Kingdom of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain. It should not be confused with the larger Crown of Aragon, that included other territories — the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, other possessions that are now part of France and Greece — that were under the rule of the King of Aragon, but were administered separately from the Kingdom of Aragon. In 1479, upon John II of Aragon’s death, the crowns of Aragon and Castile were united to form the nucleus of modern Spain; the Aragonese lands, retained autonomous parliamentary and administrative institutions, such as the Corts, until the Nueva Planta decrees, promulgated between 1707 and 1715 by Philip V of Spain in the aftermath of the War of the Spanish Succession put an end to it. Aragon was a Carolingian feudal county around the city of Jaca, which in the first half of the 9th century became a vassal state of the kingdom of Pamplona, its own dynasty of counts ending without male heir in 922.
The name Aragón is the same as that of the river Aragón. It might derive from the Basque Aragona/Haragona meaning "good upper valley". Alternatively, the name may be derived from the earlier Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis. On the death of Sancho III of Navarre in 1035, the Kingdom of Navarre was divided into three parts: Pamplona and its hinterland along with western and coastal Basque districts and Sobrarbe, Ribagorza and Aragon. Sancho's son Gonzalo inherited Sobrarbe and Ribargorza, whereas his illegitimate son Ramiro received Aragon, but Gonzalo was killed soon after and all the land he owned went to his brother Ramiro, thus becoming the first de facto king of Aragon, although he never used that title. By defeating his brother, García Sánchez III of Navarre, Ramiro achieved independence for Aragon, his son Sancho Ramírez, who inherited the kingdom of Navarre, was the first to call himself "King of the Aragonese and Pamplonese". As the Aragonese domains expanded to the south, conquering land from Al Andalus, the capital city moved from Jaca to Huesca, to Zaragoza.
After Alfonso the Battler died childless in 1135, different rulers were chosen for Navarre and Aragon, the two kingdoms ceased to have the same ruler. By 1285 the southernmost areas of what is nowadays Aragon had been taken from the Moors; the Kingdom of Aragon gave the name to the Crown of Aragon, born in 1150 with the dynastic union resulting from the marriage of the Princess of Aragon Petronilla and the Count of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer IV. The King of Aragon had the title of Count of Barcelona and ruled territories that consisted of not only the present administrative region of Aragon but Catalonia, the kingdoms of Majorca, Sicily and Sardinia; the King of Aragón was the direct King of the Aragonese region, held the title of Count of Provence, Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier, Duke of Athens and Neopatria. Each of these titles gave him sovereignty over a certain region, these titles changed as he lost and won territories. In the 14th century, his power was restricted by the Union of Aragon.
The Crown of Aragon became a part of the Spanish monarchy after the dynastic union with Castile, which supposed the de facto unification of both kingdoms under a common monarch. In 1412, after the extinction in 1410 of the house of Barcelona, which had ruled the crown up to that date, the Aragonese procured the election of a Castilian prince, Ferdinand of Antequera, for the vacant Aragonese throne, over strong Catalan opposition. One of Ferdinand's successors, John II of Aragon, countered residual Catalan resistance by arranging for his heir, Ferdinand, to marry Isabella, the heir apparent of Henry IV of Castile. In 1479, upon John II's death, the crowns of Aragon and Castile were united to form the nucleus of modern Spain; the Aragonese lands, retained autonomous parliamentary and administrative institutions, such as the Corts, until the Nueva Planta decrees, promulgated between 1707 and 1715 by Philip V of Spain in the aftermath of the War of the Spanish Succession put an end to it. The decrees ended the kingdoms of Aragon and Mallorca and the Principality of Catalonia, merged them with Castile to form the Spanish kingdom.
