Palazzo della Pilotta
The Palazzo della Pilotta is a complex of edifices located between Piazzale della Pace and the Lungoparma in the historical centre of Parma, region of Emilia Romagna, Italy. Its name derives from the game of pelota played at one time by Spanish soldiers stationed in Parma, the façade on the Piazza della Ghiaia is missing and the annexed Dominican church of St. Peter was demolished only in recent times. The existing complex includes three courts, the Cortile di San Pietro Martire, Cortile del Guazzatoio and the Cortile della Racchetta. The Pilotta was to house a large hall, turned into the Teatro Farnese, the stables and the grooms residences, the Academy Hall and other rooms. After the end of the Farnese family rule of Parma, much of the assets of the palace were removed by Duke Charles I, King of Spain. The Biblioteca Palatina was established here by 1769, elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, was born here in 1692
Major Thomas Henry Gem, known as Harry Gem, was an English lawyer, soldier and sportsman. Alongside his friend Augurio Perera, he is credited as the earliest inventor of the game of lawn tennis, Gem was born in Birmingham and educated at Kings College London. From 1841 he practiced as a solicitor in Birmingham, becoming a clerk in 1856. He is recorded as having won a bet by running the 21 miles from Birmingham to Warwick in under three and a half hours and this game is known to have been being played by 1865, though research has suggested that experimentation may have started as early as 1859. It thus clearly pre-dates the game of sphairistikè, whose rules were published, originally referred to as Lawn rackets or Lawn pelota and Pereras game was being referred to as Lawn tennis by 1872. The Harry Gem Project Augurio Perera Walter Clopton Wingfield History of tennis
Edgbaston is a suburban area of Central Birmingham, England. It is curved around the southwest of the city centre and it is bordered by Moseley to the south east and by Smethwick and Winson Green to the north west. Edgbaston is home to the University of Birmingham, established as Birmingham Medical School in 1825, Edgbaston traditionally has a reputation for being one of the most upmarket and affluent parts of Birmingham or where the trees begin. The parliamentary constituency of Edgbaston includes the smaller Edgbaston ward and the wards of Bartley Green, Edgbaston is a local government district, managed by its own district committee. Edgbaston means village of a man called Ecgbald, from the Old English personal name + tun farm, the personal name Ecgbald means bold sword. In 1801, Edgbaston had a population of around 1,000 people, by 1841, this had increased to 16,500 as a result of wealthy manufacturers moving to the area. By 1850,29 roads had been out and uninterrupted growth continued. The United Kingdom Census 2001 found that 20,749 people were living in the Birmingham City Council ward of Edgbaston and this produced an average of 2.4 people per household, slightly below the city-wide average of 2.5.
The ward, which has an area of 871. 6ha, had a density of 23.8 people per hectare. Like the city of Birmingham, Edgbaston had a higher proportion of females, at 50. 1%. 27. 1% of the population was in the 25-44 age bracket and 15. 1% were aged between 45-59, at 14. 8%, Edgbaston had a lower proportion of people of a pensionable age than the rest of Birmingham. It had a proportion of people of working age at 73. 8%. Edgbaston has a slightly above average percentage for ethnic minorities with ethnic minorities representing 31. 8% of the population as opposed to 29. 6% for Birmingham, the largest ethnic minority group was the British Asian group at 16. 1%. 25. 6% of people were born outside of the United Kingdom, christianity was the most predominant religion, with 52. 5% of the population stating that they were Christians, compared with 59. 1% for Birmingham. 8. 0% stated that they were Muslims, below the Birmingham figure of 14. 3%, Edgbaston was home to a significant Orthodox Jewish community. 19.
1% of the Edgbaston population stated that they had no religion,46. 4% of households were owner-occupied, below the Birmingham figure of 60. 4%. 19. 3% were rented privately,15. 2% were rented from an association and 11. 6% were rented from Birmingham City Council. There was a number of 9,191 houses in Edgbaston,525 of which were vacant
History of tennis
The game that most people call tennis is the direct descendant of what is now known as real tennis or royal tennis. Most of the rules of the commonly known as tennis derive from real or royal tennis. It is reasonable to see both sports as variations of the same game, most historians believe that tennis originated in the monastic cloisters in northern France in the 12th century, but the ball was struck with the palm of the hand, hence the name jeu de paume. It was not until the 16th century that rackets came into use, and it was popular in England and France and Henry VIII of England was a big fan of the game, now referred to as real tennis. Many original tennis courts remain, including courts at Oxford, Falkland Palace in Fife where Mary Queen of Scots regularly played, many of the French courts were decommissioned with the terror that accompanied the French Revolution. The Tennis Court Oath was an event during the first days of the French Revolution. The Oath was a signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789.
