The Perseids /ˈpərsiːɪdz/ are a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Swift–Tuttle. The Perseids are so called because the point from which appear to come, called the radiant. The name derives in part from the word Perseides, a found in Greek mythology referring to the sons of Perseus. The stream of debris is called the Perseid cloud and stretches along the orbit of the comet Swift–Tuttle, the cloud consists of particles ejected by the comet as it travels on its 133-year orbit. Most of the particles have been part of the cloud for around a thousand years, there is a relatively young filament of dust in the stream that was pulled off the comet in 1865, which can give an early mini-peak the day before the maximum shower. The shower is visible from each year, with the peak in activity between 9 and 14 August, depending on the particular location of the stream. During the peak, the rate of meteors reaches 60 or more per hour and they can be seen all across the sky, because of the shower’s radiant in the constellation of Perseus, the Perseids are primarily visible in the Northern Hemisphere.
While many meteors arrive between dawn and noon, they are not visible due to daylight. Some can be seen before midnight, often grazing the Earth’s atmosphere to produce long bright trails, most Perseids burn up in the atmosphere while at heights above 80 kilometres. Some Catholics refer to the Perseids as the tears of Saint Lawrence, suspended in the sky but returning to once a year on August 10. In 1835, Adolphe Quetelet identified the shower as emanating from the constellation Perseus, in 1866, after the perihelion passage of Swift-Tuttle in 1862, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli discovered the link between meteor showers and comets. The finding is contained in an exchange of letters with Angelo Secchi
Battle of Didgori
The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the declining Great Seljuq Empire at the place of Didgori,40 km west of Tbilisi, on August 12,1121. The battle resulted in King David IV of Georgia’s decisive victory over a Seljuk invasion army under Ilghazi and the subsequent reconquest of a Muslim-held Tbilisi, the victory at Didgori inaugurated the medieval Georgian Golden Age and is celebrated in the Georgian chronicles as a miraculous victory. Modern Georgians continue to remember the event as an annual September festival known as Didgoroba, the Kingdom of Georgia had been a tributary to the Great Seljuq Empire since the 1080s. David renounced the tribute to the Seljuqs in 1096/7, put an end to the migrations of the Turks into Georgia. By June 1121, Tbilisi had actually been under a Georgian siege, the resurgence of Georgians’ military energies brought about a coordinated Muslim response. Both Georgian and Islamic sources testify that, on the complaints of the Muslims of Tbilisi, muhammad sent an expedition into Georgia in which the Artuqid Ilghazi of Mardin, the Mazyadid Dubays II b.
Sadaqa of Al Hillah and the sultan’s brother Tughrul, lord of Arran and Nakhichevan and this combined army under the overall command of Ilghazi entered the valley of Trialeti in eastern Georgia and encamped in the vicinities of Didgori and Manglisi in mid-August 1121. It is claimed that the Seljuq light cavalry rode in front of the Georgians and started to shoot, there is no evidence of heavy cavalry present on Ilghazis side or any type of cavalry which could have matched the Georgian counterpart. On the other side the Georgians were facing a superior foe in terms of numbers. King Davids decisive reforms turned the Georgian army into an organized and structured military force which saw little analogue in that period. The smallest formations would be equivalents of nowadays squads and platoons, a group of 100 and so forth all led by servants of higher status, in this particular engagement they were further reinforced with hundreds of crusaders sent by Baldwin II of Jerusalem. Each formation was headed by a great and dense line of horsemen, at the sign of collapse David would send forward his Kipchak cavalry.
Initially the king and all his entourage stayed in the center, during battle David IV would assume command over his armys left wing, while Demetrius was leading the right. The course of the battle is differently related in the historical records. According to the Arab chronicler Ibn al-Athir, David sent a detachment of his men in order to simulate negotiation. Other accounts speak of a hundred supposed deserters requesting an audience with the Seljuq commander, the Georgians successfully managed to deploy a large portion of their force where they would almost encircle the enemy in a pincer movement. Their opponents remained unaware of such activities, the Georgians began to quickly advance on the flanks in full formation. Najm ad-Din Ilghazi ibn Artuq and his son survived the attack on the vanguard but were severely injured during the fight and left the battlefield leaving the Seljuq army virtually leaderless
The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Land, called by Pope Urban II in 1095. An additional goal became the principal objective—the Christian reconquest of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land. During the crusades, knights and serfs from many regions of Western Europe travelled over land and by sea, first to Constantinople and on towards Jerusalem. The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem, launched an assault on the city and they established the crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa. The First Crusade was followed by the Second to the Ninth Crusades and it was the first major step towards reopening international trade in the West since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The majority view is that it had elements of both in its nature, the origin of the Crusades in general, and particularly that of the First Crusade, is widely debated among historians.