A new Nueva Planta decree in 1711 restored some rights in Aragon, such as the Aragonese Civil Rights, but preserved the end of the political independence of the kingdom. The old kingdom of Aragon survived as an administrative unit until 1833, when it was divided into the three existing provinces. In the aftermath of Francisco Franco's death in 1982, Aragon became one of the autonomous communities of Spain. List of Aragonese monarchs List of Aragonese consorts List of Navarrese monarchs List of Counts of Barcelona
Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle
The Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle was fought on 18 August 1304 between the French and the Flemish. The French were led by King Philip IV "the Fair" in person; the French King wanted revenge for the defeat in Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302, after which the Flemish had retaken Douai and Lille. By the beginning of 1304, the French king was ready to attack the Flemish rebels. While the French army, led by the king himself, marched north to attack William of Julich's force, the French navy sailed to Zeeland to unite with the army of Hainault and Holland, it was this combined northern force in Zeeland which struck the first blow on 10–11 August 1304 when it soundly defeated Guy of Namur's army and navy at the Battle of Zierikzee. Philip of Chieti, son of Guy, Count of Flanders, had gathered a strong Flemish army to stop the French invasion and taken up positions on the Pévèle hill. After a day of fighting the outcome was undecided and negotiations were opened between 17:00 and 18:30; when a French force under Guy de Saint-Pol tried to surround the Flemish, he was pushed back.
Now the furious Flemish decided to launch a frontal attack, surprised the French, who thought the battle was over for the day. The Flemish had reached the royal tent, he only escaped because some knights around him covered his flight, paying for this act with their lives. Assisted with mounting his horse, Philip had his horse killed under him. By William of Jülich was killed in a counterattack that the King had managed to launch; as only the Flemish right wing had attacked, the left wing under John I, Marquis of Namur was leaving the battlefield, the Flemish right wing withdrew. The French chose not to pursue the Flemish. During the Flemish attack on Philip, the oriflamme was lost. A hugely symbolic and significant flag. Both sides claimed victory: but the French remained in possession of the battlefield and forced a Flemish retreat; the French conquered Douai and Orchies and burned down Seclin. After further minor battles the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge was signed on 23 June 1305 which recognized Flemish independence, at the cost of the cities of Lille, Douai and Béthune, which were transferred to France, the paying of exorbitant fines to King Philip IV.
Curveiller, Stephane. Dunkerque, ville et port de Flandre à la fin du Moyen âge: à travers les comptes de bailliage de 1358 à 1407. Presses Univ. Septentrion. DeVries, Kelly. Infantry Warfare in the Early Fourteenth Century: Discipline and Technology; the Boydell Press. Six, Georges. "La bataille de Mons-en-Pévèle". Annales de l'Est et du Nord. 1. Verbruggen, J. F.. "De slag bij de Pevelenberg". Bijdragen voor de geschiedenis der Nederlanden. 6: 169–98. Verbruggen, J. F.. The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340; the Boydell Press. Verbruggen, J. F.. The Battle of the Golden Spurs: Courtrai, 11 July 1302. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-888-9
Bungo Province was a province of Japan in eastern Kyūshū in the area of Ōita Prefecture. It was sometimes called Hōshū, with Buzen Province. Bungo bordered Buzen, Hyūga, Higo and Chikuzen Provinces. At the end of the 7th century, Toyo Province was split into Bungo; until the Heian period, Bungo was read as Toyokuni no Michi no Shiri. It is believed that the capital of Bungo was located in the Kokokufu "old capital," section of the city of Ōita, but as of 2016 no archaeological evidence has been found; the honor of the holiest Shinto shrine of Bungo Province was given to Usa Shrine known as Usa Hachimangu or Usa Jingu in Usa district. Usa shrine had not only religious authority but political influence to local governance, but their influence was reduced until the Sengoku period. During the Sengoku period, in the middle of the 16th century, Bungo was a stronghold of the Ōtomo clan; the Ōuchi clan in the western Chūgoku Region was influenced to Buzen politics. In the middle of the period, both clans declined.
