Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
The Castle Road is a theme route in southern Germany and a small portion in the Czech Republic, between Mannheim and Prague. It was established in 1954. In 1994 it was possible to extend it to Prague, it leads through the Neckar valley, the Hohenlohe Plateau, the Franconian Heights, Franconian Switzerland, the Fichtelgebirge and the Kaiserwald. The Castle Road has a length of over 1,000 kilometres; the Castle Road at the moment passes, from west to the following places and landmarks. D-Mannheim – Mannheim Palace D-Schwetzingen – Schwetzingen Castle D-Heidelberg – Heidelberg Castle, Old Inner City D-Neckargemünd – Bergfeste Dilsberg D-Neckarsteinach – Schadeck Castle, Hinterburg Castle and Vorderburg D-Hirschhorn – Hirschhorn Castle D-Eberbach – Eberbach Castle D-Zwingenberg - Zwingenburg D-Neckargerach - Minneburg D-Binau - Dauchstein Castle D-Obrigheim – Neuburg Castle D-Mosbach – historical town centre D-Neckarzimmern – Hornberg Castle D-Haßmersheim-Neckarmühlbach – Guttenberg Castle D-Gundelsheim – Horneck Castle D-Bad Rappenau – Heinsheim Castle, Ehrenberg Castle, Rappenau Water Castle D-Bad Wimpfen – Kaiserpfalz Wimpfen D-Heilbronn – city itself D-Weinsberg – Weibertreu ruins D-Jagsthausen – Götzenburg D-Öhringen – Öhringen Castle D-Neuenstein – Neuenstein Castle D-Waldenburg – Waldenburg Castle D-Schwäbisch Hall – Comburg D-Kirchberg an der Jagst – Kirchberg Castle D-Langenburg – Langenburg Castle D-Rothenburg ob der Tauber – Rothenburg ob der Tauber, medieval town D-Ansbach – Margravial Residence and Hofgarten D-Romantic Franconia – Colmberg Castle, Veste Lichtenau, castle of the Teutonic Knights, Wolframs-Eschenbach D-Abenberg – Abenberg Castle D-Roth – Ratibor Castle D-Nürnberg – Nuremberg Castle D-Franconian Switzerland – Kaiserpfalz Forchheim, Mark Wiesenttal, Egloffstein Castle, Gößweinstein Castle, Waischenfeld Castle, Aufsess Castle, Schloss Greifenstein D-Ahorntal - Rabenstein Castle D-Bamberg – Altenburg Castle, New Residence D-Rentweinsdorf - Schloss Rentweinsdorf D-Ebern - historic old town, Schloss Eyrichsdorf, Rotenhan Castle ruins D-Pfarrweisach - Lichtenstein Castle D-Maroldsweisach - Altenstein Castle D-Heldburg - Heldburg Fortress D-Coburg – Ehrenburg Palace, Veste Coburg, Callenberg Castle D-Lichtenfels – Lichtenfels Castle D-Kronach – Rosenberg Fortress D-Kulmbach – Plassenburg D-Bayreuth – New Palace Old Palace, Eremitage CZ-Cheb – Eger Castle CZ-Lázně Kynžvart – Königswart Castle CZ-Loket – Elbogen Castle CZ-Bečov nad Teplou – Petschau Castle CZ-Teplá – Teplá Abbey CZ-Švihov – Svihov Castle CZ-Nezvěstice – Nebilovy Castle CZ-Šťáhlavy – Kozel Castle CZ-Hořovice – Hořovice Castle CZ-Zdice – Žebrák Castle, Točník Castle CZ-Křivoklát – Křivoklát Castle CZ-Karlštejn – Karlštejn Castle CZ-Prague – Prague Castle There exits a Cycleway "Burgenstraßen-Radweg".