The confusion is due to the numerous armies in the first crusade. The similar ideologies held the armies to similar goals, but the connections were rarely strong, the Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria and North Africa from the predominantly Christian Byzantine Empire, and Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom. In North Africa, the Umayyad empire eventually collapsed and a number of smaller Muslim kingdoms emerged, such as the Aghlabids, who attacked Italy in the 9th century. Pisa and the Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean Basin, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign and battles at Majorca and Sardinia. Essentially, between the years 1096 and 1101 the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived at Constantinople in three separate waves, in the early summer of 1096, the first large unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople. This wave was reported to be undisciplined and ill-equipped as an army and this first group is often called the Peasants’ or People’s Crusade.
It was led by Peter the Hermit and Walter Sans Avoir and had no knowledge of or respect for the wishes of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. The second wave was not under the command of the Emperor and was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders. Together, this group and the first wave numbered an estimated 60,000, the second wave was led by Hugh I, Count of Vermandois, the brother of King Philip I of France. Also among the wave were Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse. It was this wave of crusaders which passed through Asia Minor, captured Antioch in 1098 and finally took Jerusalem 15 July 1099. ”The third wave, composed of contingents from Lombardy, France. At the western edge of Europe and of Islamic expansion, the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was well underway by the 11th century and it was intermittently ideological, as evidenced by the Codex Vigilanus compiled in 881
The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Anatolia through Iran and were targets of the First Crusade. During the 10th century, due to events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam, in the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire. In 1025,40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania, the Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, at the battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, and after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51, they established an empire called the Great Seljuk Empire. The Seljuqs mixed with the population and adopted the Persian culture. The Great Seljuqs were heads of the family, in theory their authority extended over all the other Seljuq lines, turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although usually the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia.
Muhammads son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, the rulers of western Persia, who maintained a very loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a level of influence in the region. Kerman was a province in southern Persia, between 1053 and 1154, the territory included Umman. Kerman was eventually annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196, the Empire of the Steppes, a History of Central Asia. Early Seljuq History, A New Interpretation, New York, NY, Routledge,2010 Previté-Orton, C. W
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi, Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, and its 2016 population is about 3.72 million. Georgia is a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy, during the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia. The kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia adopted Christianity in the early 4th century, a unified Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under hegemony of various powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various treaties with Iran. Since the establishment of the modern Georgian republic in April 1991, post-communist Georgia suffered from civil, the countrys Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008.
Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and it contains two de facto independent regions and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and a part of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgias sovereign territory under Russian military occupation. Georgia probably stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān, starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages. This term itself might have established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi, the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts.
Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians. Today the full, official name of the country is Georgia, before the 1995 constitution came into force the countrys name was the Republic of Georgia. The territory of modern-day Georgia was inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era, the proto-Georgian tribes first appear in written history in the 12th century BC. The earliest evidence of wine to date has found in Georgia. In fact, early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, the classical period saw the rise of a number of early Georgian states, the principal of which was Colchis in the west and Iberia in the east
The Glorious Twelfth is a term used usually to refer to 12 August, the start of the shooting season for red grouse, and to a lesser extent the ptarmigan in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. This is one of the busiest days in the shooting season, the date itself is traditional, the current legislation enshrining it in England and Wales is the Game Act 1831. Not all game have the start to their open seasons - most begin on 1 September, with 1 October for woodcock. Since English law says that the start of the season cannot fall on a Sunday, it is postponed to 13 August. Because grouse are not and never have been reared to any extent for shooting, in some seasons where certain moors are hit by low numbers of grouse, shooting may not occur at all or be over by September. Duchal Moor Railway, a grouse railway Hunting in the United Kingdom British Association for Shooting and Conservation Game
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Ismaili Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The dynasty ruled across the Mediterranean coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt the centre of the caliphate, at its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt varying areas of the Maghreb, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids claimed descent from Fatima bint Muhammad, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad, in 921 the Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia as their new capital. In 948 they shifted their capital to Al-Mansuriya, near Kairouan in Tunisia, in 969 they conquered Egypt and established Cairo as the capital of their caliphate, Egypt became the political and religious centre of their empire. The ruling class belonged to the Ismaili branch of Shiism, as did the leaders of the dynasty, the existence of the caliphate marked the only time the descendants of Ali through Fatimah were united to any degree and the name Fatimid refers to Fatimah.