Any history of tennis that ignores its origins in the game that was known as tennis until lawn tennis became popular in the nineteenth century is inaccurate. The Davis Cup, a competition between mens national teams, dates to 1900. Pyle created the first professional tour with a group of American. The most notable of these professionals were the American Vinnie Richards. Once a player turned pro he or she could not compete in the major tournaments, the word Tennis came into use in English in the mid-13th century from Old French, via the Anglo-Norman term Tenez, which can be translated as hold. A call from the server to his opponent indicating that he is about to serve, Tennis is mentioned in literature as far back as the Middle Ages. In The Second Shepherds Play shepherds gave three gifts, including a ball, to the newborn Christ. Sir Gawain, a knight of King Arthurs round table, plays tennis against a group of 17 giants in The Turke, by the 16th century, the glove had become a racquet, the game had moved to an enclosed playing area, and the rules had stabilized.
Real tennis spread in popularity throughout royalty in Europe, reaching its peak in the 16th century, francis I of France was an enthusiastic player and promoter of real tennis, building courts and encouraging play among the courtiers and commoners. His successor Henry II was an excellent player and continued the royal French tradition, in 1555 an Italian priest, Antonio Scaino da Salothe, wrote the first known book about tennis, Trattato del Giuoco della Palla. Two French kings died from tennis related episodes—Louis X of a chill after playing
Birmingham is a major city and metropolitan borough of West Midlands, England lying on the River Rea, a small river that runs through Birmingham. It is the largest and most populous British city outside London, the city is in the West Midlands Built-up Area, the third most populous urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,440,986 at the 2011 census. Birminghams metropolitan area is the second most populous in the UK with a population of 3.8 million and this makes Birmingham the 8th most populous metropolitan area in Europe. By 1791 it was being hailed as the first manufacturing town in the world, perhaps the most important invention in British history, the industrial steam engine, was invented in Birmingham. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed heavily by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz. The damage done to the infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive demolition.
Today Birminghams economy is dominated by the service sector and its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121. 1bn, and its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham is the fourth-most visited city in the UK by foreign visitors, Birminghams sporting heritage can be felt worldwide, with the concept of the Football League and lawn tennis both originating from the city. Its most successful football club Aston Villa has won seven league titles, people from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the citys nickname of Brum. This originates from the citys name, which may in turn have been derived from one of the citys earlier names. There is a distinctive Brummie accent and dialect, Birminghams early history is that of a remote and marginal area. The main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era, within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years, by 1700 Birminghams population had increased fifteenfold and the town was the fifth-largest in England and Wales. The importance of the manufacture of goods to Birminghams economy was recognised as early as 1538. Equally significant was the emerging role as a centre for the iron merchants who organised finance, supplied raw materials. The 18th century saw this tradition of free-thinking and collaboration blossom into the phenomenon now known as the Midlands Enlightenment
Royal Leamington Spa, commonly known as Leamington Spa, Leamington, or simply Leam to locals /ˈlɛmɪŋtən/ is a spa town in Warwickshire, England. Following the popularisation of the qualities of its water in the eighteenth century. It is named after the River Leam which flows through the town, the town contains especially fine ensembles of Regency architecture, particularly in parts of the Parade, Clarendon Square and Lansdowne Circus. The town comprises six electoral wards, Milverton, Crown, the total population for those wards in 2011 was 49,491. Formerly known as Leamington Priors, Leamington began to develop as a town at the start of the 19th century and it was first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Lamintone. For 400 years, the settlement was under the control of Kenilworth Priory and its name came from Anglo-Saxon Leman-tūn or Lemen-tūn = farm on the River Leam. The spa waters had been known in Roman times and the rediscovery in 1784 by William Abbotts and Benjamin Satchwell, six of the seven wells were drilled for, only the original spring at the site of the Aylesford Well, adjacent to the Parish Church occurred naturally.
