A cartulary or chartulary called pancarta or codex diplomaticus, is a medieval manuscript volume or roll containing transcriptions of original documents relating to the foundation and legal rights of ecclesiastical establishments, municipal corporations, industrial associations, institutions of learning, or families. The term is sometimes applied to collections of original documents bound in one volume or attached to one another so as to form a roll, as well as to custodians of such collections. Michael Clanchy defines a cartulary as "a collection of title deeds copied into a register for greater security". A cartulary may take the form of a codex. Documents, chronicles or other kinds of handwritten texts were compiled, transcribed or copied into the cartulary. In the introduction to the book Les Cartulaires, it is argued that in the contemporary diplomatic world it was common to provide a strict definition as the organized, selective, or exhaustive transcription of diplomatic records, made by the owner of them or by the producer of the archive where the documents are preserved.
In the Dictionary of Archival Terminology a cartulary is defined as "a register in volume form, of copies of charters, title deeds, grants of privileges and other documents of significance belonging to a person, family or institution". In 1938, the French historian, Emile Lesne, wrote: "Every Cartulary is the testimony of the statement of the Archives in a Church at the time when it was compiled". Related terms in other languages are: cartularium. In medieval Normandy, a type of cartulary was common from the early 11th century that combined a record of gifts to the monastery with a short narrative; these works are known as pancartes. The allusion of Gregory of Tours to chartarum tomi in the 6th century is taken to refer to cartularies; the oldest surviving cartularies, originated in the 10th century. Those from the 10th to the 13th centuries are numerous. Cartularies contain historical texts, known as cartulary chronicles, which may focus on the history of the monastery whose legal documents it accompanies, or may be a more general history of the world.
This link between legal and historical writings has to be understood in the context of the importance of past events for establishing legal precedence. Sometimes the copyist of the cartulary reproduced the original documents with literal exactness. On the other hand, some copyists took liberties with the text, including modifying the phraseology, modernizing proper names of persons and places, changing the substance, so as to extend the scope of the privileges or immunities granted in the document; the value of a cartulary as a historical document depends not only on how faithfully it reproduces the substance of the original, but if edited, on the clues it contains to the motivation for those changes. These questions are the subject of scrutiny under well-known canons of historical criticism. Many cartularies of medieval monasteries and churches have been published, less completely. A listing of all known medieval cartularies of the British Isles, edited by Godfrey Davis, was published in 1958, republished in a revised and extended edition in 2010: the revised edition contains entries for about 2,000 cartularies, including those of both ecclesiastical establishments and secular corporations, dating from the 11th to 16th centuries, with details of dates, current location, publication.
The Catalogue général des cartulaires des archives départementales and the Inventaire des cartulaires etc. were the chief sources of information regarding the cartularies of medieval France. There may be more recent developments in cataloguing. Cartularios de Valpuesta, two medieval cartularies from the north of Spain. Hemming's Cartulary, two cartularies bound together, the Liber Wigorniensis, made in England around the year 1000, a second compiled by Hemming about a hundred years later. Cartulary of Windsheim, O. E. S. A. Made in Germany between 1421 and 1462. Supetar cartulary, a twelfth-century cartulary of the monastery of St. Peter in Poljice, Croatia Cartulario de Óvila, of the monastery Santa María de Óvila Liber feudorum maior, a twelfth-century cartulary of the Crown of Aragon Liber feudorum formae minoris, an early thirteenth-century continuation of the Liber feudorum maior Liber instrumentorum memorialium, an early thirteenth-century cartulary of the Lords of Montpellier Liber instrumentorum vicecomitalium called the Trencavel Cartulary and the Foix Cartulary, a thirteenth-century French collection Liber feudorum Ceritaniae, a thirteenth-century cartulary of the County of Cerdanya The Tropenell Cartulary, from the west of England estates of Thomas Tropenell, 15th century Chartularium Sithiense or Abbey of Saint Bertin's cartulary, written in Latin and whose first part is attributed to Folquin The Register of St Osmund, a 13th-century cartulary belonging to Salisbury Cathedral.