The different term Fatimite is sometimes used to refer to the caliphates subjects, after the initial conquests, the caliphate often allowed a degree of religious tolerance towards non-Ismaili sects of Islam, as well as to Jews, Maltese Christians, and Egyptian Coptic Christians. The Fatimid caliphate was distinguished by the role of Berbers in its initial establishment and in helping its development, especially on the military. During the late eleventh and twelfth centuries the Fatimid caliphate declined rapidly and he founded the Ayyubid dynasty and incorporated the Fatimid state into the Abbasid Caliphate. The Fatimid regime lasted until the twelfth century, though its leaders made little headway in persuading the Egyptian population. The Fatimid Caliphates religious ideology originated in an Ismaili Shia movement launched in the 9th century in Salamiyah, Syria by their eighth Imam and he claimed descent through Ismail, the seventh Ismaili Imam, from Fatimah and her husband ʻAlī ibn-Abī-Tālib, the first Shīʻa Imām.
Thus his name was al-Fātimiyyūn Fatimid, the eighth to tenth Imams, remained hidden and worked for the movement against the periods times rulers. According to legend and his son were fulfilling a prophecy that the mahdi would come from Mesopotamia to Sijilmasa. They hid among the population of Sijilmasa, an independent emirate, for four years under the countenance of the Midrar rulers, al-Mahdi was supported by dedicated Shiite Abu Abdullah al-Shii, and al-Shii started his preaching after he encountered a group of Muslim North African during his hajj. These men bragged about the country of the Kutama in western Ifriqiya, and the hostility of the Kutama towards, and their independence from. This triggered al-Shii to travel to the region, where he started to preach the Ismaili doctrine, the Berber peasants, who had been oppressed for decades by the corrupt Aghlabid rule, would prove themselves to be a perfect basis for sedition. Instantly, al-Shii began conquering cities in the region, first Mila, Sétif and eventually Raqqada, in 909 Al-Shii sent a large expedition force to rescue the Mahdi, conquering the Khariji state of Tahert on its way there.
After gaining his freedom, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah became the leader of the state and assumed the position of imam. The Fatimids existed during the Islamic Golden Age, the dynasty was founded in 909 by the eleventh Imam ʻAbdullāh al-Mahdī Billah
The First Crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1095 sermon by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, the response to Urbans preaching by people of many different classes across Western Europe established the precedent for Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church. Some were hoping for apotheosis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness from God for all their sins, others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and honour, or find opportunities for economic and political gain. Many modern Historians have polarised opinions of the Crusaders behaviour under Papal sanction, to some it was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy and the Crusades, to the extent that on occasions that the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines.
During the Peoples Crusade thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres, Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance and literature, but the Crusades reinforced the connection between Western Christendom and militarism. Crusade is not a term, instead the terms iter for journey or peregrinatio for pilgrimage were used. Not until the word crucesignatus for one who was signed with the cross was adopted at the close of the century was specific terminology developed. The Middle English equivalents were derived from old French, croiserie in the 13th–15th centuries, croisade appeared in English c1575, and continued to be the leading form till c1760. By convention historians adopt the term for the Christian holy wars from 1095, the Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2.
Usage of the term Crusade may differ depending on the author, pluralists use the term Crusade of any campaign explicitly sanctioned by the reigning Pope. This reflects the view of the Roman Catholic Church that every military campaign given Papal sanction is equally valid as a Crusade, regardless of its cause, generalists see Crusades as any and all holy wars connected with the Latin Church and fought in defence of their faith. Popularists limit the Crusades to only those that were characterised by popular groundswells of religious fervour – that is, only the First Crusade, Medieval Muslim historiographers such as Ali ibn al-Athir refer to the Crusades as the Frankish Wars. The term used in modern Arabic, ḥamalāt ṣalībiyya حملات صليبية, campaigns of the cross, is a loan translation of the term Crusade as used in Western historiography. The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the resulting unified polity in the seventh and eighth centuries led to a rapid expansion of Arab power.
This influence stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, tolerance and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe waxed and waned
Driven grouse shooting
Driven grouse shooting is a field sport of the United Kingdom. It is popular because it provides a challenge due to the flight of the grouse. The grouse shooting season extends from 12 August, often called the Glorious Twelfth, shooting takes place on grouse moors, areas of moorland in northern England and Scotland. The name driven grouse shooting refers to the way in which the grouse are driven towards the hunters by beaters, there is a strict code of conduct governing behaviour on the grouse moor for both safety and etiquette. Grouse shooting can be undertaken by walking up grouse over pointers, the Red Grouse is a medium-sized bird of the grouse family or subfamily which is found in heather moorland in Great Britain and Ireland. It is usually classified as a subspecies of the Willow Grouse and it is known as the moorfowl or moorbird. The grouse can fly at up to 130 km/h, 60% of all Englands upland Sites of Special Scientific Interest are managed for grouse shooting. To support a population of grouse, gamekeepers employ heather burning techniques.