Early development of the old centre was on the southern bank of the River Leam. Later builders began concentrating the towns expansion on the north of the river. In 1767 Parliament passed an Act, proposed by Edward Willes, following a survey of the area by John Tomlinson in 1768, the land was estimated to be 990 acres and was subsequently divided, and new public roads were laid out. After the division on the south of the river most of the land east of the village was owned by the Willes family, to the north of the river most of the land was owned by the Willes family, the Earl of Warwick, and Bertie Greatheed. The main landholders of the village and adjacent land were the Earl of Aylesford, in the following decades some of the land was sold. By 1901, the population of Leamington had grown from a few hundred to nearly 27,000, in 1814, the Royal Pump Rooms and Baths were opened close to the River Leam. This grand structure attracted many visitors, expecting cures by bathing in pools of salty spa water and it included the worlds first gravity fed piped hot water system in modern times, which was designed and installed by the engineer William Murdoch.
Leamington became a spa resort attracting the wealthy and famous, and construction began of numerous Georgian townhouses to accommodate visitors. With the spread of the popularity, and the granting of a Royal prefix in 1838 by Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria had visited the town as a Princess in 1830, a statue of Queen Victoria was almost destroyed by a German bomb during the Second World War, and was moved one inch on its plinth by the blast. The statue was not returned to its position, and the incident is recorded on a plaque on its plinth
Rackets or racquets is an indoor racket sport played in the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada. The sport is called hard rackets, possibly to distinguish it from the related sport of squash. Historians generally assert that rackets began as an 18th-century pastime in Londons Kings Bench, the prisoners modified the game of fives by using tennis rackets to speed up the action. They played against the wall, sometimes at a corner to add a sidewall to the game. Rackets became popular outside the prison, played in alleys behind pubs and it spread to schools, first using school walls, and with proper four-wall courts being specially constructed for the game. The lithograph at right from the late 1700s shows school boys hitting up outside the Harrow School Old School buildings. Eglinton Castle has a Racket Hall which is first shown on the 1860 OS map, but estate records show that it was shortly after 1839. The floor is of granite slabs, now hidden by the wooden floor. It is the very first covered racket court and is now the oldest surviving court in the world and it has been restored as a racket hall, but used as an exhibition area.
Some private clubs built courts, along with real tennis and badminton, rackets was used as an inspiration for the game of lawn tennis, invented in 1873 by Walter Clopton Wingfield. A vacant rackets court built into the University of Chicagos Stagg Field served as the location of the first artificial nuclear chain reaction on December 2,1942, the Stagg Field court is often mistakenly identified as having been a squash rackets court. Rackets was part of the 1908 Summer Olympics program and was played at the Princes Club in London, after the second world war rackets saw a drop in popularity resulting in the closure of some courts and others suffering from a lack of maintenance. Dick Bridgeman, an advocate for the sport established what was the Dick Bridgeman Tennis, the foundation sought donations to support young professionals thereby ensuring the future of the game. Now known as simply The Tennis and Racquets Foundation, it continues to raise money for young professionals raising the profile of rackets worldwide, the Book of Racquets was published by J. R.
Atkins in 1872. It was reprinted to commemorate the 1981 World Rackets Challenge Match between W. J. C, surtees and J. A. N. Prenn as a limited edition of 250 copies. Rackets is played in a 30 by 60 feet enclosed court and doubles are played on the same court. The walls and floor of the court are made of stone or concrete and are generally dark in colour to contrast with the white ball. A player uses 30. 5-inch wooden racket, known as a bat, a good stroke must touch the front wall above a 26.5 inches high wooden board before touching the floor
The roots of this class of games can be traced to the Greek and other ancient cultures. The term pelota probably comes from the Vulgar Latin term pilotta and it is a diminutive form of the word pila which may relate to a hard linen or leather ball filled with pilus or to the Latin words for strike or spade and is related to the English word pellet. Today, Basque pelota is played in several countries, in Europe, this sport is concentrated in Spain and France, especially in the Basque Country. The sport is played in Latin American countries such as Argentina, Uruguay. Operated as an enterprise called Jai Alai, it is seen in parts of the U. S. such as Florida, Nevada. In Valencia, Valencian pilota is considered the sport, it is played in Belgium, North of Italy, Mexico. The four modalities admit fourteen disciplines, depending the use of hand, leather ball, rubber ball, racket. Two of the fourteen disciplines are played by men and women, the other twelve are played only by men. This allows championship play at the level, and allows the participation of players.