After Toyotomi Hideyoshi took the power in Kyūshū, 120 thousand koku of Buzen province was given to Kuroda Yoshitaka since 1587, who made Kokura part of Kitakyushu, his site and built the castle. Other parts of the province were given to other daimyōs. In the year 1600 the Dutch ship piloted by the Englishman Will Adams foundered on Bungo's coast; when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu interviewed Adams, his suspicions that the Jesuits, allowed to operate in Japan since the 1540s, were intent on gaining control of the country, were confirmed. When the time was right, in 1614, Ieyasu banished all Christian activity. Thus, Adams' landing in Bungo proved significant to the nation's subsequent history. < Hearn, Lafcadio. Japan: An Attempt at Interpretation, "The Jesuit Peril" chapter.> In the Meiji period, the provinces of Japan were converted into prefectures. Maps of Japan and Bungo Province were reformed in the 1870s. Sasamuta-jinja and Yusuhara Hachiman-gū were the chief Shinto shrines of Bungo. Ōita Prefecture Amabe District Kitaamabe District - dissolved Minamiamabe District - dissolved Hayami District Hita District - dissolved Kusu District Kunisaki District Higashikunisaki District Nishikunisaki District - dissolved Naoiri District - dissolved Ōno District - dissolved Ōita District - dissolved Kitsuki Domain Mori Domain Funai Domain Media related to Bungo Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Yokoseura is a port located at the northern tip of the Nishisonogi Peninsula on the Japanese island of Kyushu, administratively under Saikai city, Nagasaki Prefecture. It was developed as an entrepot by the Portuguese in 1562 with the permission of the local lord Ōmura Sumitada, but was burned down a year during a rebellion against Sumitada. In 1543, Europeans reached Japan for the first time when a Chinese junk carrying Portuguese traders shipwrecked on Tanegashima; the Portuguese introduced the arquebus to the Japanese during this chance encounter, which gave the Japanese, undergoing the bloody Sengoku period at the time, a powerful weapon with which they conducted their internecine wars. The discovery of Japan was attractive to Portuguese merchants and missionaries alike, for it gave the merchants a new market to trade their goods, the Jesuit missionaries eyed Japan for new converts into Christianity; the warlords of Kyushu vied to get the Portuguese carrack into their harbours, since the ship brought considerable wealth to their fiefdoms in addition to the guns.
The Portuguese made Hirado their preferred port of call, although they visited the ports in Satsuma and Bungo from time to time. The Jesuits felt that the carrack should take turns visiting each port of Kyushu so the priests could cover more ground and convert more people, but the merchants had other priorities in mind: the carrack had to land at a harbour that protected their valuable cargo from the wind and weather, a stable port of call was essential to build a reliable clientele; the daimyō of Hirado, Matsura Takanobu, was accommodative to the missionaries due to their association with the Portuguese traders, but turned hostile once he felt they overdid their evangelization by burning books and destroying Buddhist images. Matsura Takanobu evicted the missionaries from Hirado in 1558, did not allow them to come back for five years. In 1561, 15 Portuguese were killed in Hirado in a brawl with the Japanese while a captain was killed in Akune marking the first recorded clashes between Europeans and the Japanese.
Faced with such events, it became clear to the Portuguese that they needed to find a safer port to call. Under the urgings of the Jesuit viceprovincial Cosme de Torres to find a new port, the Portuguese sounded the harbour of Yokoseura on a discreet fishing boat and found it suitable for large Portuguese ships. Crucially, the local lord. Ōmura Sumitada's district of Sonogi in Hizen Province was lacking in resources. His hold onto these lands was not stable due to an ongoing succession feud, in which Sumitada, an adopted son of Ōmura Sumisaki, was placed in charge instead of the biological but illegitimate son Gotō Takaakira. For these reasons Sumitada depended on the deep water ports to keep himself in power if that meant following the European religion. Sumitada communicated to the missionaries that he would be happy to receive the Portuguese in Yokoseura. In addition, he would let the Jesuits build a church there, make Yokoseura exempt from taxes for ten years, forbid non-Christians to stay there.
With such promising prospects, the Jesuits directed the Portuguese carrack into Yokoseura the next year in 1562. With Sumitada's blessing, a church was built in Yokoseura where a Buddhist temple had once stood, an enormous wooden cross, 18 feet high and 9 feet wide, was erected in front of the church. Soon, the Christian community, the first of its kind in Japan, attracted Christians and merchants from as far as Kyoto. By April 1563, the population of Yokoseura numbered around 300 Christians. Sumitada took an active interest in Christianity, such that he built himself a residence in Yokoseura next to the church and made attending mass compulsory for all residents of Yokoseura. In early June 1563, Sumitada was baptised in the church of Yokoseura, took the baptismal name Bartolomeu, became known as the first Christian daimyō. Sumitada turned out to be quite a fervent Christian, he adorned himself in Christian symbols in place of his traditional familial emblem, razed Buddhist temples, burned the spirit tablet of his adoptive father Sumisaki.