This involves burning patches of heather on the moorland, a burnt patch allows fresh shoots to come through which are ideal nutrition for grouse. Burning is done in patches so that there is a variety of heather heights, while the short new shoots provide food, the taller, older heather provides cover and shelter for the grouse. Proponents claim that not only does heather burning help the grouse population thrive, one study suggests that burning heather has a large number of negative consequences on the diverse moorland environment, the underlying water table and the associated downstream rivers. Leaving areas unburnt for many year may allow some of changes to be reversed. ”Controlled. Large stands of rank and woody heather pose a fire risk due to a significant build-up of fuel loads. Uncontrolled wildfires are damaging as they burn with greater intensity and are likely to burn the peat beneath, causing damage to the ability of the peatland to store water. Controlled heather burning does not involve burning the peat beneath the vegetation, Grouse moor management involves routine control of predators such as foxes and stoats.
Grouse moors have a near-200 year history of recorded predator control. Birds killed in the period were, hooded crow 1431, raven 475, kestrel 462, buzzard 285, red kite 275, goshawk 63, hen harrier 63, white-tailed eagle 27, osprey 18, golden eagle 15. Grouse shooting supports the equivalent of 2500 full time jobs in England and Scotland, Grouse is served in many local pubs and restaurants, boosting the hospitality industry
David IV of Georgia
David IV, known as David the Builder, of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125. His reforms of the army and administration enabled him to reunite the country, a friend of the church and a notable promoter of Christian culture, he was canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church. Epigraphic data provide evidence for the use of Davids other epithet. Scholars in Georgia favor David IV, his namesake predecessors being, David I Curopalates, David II Magistros, the year of Davids birth can be calculated from the date of his accession to the throne recorded in the Life of King of Kings David, written c. 1123–1126, as koronikon 309, that is,1089, when he was 16 years old, thus, he would have been born in koronikon 293 or 294, that is, c. According to the source, he died in koronikon 345. Professor Cyril Toumanoff gives 1070 and 24 January 1125 as the dates for David, the earliest known document that makes mention of David is the royal charter of his father, George II of Georgia, granted to the Mghvime monastery and dated to 1073.
According to the Life of King of Kings David, David was the son of George II. The contemporaneous Armenian chronicler Matthew of Edessa mentions Davids brother Totorme, the name of Davids mother, Elene, is recorded in a margin note in the Gospel of Matthew from the Tskarostavi monastery, she is otherwise unknown. David bore the name of the biblical king-prophet, from whom the Georgian Bagratids claimed their descent, Davids father, George II, was confronted by a major threat to the kingdom of Georgia. Watching his kingdom slip into chaos, George II ceded the crown to his 16-year-old son David in 1089, Davids formal cooption into government may have occurred even earlier, in 1083, when George II left Georgia for the negotiations at the court of the Seljuq sultan Malik-Shah I. Despite his age, he was involved in Georgia’s political life. Backed by his tutor and an influential churchman George of Chqondidi, David IV pursued a purposeful policy, between 1089–1100, King David organized small detachments of his loyal troops to restore order and destroy isolated enemy troops.
David supported the establishment and gradual expansion of a well-organized and highly effective spy network and he began the resettlement of devastated regions and helped to revive major cities. In 1101, King David captured the fortress of Zedazeni, a point in his struggle for Kakheti and Hereti. In 1093, he arrested the powerful feudal lord Liparit Baghvashi, an enemy of the Georgian crown. After the death of Liparit’s son Rati, David abolished their duchy of Kldekari in 1103, by 1099 David IVs power was considerable enough that he was able to refuse paying tribute to the Turks. By that time, he rejected a Byzantine title of panhypersebastos thus indicating that Georgia would deal with the Byzantine Empire only on a parity basis
Principality of Antioch
The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem and it had roughly 20,000 inhabitants in the 12th century, most of whom were Armenians and Greek Orthodox Christians, with a few Muslims outside the city itself. Few of the inhabitants apart from the Crusaders were Roman Catholic even though the city was turned into a Latin Patriarchate in 1100. While Baldwin of Boulogne and Tancred headed east from Asia Minor to set up the County of Edessa, Bohemond of Taranto commanded the siege which commenced in October 1097. With over four hundred towers, the defenses were formidable. Bohemond convinced a guard in one of the towers, an Armenian and former Christian named Firouz, only four days later, a Muslim army from Mosul, led by Kerbogha, arrived to besiege the Crusaders themselves. Alexius I Comnenus, the Byzantine emperor, was on his way to assist the Crusaders, the Crusaders withstood the siege, with help from a mystic named Peter Bartholomew.
