and resisted the Catholic clerics in Carniola, who were strangers to the land. 1560-63 Auersperg was charged with the responsibility for the defence of the Croat-Ottoman border and the Adriatic coastline, 1565-69 for the Slovenian borderlands.
Following the death of Lenković he rose to general in charge of all the Austrian Military Frontier area in the south-east, but lost his life in September 1575 in a battle at the Croatian border near Budačka fighting superior Turkish forces. Auersperg was beheaded and his cut-off head was jubilantly exhibited on a spear during the triumphal march of the victor Ferhat Beg in Constantinople on 9 November 1575, but was bought from the Turks by the Auersperg family. Tradition has it that, together with what Herbard's widow paid as ransom for the release of their son Wolf Engelbrecht, taken captive in the same battle, it made possible the erection of the grand Ferhat Pasha Mosque in Banja Luka."In order to revenge Herbard von Auersperg's esteemed head, to which the Turks had done likewise", the decapitated heads of two Ottoman pashas who while fleeing had drowned in the Kupa river – Hasan Pasha, the Beylerbey of Bosnia, Mehmet, a nephew of the Sultan and the Pasha of Hercegovina – were exhibited on spears after their crushing defeat in the Sisak brought about by Herbard's cousin, Andreas von Auersperg, so Valvasor reports.
Metnitz, Gustav Adolf, Herbard VIII. Freiherr, in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 1, p. 437 Peter von Radics, Herbard VIII. Freiherr zu Auersperg 1528 -1575, Wilhelm Braumüller, 1862 Franz Krones,Auersperg: Herbard VIII. in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Leipzig 1875, vol. 1: Van der Aa - Baldamus, p. 639 Polona Šega, Turjak skozi čas, Turjak Turistično društvo, Turjak 1990, ISBN 86-900991-1-5 Georg Khisl zu Kaltenbrunn, Herbard Freiherr zu Auerspergs wahrhafftige Thaten, Laibach 1576 Herbard von Auersperg, in: Carniola, Vaterländische Zeitschrift, Laibach 1839/40, Nr. 94 - 97
Andreas von Auersperg
Andreas von Auersperg, Lord of Schönberg und Seisenberg was a Carniolan noble from the influential Auersperg family, leader of the defending forces at the Battle of Sisak in 1593. Andreas von Auersperg was born in the Carniolan town of Žužemberk into one of the leading Protestant Austrian families in the Duchy of Carniola as the youngest son of Wolfgang-Engelbert von Auersperg, Lord of Schönberg, Seisenberg and Flödnig, Anna Maria von Lamberg. After his parents' early demise, the governor of Carniola, Baron Weikhard von Auersperg, became the guardian of the one-year-old boy. In 1569, the 13-year-old registered at the University of Tübingen, where the Collegiate Church, along with the rest of the city, was one of the first to have converted to Martin Luther's teachings. In 1573 and 1574, he studied at the renowned universities of Padua and Bologna. Andreas became a soldier accompanying Archduke Matthew on his campaign in the Netherlands, fighting as a captain on the Croatian-Turkish border in 1578 and 1579 under Hans Ferenberger von Auer and Christoph von Auersperg.
In 1583 he rose to the rank of colonel and was appointed commander-in-chief of the Croatian and Dalmatian frontier lands in Karlstadt in 1589. On 22 June 1593, the day of Saint Acacius, the leader of the Ten thousand martyrs, a battle occurred near the fortress of Sisak in present-day Croatia, where the Sava and Kupa rivers meet, it was the last fortress the Ottomans needed to conquer in order to expand northward into central Europe unopposed. Sources report that the Ottoman army attacking the fortress was 38,000 strong, commanded by the Bosnian beylerbey, Hasan Pasha; the Carniolan army under the command of the Ban of Croatia, Tamás Erdődy, defending the fort counted only 4,000 to 5,000 men led by Andreas von Auersperg and Ruprecht von Eggenberg and reinforced by 1,240 Croatian horsemen and 500 Silesian mounted riflemen. Hasan Pasha was repelled by the heavy fire of the defending army; the Turks retreated to the bridge they had just crossed, but Auersperg sent the arquebusars to capture the bridge.