This last act incensed the unbaptised members of the Ōmura clan. Rumours reached Yokoseura on 8 August that Takaakira was plotting to kill Sumitada and Cosme de Torres, but this was contradicted five days by news that Takaakira had sent for a priest to give him a sermon. A party was assembled under the convert Tomonaga Shinsuke to bring the priests Luís Fróis and Juan Fernández to Takaakira's town of Takeo, but Fróis was too sick to travel and the priests decided to stay behind. Tomonaga went on ahead with the party, only to be ambushed and slaughtered by Takaakira's men near the Hario Strait on August 17. Believing that the missionaries to be dead, Takaakira moved to attack Sumitada in his home city of Ōmura, putting him to flight. Having lost the military backing of Sumitada, the situation in Yokoseura became insecure, the Japanese merchants decided to leave the town on the morning of August 18; that night, opportunistic merchants from Bungo Province burned down Yokoseura as they stood to lose if the Portuguese became permanently settled and not go to Bungo any more.
To make that point clear, they abducted the sickly Cosme de Torres and Luís Fróis and tried to use the priests to blackmail the Portuguese into trading in Bungo. The two were released on August 20. With Yokoseura destroyed, the Portuguese were forced to return to Hirado to trade while they find a new anchorage. Sumitada survived the coup and regained control of the Ōmura clan, in 1565 directed the P
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter
Siege of Málaga (1487)
The Siege of Málaga was an action during the Reconquest of Spain in which the Catholic Monarchs conquered the city of Málaga from the Muslims. The siege lasted about four months, it was the first conflict in which ambulances, or dedicated vehicles for the purpose of carrying injured persons, were used. Málaga was the main objective of the 1487 campaign by the Catholic Monarchs against the Emirate of Granada, losing territory to the Christian forces. King Ferdinand II of Aragon left Córdoba with an army of 20,000 horsemen, 50,000 laborers and 8,000 support troops; this contingent joined. The army decided to first attack Vélez-Málaga, continue west to Malaga. Nasrid spies gave word of the movements of the Christians, the inhabitants of Vélez fled to the mountains and the Bentomiz castle; the Spanish reached Vélez-Málaga on 17 April 1487 after a slow advance through difficult country. A few days the lighter siege engines arrived, it had proved impossible to move the heavier ones along the poor roads.
Muhammed XIII, Sultan of Granada made an attempt to relieve Vélez, but was forced to retreat to Granada by the superior forces of the marquis of Cadiz. On his arrival there he found that he had been overthrown in favor of his nephew Abdallah Muhammad XII. Seeing no hope of relief, Vélez capitulated on 27 April 1487 on condition that the lives of the people would be spared, they would keep their property and religion. Smaller places surrendered along the road to Málaga, the next objective; the Moorish city of Mālaqa was the second city in the emirate after Granada itself, a major trading port on the Mediterranean. The city was prosperous, with elegant architecture and fountains; the city was surrounded by fortifications. Above it was the citadel, the Alcazaba of Málaga, connected via a covered way with the impregnable fortress of Gibralfaro. A land-side suburb was ringed by a strong wall. Towards the sea were orchards of olives and pomegranates, vineyards from whose grapes the sweet fortified Malaga wine, an important export, was made.