There is, criticism about this, since purists might argue that some of the traits of each particular modality could be lost. Even with protection, accidents do happen, with the ball easily travelling at 200 km/h pelota can kill if safety equipment is not used properly or at all and, though rare, deaths occasionally occur. The origin of this sport is tied to the decline of the ancient jeu de paume, while the game evolved to the modern jeu de paume and eventually to tennis, rural alpine and pyreneean communities kept the tradition. According to the basque pilota historian Chipitey Etcheto, the first recorded matches took place in Napoleonic times, the mid-19th century saw the explosion of the pelota craze. The player Gantxiki is considered the father of the chistera. The top champions of the end of the 19th century, such as Chiquito de Cambo, were immensely popular, the first official competitions were organized in the 1920s, and led to the world championship in the 1950s. In 1924 the United States built their first fronton, in Miami, men often came in suits and women came in elaborate dresses for the special event.
Nowadays Jai-Alai has dropped in popularity instead of thousands of people who came to watch now there are barely a couple hundred, the sport is truly dying out in America. Pelota is usually played in the Basque regions of south-western France and north-eastern Spain, due to the origin of the game, there are many good players who are Basques, either natives or from the Basque diaspora
Valencian pilota is a traditional handball sport played in the Valencian Country. Rules variations within the generic Pilota Valenciana category are frequent from area to area but the trait is that the ball is struck with a bare, or almost bare. The general rule involves two teams made from two up to five players each, individual matches are played between the most renowned players. The second characteristic is that it is not played against a wall, similar to modern tennis, two individuals or teams are placed face to face separated either by a line on the ground or a net in all of modern modalities except for the frontó. A distinctive trait of Valencian pilota is that the spectators are often seated or standing very close to the court means that they may be hit by the ball. The break between indoor and outdoor forms caused many variants to diverge from the original Llargues version, thus Perxa evolved into Galotxa, and which in turn gave rise to Escala i corda, while Raspall was still played in both courtfields.
It should be noted that llargues is the variant that uses the original ratlles rule. Nowadays, Valencian pilota is played in the whole Valencian Community, professional players of Escala i corda and Raspall are hired to play at the trinquets or in streets during the towns festivals. There are two versions of the sport depending whether it is played outdoors in a designated street or indoors. Variations of the played in the street are Galotxa, Llargues. The streets must be long and wide, if the streets have some irregularities, such as balconies, sidewalks, traffic signals, etc. they may be used in order to score. Some municipalities have built fake streets which look like real ones but are meant only for pilota games, as for the ones played indoors there are, Frare, Is a short Valencian frontó with bevels on the corners that cause the ball to bounce unexpectedly. Mostly played in the North of the Castelló province, the frontis has a 1-metre high line which marks the lowest point where a bouncing ball may hit.
Galotxetes, Played in a 20-by-3. 5-metre space with a 1-metre high net in the middle, on the four corners there are open holes resembling doors where points are scored. Now it is played in the Vinalopó Mitjà comarca. Trinquet, There is a 60-by-10-metre four walled court with stairs on one side for the spectators to sit, There are two galleries over each of the frontons for people to sit. There is a balcony where reputed people or professional betters may sit. Next to the llotgeta a square is drawn on the ground, the dau, in order to play Escala i corda rules a 2-metre high net must be placed in the middle of the court
Augurius of Tarragona
Augurius of Tarragona or Saint Augurius was a Christian clergyman Hispano-Roman. It is cited as Augurinus, exerting the office of deacon was martyred along with bishop Fructuosus and deacon Eulogius. He died burned alive in the amphitheater of Tarraco during the persecution decreed by the Roman emperors Valerian, possibly were the first martyrs of which there is some sort of documentation in the history of Christianity in Spain. The years 2008-2009, on the occasion of the 1750th anniversary of his death, the text documents the following details. St. Agurius, along with bishop Fructuosus and deacon Eulogiuss, were just going to bed when they were arrested and they were examined, at which point they affirmed their belief in the Christian God. They were sentenced to be burnt, officers were posted to prevent any sort of disturbance breaking out. They were not completely successful and near the gate of the some of the Christians were able to get close to Fructuosus. St. Fructuosus replied, in a loud enough for everyone to hear.