Textus Roffensis, the first part is a collection of secular documents written in Old English, whilst the second part is the cartulary of Rochester Cathedral written in Latin. The late Roman/Byzantine chartoularios was an fiscal official. In the Greek Orthodox Church, the corresponding position was called chartophylax; this title was given to an ancient officer in the Roman Church, who had the care of charters and papers relating to public affairs. The chartulary presided in lieu of the Pope; this article i
Auriac is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Auriacoises. Auriac is located some 20 km north of Pau just east of Argelos. Access to the commune is by road D834 from Sarron in the north which passes through the commune and continues to Pau in the south. Access to the village is by road D944 from the village to Thèze in the north-west and the D227 from the village to Sévignacq in the south-east; the A55 autoroute passes through the north of the commune with Exit 9 just north-east of the commune giving access to road D834. The commune is mixed farmland; the commune name in béarnais is Auriac. Michel Grosclaude said that the name comes from the Latin man's name Aurius with the Gallo-Roman suffix -acum giving "Domain of Aurius"; the following table shows the origin of the commune name: Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table.
Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Marca: Pierre de Marca, History of Béarn. Paul Raymond noted. List of Successive Mayors Mayors from 1940 The commune is part of five inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Luys en Béarn; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: A House at Porte A House at Cazaudehore Houses and Farms The commune has two religious buildings that are registered as historical monuments: The Parish Church of Saint-François-de-Sales The Parish Church of Saint-François-de-Sales; this church was built in 1885 to replace the old church of the same name which appeared on the Cassini Map.
The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: The furniture of the church A Chasuble A Sun-ray Monstrance 2 Altar Candlesticks A Chalice A Prie-dieu A Stoup 2 Altars, 4 altar seatings, 2 Tabernacles An Altar, 2 altar seatings, a Tabernacle, 2 Statues 3 Stained glass windows of people: Saint Francis de Sales, Saint Michael protecting a canon, Saint John Auriac has a primary school which serves the communes of Garlède-Mondebat, Lalonquette et Miossens-Lanusse in an Educational Inter-communal Grouping. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Community of communes of Luys en Béarn website Auriac on Lion1906 Auriac on Google Maps Auriac on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Auriac on the 1750 Cassini Map Auriac on the INSEE website INSEE
Thèze is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
Igon is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in southwestern France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes, it covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has 5,800,000 inhabitants.. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015, it is the largest region in France by area, with a territory larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants; the region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, La Rochelle, as well as 11 major clusters. The growth of its population marked on the coast, makes this one of the most attractive areas economically in France. After Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles.
The agricultural region of Europe with the greatest turnover, it is the French region with the most tourism jobs, as it has three of the four historic resorts on the French Atlantic coast:, as well as several ski resorts, is the fifth French region for business creation. Its economy is based on agriculture and viticulture, tourism, a powerful aerospace industry, digital economy and design and pharmaceutical industries, financial sector, industrial ceramics. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast; the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Oïl cultures. It is the "indirect successor" to medieval Aquitaine, extends over a large part of the former Duchy of Eleanor of Aquitaine; the region's interim name Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes was a hyphenated placename, known as ALPC, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names – Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes – in alphabetical order. In June 2016, a working group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula, a former vice president of Aquitaine, proposed the name "Nouvelle Aquitaine".
The decision came after the popular favorite, "Aquitaine", faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. The other popular favorite, "Grande Aquitaine," was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority. Alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working group's conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym "ALPC" no choice at all. For those deploring the loss of "Limousin" and "Poitou-Charentes", he noted that the predecessor region of Aquitaine subsumed the identities of the Périgord or the Pays Basque, which did not disappear during its 40 years of operation. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, the Regional council unanimously adopted Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the region's permanent name. France's Conseil d'État approved Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective two days later. For the recent history of each former administrative regions and departments before 2016, For the history of past entities covering much of the area of the region before the French revolution, At 84,061 square kilometers, the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine is larger than French Guiana, which makes it the largest region in France.
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three autonomous communities in Spain to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Nouvelle-Aquitaine comprises twelve departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Corrèze, Dordogne, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Deux-Sèvres and Haute-Vienne, its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an urban agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the urban area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory: Bordeaux Bayonne Limoges Poitiers Pau La Rochelle. In addition, the region has a network of medium towns scattered throughout its territory, including: Angoulême Agen Brive-la-Gaillarde Niort Périgueux Bergerac Villeneuve-sur-Lot Dax Mont-de-Marsan The region covers a large part of the Aquitaine Basin and a small portion of the Paris Basin and the Limousin plate and the western part of the Pyrenees, it is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean: Loire, Charente and Dordogne (and their extension, the