The city was well-supplied with ammunition. In addition to the normal garrison it contained volunteers from other towns in the regions and a corps of Gomeres and disciplined African mercenaries. Hamet el Zegrí, the former defender of Ronda, was in command of the defense. While still at Vélez, Ferdinand attempted to negotiate a surrender on good terms, but his offers were refused by Hamet el Zegrí. Ferdinand left Velez on 7 May 1487 and advanced along the coast to Bezmiliana, about six miles from Málaga, where the road led between two heights defended by the Muslims. A fight ensued that continued until evening, when the Christians managed to turn the position and the Muslims retreated to the Gibralfaro fortress; the landward height was converted into a Christian strong point, they began construction of works encircling the city. These were either a trench and palisade, or an earth embankment where the ground was too rocky for excavation. A fleet of armed ships and caravels placed in the harbor cut off all access to the city from the sea.
The first Christian attack was against the landward suburb. They breached the wall, after strong resistance the Muslims were driven back into the city. King Ferdinand II sent an expedition to the ruins of Algeciras to retrieve stone balls used in the Siege of Algeciras so they could be used against Málaga. Queen Isabella joined her husband, accompanied by her court and by various high clergymen and nobles, a move that helped to boost morale; the Muslims kept up fire from the city on the Christian lines, made repeated sallies, sometimes in strength. There were attempts to relieve the city. In one case El Zagal sent a body of cavalry from Guadix, but a stronger force sent by Abdallah intercepted and defeated it. Abdallah followed up by sending costly gifts to the Catholic monarchs and assuring them of his friendly disposition. In return, the monarchs agreed to leave his subjects in peace and to allow non-military trade between Granada and Spain. Málaga began to run short of food supplies; the Christians received two Flemish transports with military supplies sent by Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Ferdinand had intended to starve the city out, but became impatient with the delays and began construction of mobile siege towers that could be used to bridge the walls, mines to enter the city from below or to undermine the walls. The Muslims attacked and destroyed the towers, counter-mined and drove out the Christians, sent out armed vessels against the Christian fleet. However, after three months the Christians managed to take possession of an outlying tower attached with a bridge of four arches to the city wall, a key point from which to advance into the city. By this time the Malagans had run out of stores of food and had been reduced to the extremes of eating dogs and cats, eating the leaves of vines and palms and chewing hides. Seeing their extreme suffering, Hamet el Zegrí agreed to withdraw with his forces to the Gibralfaro, let the population make terms with the Christians. After unsuccessful attempts to negotiate terms, the representatives of the city capitulated without conditions, throwing themselves on Ferdinand's mercy.
The city surrendered on 13 August 1487. The citadel held out until 18 August 1487 when its leader, the merchant Ali Dordux, surrendered on the basis that his group of twenty-five families would be allowed to stay as Mudéjars; the monarchs entered triumphantly on 18 August 1487. The fortress of the Gibralfaro, under the command of Hamet el Zegrí, surrendered the next day; the conquest of Málaga was a harsh blow to the Nas
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr
ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-ʿAwwām was the leader of a caliphate based in Mecca that rivaled the Umayyads between 683 until his death. The son of al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Asma bint Abi Bakr, Ibn al-Zubayr belonged to the Quraysh, the leading tribe of the nascent Muslim community, was the first child born to the Muhajirun, Islam's earliest converts; as a youth, he participated in the early Muslim conquests alongside his father in Syria and Egypt, played a role in the Muslim conquests of North Africa and northern Iran in 647 and 650, respectively. During the First Muslim Civil War, he fought on the side of his aunt A'isha against Caliph Ali. Though little is heard of Ibn al-Zubayr during the subsequent reign of the first Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya I, it was known that he opposed the latter's designation of his son, Yazid I, as his successor. Ibn al-Zubayr, along with much of the Quraysh and the Ansar, the leading Muslim groups of the Hejaz, opposed the caliphate becoming an inheritable institution of the Umayyads.