Arbeitsgemeinschaft "Die Burgenstraße": Burgenstraßen-Radwanderführer. Hrsg. Arbeitsgemeinschaft "Die Burgenstraße", Heilbronn. J. Fink-Kümmerly + Frey Verlag GmbH, Ostfildern Hans Konrad Schenk: Hohenlohe vom Reichsfürstentum zur Standesherrschaft. Swiridoff-Verlag Künzelsau, 2006. ISBN 3-89929-080-1 Official site in English Castle Road from Mannheim to Waldenburg http://www.burgen.strasse-online.de
Goldkronach is a town in the district of Bayreuth, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated near 12 km northeast of Bayreuth. On 25 June 1836, at 22:15, residents awoke to a man yelling "Fire! Fire!". In 2 hours half of the eastern part of the town was burnt down, including the parish church, the two schools, City Hall, 55 houses, 16 outbuildings. 127 families were rendered homeless. Three years on 18 June 1839 midnight, another fire broke out in the market. Within two hours, 29 houses and 17 outbuildings in the south side of town were the victims of the fire. 1961: 2945 1970: 2935 1987: 2903 2000: 3598 2010: 3606 Sigismund von Reitzenstein and diplomat of Baden Georgius Agricola, scholar of the Renaissance and the father of the mineralogy. For Goldkronach in his writings, Agricola called a weekly gold transfer of 1500 Gulden. Alexander von Humboldt, German natural scientist, from 1792 to 1796 Oberbergmeister and Oberbergrat in the Prussian Goldkronach. Humboldt revolutionized mining from a technical point of view, but introduced measures for the education and social protection of miners
Fichtelberg is a municipality in the district of Bayreuth in Bavaria in Germany. It is a state-recognised climatic spa. Fichtelberg lies on the southeastern slopes of the Ochsenkopf, the second highest summit of the Fichtelgebirge mountains, the most populous place in the Fichtelgebirge Nature Park. Fichtelberg lies on a major European watershed. Two rivers rise above the suburb of Neubau, the White Main, one of the two headstreams of the Main, which flows westwards to the Rhine, the Fichtelnaab, which flows south and enters the Danube. Since 1857 Fichtelberg has belonged to the Bavarian provinces of Upper Franconia. Fichtelberg Hüttstadl Neubau The only parish that borders on Fichtelberg is Mehlmeisel; the origin of the name Fichtelberg, as well as the Fichtelgebirge, is to be found in mining lore and not, as long suspected, its dense, spruce forests. At the time the name originated, pollen analysis shows that in the North Bavarian region mixed forests of beech and spruce existed, it was only due to the mining and smelting industry, that hardwood species were decimated and faster-growing spruce was planted to supply wood for the mines.
At first, only a mountain called Vythenberg where the St. Vitus mine was located, was mentioned in a charter of 1317; the original name evolved into the word Vichtel or Fichtel and was used for the entire terrain of present-day Fichtelgebirge. The first written record of the Viechtlpergs dates to 1508; the history of the site at Fichtelberg is dominated by ore mining of the mining company Erzgrube Gottesgab im Gleißingerfels am Fichtelberg. In 1600 the uppermost reaches of the Fichtelnaab valley near the present villages of Neubau and Fichtelberg was still covered with a rugged, forest-covered wilderness. Finds, such as a serpentine pendant in 1922 on the Ochsenkopf or a stone axe head excavated in 1935 east of Fichtelberg, suggest that the area around Fichtelberg was inhabited in the Neolithic period, at least by hunters passing through; the absence of other finds, rules out any permanent settlement until the beginning of the 17th century. This was due to the steep slopes and higher altitude along with a harsh climate and less fertile soils.
Iron ore mining in the upper Fichtelnaab valley began in 1478, but only a small settlement of a few houses extended from the south up to the outskirts of what is now Fichtelberg today. In 1602, Johann Glaser founded a company of six influential and financially powerful men, in order to work with them to begin mining on Gleißingerfels, to search for suitable iron ore lodes, smelt them in blast furnaces using the most modern and profitable methods of the day and to process them profitably; the wood, needed in large quantities in the furnaces, forges and foundries, was available in the extensive forests of the region. There was enough water at first for the water wheels of the ironworks. One example was the Bocksgraben. A thriving iron industry developed. Iron ore was processed in the royal foundry. At first, the mines were open cast, but these pits collected too much water and there were no powerful pumps at hand. So adits were driven to enable the water to drain out; these hand-hewn tunnels were so big, that a large man could walk through them.
The mine on the Gleißinger Fels was called Gottesgab am Fichtelberg as was the important mining office established far up the Fichtelnaab valley. The first accommodation huts appeared, the beginnings of a now growing and thriving mining settlement, four furnaces smelted the silver iron, mined in the Fichtelberg area. At this time, the region around Fichtelberg was the most important mining operation in the Electorate of Bavaria. Fichtelberg came under the Amberg accounts office and the Waldeck district court in the Electorate of Bavaria; the mining office had the legal status of a royal estate. In 1808 the Fichtelberg Mining Office, as a border region, changed hand between the Kingdom of Bavaria and Margrave of Bayreuth. Since 1857, when the district of the Bayreuth District Court was enlarged, it has been part of the province of Upper Franconia. Ore mining and smelting had been the economic factor in Fichtelberg, but with the beginning of industrialization, ore mining became less and less profitable.