He added words of consolation and encouragement to the assembled. As the flames rose and enveloped the martyrs, they stretched out their arms, st Augurius feast day is January 21st. 2a edició J. Torné i Cubells, et al, oratori en quatre quadres del mil·lenari de Santa Maria dIgualada, per a veus solistes, cor i orquestra El quadre I està dedicat a Sant Fructuós
Croquet is a sport that involves hitting plastic or wooden balls with a mallet through hoops embedded in a grass playing court. The oldest document to bear the word croquet with a description of the game is the set of rules registered by Isaac Spratt in November 1856 with the Stationers Company in London. This record is now in the Public Record Office, in 1868, the first croquet all-comers meet was held at Moreton-in-Marsh, Gloucestershire and in the same year the All England Croquet Club was formed at Wimbledon, London. In the book Queen of Games, The History of Croquet, Nicky Smith presents two theories of the origin of the game of croquet, which took England by storm in the 1860s. This was the explanation given in the edition of Encyclopædia Britannica. It is to be observed, that there are two of these arches, that is one at end of the alley. The images caption describes the game as a curious ancient pastime, in Samuel Johnsons 1755 dictionary, his definition of pall-mall clearly describes a game with similarities to modern croquet, A play in which the ball is struck with a mallet through an iron ring.
However, there is no evidence that pall-mall involved the croquet stroke which is the characteristic of the modern game. Regular contact between Ireland and France had continued since the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169. By no than the early 15th century, the game jeu de mail was popular in France, including in the courts of Henry II in the 16th century, at least one version of it, rouët was a multi-ball lawn game. There is, however, no pre-1858 Irish document that describes the way game was played, whatever the truth of the matter, Jaques certainly played an important role in popularising the game, producing editions of the rules in 1857,1860, and 1864. Croquet became highly popular as a pastime in England during the 1860s. By 1867, Jaques had printed 65,000 copies of his Laws and it quickly spread to other Anglophone countries, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States. No doubt one of the attractions was that the game could be played by both sexes, this ensured a certain amount of adverse comment.
There was a revival in the 1890s, but from onwards, croquet was always a minority sport, the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club still has a croquet lawn, but has not hosted any significant tournaments. The English headquarters for the game is now in Cheltenham, on the page facing the title page is a picture of Eglinton Castle with a game of croquet in full swing. The croquet lawn existed on the terrace, between Eglinton Castle and the Lugton Water. In 1865 the Rules of the Eglinton Castle and Cassiobury Croquet was published by Edmund Routledge, several incomplete sets of this form of croquet are known to exist, and one complete set is still used for demonstration games in the West of Scotland
Lawn Tennis Association
The Lawn Tennis Association is the national governing body of tennis in Great Britain, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. The organisation was founded in 1888 and seven-time Wimbledon champion William Renshaw was elected as its first president, as the governing body, the LTA’s overall purpose is to grow and sustain the sport. The success of British tennis is tracked by five headline measures of success,1, number of members of registered places to play 2. Number of British tennis members 3, number of regularly competing juniors 4. Number of International A Matrix juniors 5, number of players in the top 100. These measures of success gives a snapshot of the impact of work the LTA does. The LTA’s focus is to develop participation growth to more people play tennis. The approach to growing participation is based on investment in four areas,1. Places – Investing in places to play at parks, schools, people – Supporting the people who make tennis happen, including coaches and club officials 3. Programmes – Developing programmes including LTA Mini Tennis, Cardio Tennis and Tennis Xpress 4 and it opened in 2007 and is a focal point for Britains top players.
It has 22 courts, player accommodation and a science centre. The NTC has 12 acrylic hard courts,6 clay courts, hard Courts, The NTCs 12 acrylic courts are a GreenSet Grand Prix Acrylic surface. The indoor courts have a sprung timber sub-frame, while the courts are laid directly on asphalt. This GreenSet surface is used at international tournaments including Davis Cup, Fed Cup, WTA. 4 Northern European Clay Courts and 2 FRENCH-COURT synthetic clay courts, grass Courts, The LTA consulted All England Lawn Tennis Club head groundsman Eddie Seaward to advise on the installation of its four outdoor grass courts. The quality and playing characteristics replicate those found at the Wimbledon Championships, along with its 22 tennis courts, the NTC is equipped with a state-of-the-art gymnasium, outdoor sprint track, plunge pools and relaxation egg. The NTC has overnight accommodation for up to 54 people, along with a player lounge, the NTC provides services in Performance analysis, psychology and rehab, strength and conditioning, medical support and nutrition.
The current structure is as follows, Level 1 Coaching Assistant - The Level 1 Coaching Assistant is an introduction to tennis coaching, Level 1’s are qualified to assist accredited coaches in groups of Mini Tennis