Peter claimed he had visited by St. Andrew, who told him that the Holy Lance. The cathedral of St. Peter was excavated, and the Lance was discovered by Peter himself, although Peter most likely planted it there himself, it helped raise the spirits of the Crusaders. There was a dispute over who should control the city. Bohemond and the Italian Normans eventually won, and Bohemond named himself prince, meanwhile, an unknown epidemic spread throughout the Crusader camp, Adhemar of Le Puy was one of the victims. Following Bohemonds capture in battle with the Danishmends in 1100, his nephew Tancred became regent, Tancred expanded the borders of the Principality, seizing the cities of Tarsus and Latakia from the Byzantine Empire. However those newly captured cities along with other territory were lost after the Battle of Harran when Baldwin II of Edessa was captured, Bohemond was released in 1103 and went to Italy to raise more troops in 1104, during which time Tancred remained regent of Antioch. Bohemond used the troops he raised to attack the Byzantines in 1107, Bohemond was defeated at Dyrrhachium in 1108 and was forced by Alexius I to sign the Treaty of Devol, making Antioch a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire upon Bohemonds death.
Bohemond had promised to any land that was seized from the Muslims when the Crusaders passed through Constantinople in 1097. Bohemond fought at Aleppo with Baldwin and Joscelin of the County of Edessa, Bohemond left Tancred as regent once more and returned to Italy, where he died in 1111. Alexius wanted Tancred to return the Principality in its entirety to Byzantium, but Tancred was supported by the County of Tripoli, Tancred, in fact, had been the only Crusade leader who did not swear to return conquered land to Alexius. Tancred died in 1112 and was succeeded by Bohemond II, under the regency of Tancreds nephew Roger of Salerno, on June 27,1119, Roger was killed at the Ager Sanguinis, and Antioch became a vassal state of Jerusalem with King Baldwin II as regent until 1126
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon was a Frankish knight, and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076, after the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Christ and he is known as the Baron of the Holy Sepulchre and the Crusader King. Godfrey of Bouillon was born around 1060 as the son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne. His birthplace was probably Boulogne-sur-Mer, although one 13th-century chronicler cites Baisy, as second son, he had fewer opportunities than his older brother and seemed destined to become just one more minor knight in service to a rich landed nobleman. However his maternal uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, died childless and named his nephew, Godfrey of Bouillon, as his heir and this duchy was an important one at the time, serving as a buffer between the kingdom of France and the German lands.
Godfrey served Henry IV loyally, supporting him even when Pope Gregory VII was battling the German king in the Investiture Controversy. Godfrey fought alongside Henry and his forces against the forces of Rudolf of Swabia. A major test of Godfrey’s leadership skills was shown in his battles to defend his inheritance against a significant array of enemies, claims were raised by his uncles estranged wife, Mathilda of Tuscany, Albert III, Count of Namur, and Theoderic Flamens, Count of Veluwe. This coalition was joined by Theoderic, Bishop of Verdun, and two minor counts attempting to share in the spoils, Count of Arlon and Limburg, and Arnold I, Count of Chiny. As these enemies outside the family tried to take portions of his land, Godfreys brothers and Baldwin. Following these long struggles and proving that he was a subject to Henry IV. Still, Godfreys influence in the German kingdom would have been if it had not been for his major role in the First Crusade. In 1095 Urban II, the new Pope, called for a Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim forces, Godfrey took out loans on most of his lands, or sold them, to the bishop of Liège and the bishop of Verdun.
With this money he gathered thousands of knights to fight in the Holy Land as the Crusader Army of Godfrey of Bouillon, in this he was joined by his older brother and his younger brother, who had no lands in Europe. He was not the only major nobleman to gather such an army, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, known as Raymond of Saint-Gilles, created the largest army. At age 55, Raymond was the oldest and perhaps the best known of the Crusader nobles, because of his age and fame, Raymond expected to be the leader of the entire First Crusade. Adhemar, the legate and bishop of Le Puy, travelled with him