On 26 March 1859 work ceased and, in 1862, the mining company closed. It was followed by an economic decline which could only be compensated for by quarrying of granite and'greenstone', which had since been worked on the Ochsenkopf massif since the beginning of the 17th century - and, used for glass production - and by the timber industry. Many residents left the area. After the Second World War, settlers came glass blowers from Gablonz, helped Fichtelberg to renewed prosperity as an industrial site based on the glass and button production. Since it has lost its industrial importance, but survives because of its scenic location on the southwestern slope of the Ochsenkopf from tourism, its function as a winter sports centre; the Gleißinger Fels mines are the oldest in northern Bavaria and are the only silver iron mine in the world, still accessible to the public. 1,100 beds in the hotels, guest houses, holiday homes and private homes Highest campsite in northern Bavaria The council has 14 members: CSU 5 seats Christlich Sozialer Förderkrei
House of Aufseß
The family of Aufseß, sometimes spelt Aufsees and Aufsess, is a Franconian noble family of barons. The original family seat was at Unteraufseß castle in Upper Franconia. Members of this family held important Roman Catholic Church posts in Bamberg. Jobst Bernhard von Aufsees known as Jodocus, canon of Bamberg and Würzburg, was born in Mengersdorf, he was baptized as a Lutheran but educated as a Roman Catholic and was the founder of the Aufseesianum in Bamberg. Friedrich III von Aufseß was Prince-Bishop of Bamberg from 1421 to 1431. In 1852 Hans von und zu Aufseß was the principal founder of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. Catholic Encyclopedia Article www.aufseesianum.de Jobst Bernhard von Aufsees in Ahnensaal of Schloss Unteraufseß
The Free Imperial knights were free nobles of the Holy Roman Empire, whose direct overlord was the Emperor. They were the remnants of the ministeriales. What distinguished them from other knights, who were vassals of a higher lord, was the fact that they had been granted Imperial immediacy, as such were the equals in most respects to the other individuals or entities, such as the secular and ecclesiastical territorial rulers of the Empire and the Free Imperial cities, that enjoyed Imperial immediacy. However, unlike all of those, the Imperial knights did not possess the status of Estates of the Empire, therefore were not represented, individually or collectively, in the Imperial Diet, they tended to define their responsibilities to the Empire in terms of feudalized obligations to the Emperor, including personal service and voluntary financial offerings paid to the Emperor himself. To protect their rights and avoid vassalage to more powerful nobles, they organized themselves into three unions in the late 15th century and into a single body in 1577, fought to win recognition.
This status, beholden only to the Emperor himself rather than through a more powerful noble, meant the Imperial Knights were "immediate subjects". As such, the Imperial Knights exercised a limited form of sovereignty within their territories; the Imperial Knighthood was a regional phenomenon limited to southwestern and south-central Germany—Swabia and the Middle Rhine area—zones which were fragmented politically and where no powerful states were able to develop. In northern and northeastern Germany, as well as in Bavaria and Austria, the local nobles, facing larger states and stronger rulers, were incapable of developing and maintaining their independence, they formed the territorial nobility. The immediate status of the Imperial Knights was recognized at the Peace of Westphalia, they never gained access to the Imperial Diet, the parliament of lords, were not considered Hochadel, the high nobility, belonging to the Lower Nobility. The Free Imperial Knights arose in the 14th century, the fusion of the remnants of the old free lords and the stronger elements of the unfree ministeriales that had won noble status.
Around 1300, the manoral economy suffered contraction due to the fluctuation in the price of agricultural foodstuffs. Ministeriales who were in a stronger economic position were better able to survive the weakening of their basis as landowners; the vast majority languished in poverty, resorting to selling lands to brigandage. The minority of ministeriales rich enough to weather the crises soon came to be identified with the remnants of the free nobility, were thus seen as constituting one noble order. By 1422, some of these nobles had achieved jurisdictional autonomy under the Emperor, the corporation of free imperial knights was born; the other ministeriales that did not manage to receive the status of immediate vassals of the Emperor were transformed into a titled nobility of free status: the Freiherren. By 1577, the Imperial Knights achieved the status of a noble corporate body within the empire: the corpus equestre. In the Peace of Westphalia, the privileges of the Imperial Knights were confirmed.
The knights paid their own tax to the Emperor, possessed limited sovereignty, the ius reformandi. The knightly families had the right of house legislation, subject to the Emperor's approval, so could control such things as the marriage of members and set the terms of the inheritance of family property. Imperial knights did not, have access to the Imperial Diet. Concerning the rights of Free Imperial Knights, Joseph Friederich von Ledersheim wrote in 1715: Section XII: “…they possess forestry rights …the right of hunting. Section XV: “they enjoy the freedom of religion and therefore of establishing the Protestant Religion in churches and schools not only in their own hereditary territories but in those fiefs held from another state…they are able whenever they wish to abolish and introduce either religion if they hold the position of vogt over the possessions.” All matters relating to the Imperial Knights' legal status as immediate vassals of the Emperor were managed by the Imperial Aulic Council.
Lacking access to the Imperial Diet, in 1650 the immediate knights organized themselves into three circles: the Fr