Ibn al-Zubayr established himself in Mecca where he rallied opposition to Yazid's reign, before proclaiming himself caliph in the wake of Yazid's death in 683, marking the beginning of the Second Muslim Civil War. Meanwhile, Yazid's son and successor died weeks into his reign, precipitating the collapse of Umayyad authority across the caliphate, most of whose provinces subsequently accepted the suzerainty of Ibn al-Zubayr. Though recognized as caliph, his authority was nominal outside of the Hejaz. By 685, the Umayyad Caliphate had been reconstituted under Marwan I in Syria and Egypt, while Zubayrid authority was being challenged in Iraq and Arabia by pro-Alid and Kharijite forces. Ibn al-Zubayr's brother Mus'ab was able to reassert Ibn al-Zubayr's suzerainty in Iraq by 686, but was defeated and killed by Marwan's successor Abd al-Malik in 691; the Umayyad commander al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf proceeded to besiege Ibn al-Zubayr in his Meccan stronghold, where he was slain in 692. Through the prestige of his family ties and social links with the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his strong association with the holy city of Mecca, Ibn al-Zubayr was able to lead the influential, disaffected Muslim factions opposed to Umayyad rule.
He sought to reestablish the Hejaz as the political center of the caliphate. However, his refusal to leave Mecca precluded him from exercising power in the more populous provinces where he depended on his brother Mus'ab and other loyalists, who ruled with virtual independence, he thus played a minor active role in the struggle carried out in his name. Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr was born in Medina in the Hejaz in May 624, he was the eldest son of al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, a ṣaḥābī of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leading Muslim figure. He belonged to the Banu Asad clan of the Quraysh, the dominant tribe of Mecca, a trade center in the Hejaz and location of the Ka'aba, the holiest sanctuary in Islam. Ibn al-Zubayr's paternal grandmother was Safiyya bint Abd al-Muttalib, the paternal aunt of Muhammad, his mother was Asma, a daughter of the first caliph, Abu Bakr, sister of A'isha, a wife of Muhammad. According to the 9th-century historians Ibn Habib and Ibn Qutayba, Ibn al-Zubayr was the first child born to the Muhajirun, the earliest converts to Islam, exiled from Mecca to Medina.
These early social and religious links to Muhammad, his family and the first Muslims all boosted Ibn al-Zubayr's reputation in adulthood. Ibn al-Zubayr had a number of children, his first wife was Tumadir bint Manzur ibn Zabban ibn Sayyar ibn Amr of the Banu Fazara. She bore him his eldest son Khubayb, hence Ibn al-Zubayr's kunya "Abu Khubayb", other sons Hamza, Abbad, al-Zubayr and Thabit, she or another of Ibn al-Zubayr's wives, Umm al-Hasan Nafisa, a daughter of Muhammad's grandson Hasan ibn Ali, bore his daughter Ruqayya. Tumadir's sister Zajla was at one point married to Ibn al-Zubayr, he was married to A'isha, a daughter of Uthman ibn Affan, who served as caliph in 644–656. A'isha or Nafisa mothered Ibn al-Zubayr's son Bakr, of whom little is reported in the traditional sources. Ibn al-Zubayr divorced A'isha following the birth of their son. From another wife, Hantama bint Abd al-Rahman ibn Hisham, Ibn al-Zubayr had his son'Amir; as a child, during the reign of Caliph Umar in 636, Ibn al-Zubayr may have been present with his father at the Battle of Yarmouk against the Byzantines in Syria.
He was present with his father in Amr ibn al-As's campaign against Byzantine Egypt in 640. In 647, Ibn al-Zubayr took part in the Muslim conquest of Ifriqiya under the commander Abd Allah ibn Sa'd. During that campaign, Ibn al-Zubayr slew Gregory, he issued a victory speech, well known for its eloquence, on his return to Medina. He joined Sa'id ibn al-As in the latter's offensive in northern Iran in 650. Caliph Uthman appointed Ibn al-Zubayr to the commission charged with the recension of the Qur'an. In the aftermath of Uthman's assassination in June 656, he fought alongside his father and his aunt A'isha against the partisans of Uthman's successor, Caliph Ali, at the Battle of the Camel in Basra in December. Ibn al-Zubayr's father was killed and Ali was victorious. Ibn al-Zubayr returned to Medina with A'isha and took part in the arbitration to end the First Fitna in Adhruh or Dumat al-Jandal. During the talks, he counseled Abd Allah ibn Umar to pay for the support of Amr ibn al-As. Ibn al-Zubayr did not oppose Mu'awiya I's accession to the caliphate in 661 and remained inactive during the course of his reign.
However, he refused to recognize Mu'awiya's nomination of hi