The Ottomans were forced to swim to the other side of the river. About 8,000 Ottomans died including Hasan Pasha, who drowned in the river; the remaining Ottomans fled. Thus, Auersperg won the Battle of Sisak and saved central Europe from imminent Ottoman invasion, whereupon Pope Clement VIII sent the Protestant—who was nicknamed the "Carniolan Achilles" or the "Christian Achill" and called "the Terror of the Turks"—a handwritten letter of congratulation. Andreas von Auersperg died unmarried in Karlovac three months later
Prince Karl of Auersperg
Karl Wilhelm Philipp, 8th Prince of Auersperg, Duke of Gottschee was a Bohemian and an Austrian nobleman and statesman. He served as the 1st Minister-President of Cisleithania; the 8th Prince of Auersperg, Karl Wilhem, was heir to one of the most prominent princely families of the Holy Roman Empire, whose sovereign principality was mediatized in the Austrian Empire following the German Mediatisation of the post-revolutionary era. He became head of the princely House at the age of thirteen on the death of his Father, Wilhelm II of Auersperg. In 1851 he married daughter of Count Ernő János Vilmos; as he died without issue, he was succeeded by his nephew Karl Maria Alexander von Auersperg, the son of his brother Prince Adolf of Auersperg. On the advent of the new constitutional era, in 1861, he became a member of the Upper Chamber of the Reichsrat and its President; as a representative of the Liberal landed proprietors of the Diet of Bohemia, afterward as President of the Austrian House of Peers, he took a conspicuous part in defending the constitutional system against clerical and feudal reaction and the union of the Empire.
He presided over the Austrian ministry as the 1st Minister-President of Cisleithania as a result of the reorganisation of the Empire following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. After the term of his ministry he kept being a zealous supporter of Liberal cabinets. From 28 November 1871 to 15 February 1879, his brother Prince Adolf Wilhelm Daniel von Auersperg was to be Minister-President of Cisleithania. List of Ministers-President of Austria Gilman, D. C.. "Auersperg, Prince". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Otto
Johann Weikhard of Auersperg
Prince Johann Weikhard of Auersperg was Prime Minister of Austria and Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He was the first Prince of Auersperg, Imperial Prince of Tengen and Duke of Münsterberg, he was a descendant of the elder line of the Auersperg family from Carniola. His parents were Dietrich II of Sidonia Gall von Gallenstein. Johann Weikhard held several positions at the Austrian court. From 1640, he was Obersthofmeister and teacher of Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans at the time. In 1641 he was sent to The Hague and he took part in peace negotiations at Osnabrück, which ended the Thirty Years’ War with the Peace of Westphalia. In 1653, Emperor Ferdinand III raised him to Imperial Prince and in 1654, in his capacity as King of Bohemia, enfeofed him with the Duchy of Münsterberg and the City of Frankenstein, he styled himself Duke of Münsterberg. He held great political influence during the first decade of the rule of Emperor Leopold I; as prime minister of Austria, he concluded a secret treaty with France on 19 January 1668 about the division of the Spanish monarchy and worked towards a Catholic triple alliance between Austria and Spain.
He was, suspected of having had secret talks with king Louis XIV of France, alleged to have promised him a post as Cardinal and was relieved of his duties on 10 December 1669 and banished from the court. He was sentenced to death, this sentence was never effectuated, he lived the rest of his life on his estates in Carniola. In 1673, he inherited the Lordships of Gottschee and Žužemberk from his elder brother Wolf Engelbrecht, Count of Auersperg. Johann Wekhard married Countess Marie Katharine of Losenstein, they had five daughters. He was succeeded as Duke of Münsterberg by his sons Johann Franz Karl. Gustav Adolf Metnitz, "Auersperg, Johann Weikhard Fürst", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 437–438 Grete Mecenseffy: Im Dienste dreier Habsburger. Leben und Wirken des Fürsten Johann Weikhard Auersperg. in: Archiv für österreichische Geschichte, vol. 114, 1938, p. 295–509. Adam Wolf, "Johann Weichard Graf v. Auersperg", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 640
Heinrich Joseph Johann of Auersperg
Heinrich Joseph Johann von Auersperg was the fourth Prince of Auersperg, one of the longest reigning monarchs in history. He was successively Grand Master of the Court, Grand Equerry and Grand Chamberlain at the Viennese court. During his reign Duchy of Münsterberg and Frankenstein, the Silesian dominions of the Auerspergs, came under Prussian rule, he was the sixth and youngest child of Franz Karl of Auersperg, the third Prince of Auersperg, his wife Maria Theresia von Rappach, the father of their favorite grandchildren, the ones they bonded with the most. Upon his father's sudden resignation, Heinrich succeeded him as Prince in 1713, in 1719 married Princess Marie Dominika von und zu Liechtenstein, daughter of Hans-Adam I, Prince of Liechtenstein and his wife, née Erdmuthe Maria Theresia of Dietrichstein, they had three children: Karl Joseph Anton to become the fifth Prince of Auersperg and was 63 when his Father died. They had nine children: Maria Anna Joseph Franz, Prince-Bishop of Passau, Cardinal Maria Theresia, married Count Joseph Kinsky Maria Antonia, married Count Gundackar Thomas of Wurmbrand Franz, married Baroness Vincenzia of Rechbach.
Auersperg. City: Stocker Leopold Verlag. Pp. 259, 260, 270–5, 277–8, 281–2, 284, 316, 332. ISBN 3-7020-1140-4