The Fatimid Caliphate was a Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin ruled across the Mediterranean coast of Africa and made Egypt the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt varying areas of the Maghreb, Sicily, the Levant, Hijaz; the Fatimids claimed descent from the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Fatimid state took shape among the Kutama Berbers, in the West of the North African littoral, in Algeria, in 909 conquering Raqqada, the Aghlabid capital. In 921 the Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia as their new capital. In 948 they shifted their capital near Kairouan in Tunisia. In 969 they established Cairo as the capital of their caliphate; the ruling class belonged to the Ismaili branch of Shi'ism. The existence of the caliphate marked the only time the descendants of Ali and Fatimah were united to any degree and the name "Fatimid" refers to Fatimah.
The different term Fatimite is sometimes used to refer to the caliphate's subjects. After the initial conquests, the caliphate allowed a degree of religious tolerance towards non-Ismaili sects of Islam, as well as to Jews, Maltese Christians, Egyptian Coptic Christians. However, its leaders made little headway in persuading the Egyptian population to adopt its religious beliefs. During the late eleventh and twelfth centuries the Fatimid caliphate declined and in 1171 Saladin invaded its territory, he incorporated the Fatimid state into the Abbasid Caliphate. The Fatimid Caliphate's religious ideology originated in an Ismaili Shia movement launched in the 9th century in Salamiyah, Syria by the eighth Ismaili Imam, Abd Allah al-Akbar, he claimed descent through Ismail, the seventh Ismaili Imam, from Fatimah and her husband ‘Alī ibn-Abī-Tālib, the first Shī‘a Imām, whence his name al-Fātimī "the Fatimid". The eighth to tenth Ismaili Imams, (Abadullah and Husain, remained hidden and worked for the movement against the rulers of the period.
Together with his son, the 11th Imam Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, in the guise of a merchant, made his way to Sijilmasa, in present-day Morocco, fleeing persecution by the Abbasids, who found their Isma'ili Shi'ite beliefs not only unorthodox, but threatening to the status quo of their caliphate. According to legend,'Abdullah and his son were fulfilling a prophecy that the mahdi would come from Mesopotamia to Sijilmasa, they hid among the population of Sijilmasa an independent emirate, ruled by Prince Yasa' ibn Midrar. The dedicated Shi'ite Abu Abdallah al-Shi'i supported Al-Mahdi. Al-Shi ` i started his preaching; these men bragged about the country of the Kutama in western Ifriqiya, the hostility of the Kutama towards, their complete independence from, the Aghlabid rulers. This triggered al-Shi ` i to travel to the region; the Berber peasants, oppressed for decades under the corrupt Aghlabid rule, would prove themselves to be a perfect basis for sedition. Al-Shi'i began conquering cities in the region: first Mila Sétif and Raqqada, the Aghlabid capital.
In 909 Al-Shi'i sent a large expedition force to rescue the Mahdi, conquering the Khariji state of Tahert on its way there. After gaining his freedom, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah became the leader of the growing state and assumed the position of imam and caliph. Abdullāh al-Mahdi's control soon extended over all of the Maghreb, an area consisting of the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria and Libya, which he ruled from Mahdia; the newly built city of Al-Mansuriya, or Mansuriyya, near Kairouan, served as the capital of the Fatimid Caliphate during the rule of the Imams Al-Mansur Billah and Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah. In 969 the Fatimid general Jawhar the Sicilian conquered Egypt, where he built near Fusṭāt a new palace city which he called al-Manṣūriyya. Under Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah the Fatimids conquered the Ikhshidid Wilayah, founding a new capital at al-Qāhira in 969; the name al-Qāhirah, meaning "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror", referenced the planet Mars, "The Subduer", rising in the sky at the time when the construction of the city started.
Cairo was intended as a royal enclosure for the Fatimid caliph and his army - the actual administrative and economic capitals of Egypt were cities such as Fustat until 1169. After Egypt, the Fatimids continued to conquer the surrounding areas until they ruled from Tunisia to Syria, as well as Sicily. Under the Fatimids, Egypt became the centre of an empire that included at its peak parts of North Africa, Palestine, Lebanon, the Red Sea coast of Africa, Tihamah and Yemen. Egypt flourished, the Fatimids developed an extensive trade network both in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean, their trade and diplomatic ties, extending all the way to China under the Song Dynasty determined the economic course of Egypt during the High Middle Ages. The Fatimid focus on long-distance trade was accompanied by a lack of interest in agriculture and a neglect of the Nile irrigation system. Al-Mahdiyya, the fir
Tiberius was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus. Born to Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla in a Claudian family, he was given the personal name Tiberius Claudius Nero, his mother divorced Nero and married Octavian—later to ascend to Emperor as Augustus—who became his stepfather. Tiberius would marry Augustus' daughter, Julia the Elder, later be adopted by Augustus. Through the adoption, he became a Julian, assuming the name Tiberius Julius Caesar; the emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the following thirty years. His relationship to the other emperors of this dynasty was as follows: Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, grand-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, great-grand uncle of Nero, his 22-and-a-half-year reign would be the longest after Augustus's until Antoninus Pius, who surpassed his reign by a few months. Tiberius was one of the greatest Roman generals. So, he came to be remembered as a dark and sombre ruler who never desired to be emperor.
After the death of his son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD, Tiberius became more reclusive and aloof. In 26 AD he removed himself from Rome and left administration in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro; when Tiberius died, he was succeeded by Caligula. Tiberius was born in Rome on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius Claudius Livia. In 39 BC his mother divorced his biological father and remarried Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus shortly thereafter, while still pregnant with Tiberius Nero's son. In 38 BC his brother, Nero Claudius Drusus, was born. Little is recorded of Tiberius' early life. In 32 BC Tiberius, at the age of nine, delivered the eulogy for his biological father at the rostra. In 29 BC, he rode in the triumphal chariot along with his adoptive father Octavian in celebration of the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. In 23 BC Emperor Augustus became gravely ill and his possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again.
Historians agree that it is during this time that the question of Augustus' heir became most acute, while Augustus had seemed to indicate that Agrippa and Marcellus would carry on his position in the event of his death, the ambiguity of succession became Augustus' chief problem. In response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among them Tiberius and his brother Drusus. In 24 BC, at the age of seventeen, Tiberius entered politics under Augustus' direction, receiving the position of quaestor, was granted the right to stand for election as praetor and consul five years in advance of the age required by law. Similar provisions were made for Drusus. Shortly thereafter Tiberius began appearing in court as an advocate, it is here that his interest in Greek rhetoric began. In 20 BC, Tiberius was sent East under Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa; the Parthian Empire had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Decidius Saxa, Mark Antony. After a year of negotiation, Tiberius led a sizable force into Armenia with the goal of establishing it as a Roman client state and ending the threat it posed on the Roman-Parthian border.
Augustus was able to reach a compromise whereby the standards were returned, Armenia remained a neutral territory between the two powers. Tiberius married Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of Augustus’s close friend and greatest general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, he was appointed to the position of praetor, was sent with his legions to assist his brother Drusus in campaigns in the west. While Drusus focused his forces in Gallia Narbonensis and along the German frontier, Tiberius combated the tribes in the Alps and within Transalpine Gaul, conquering Raetia. In 15 BC he discovered the sources of the Danube, soon afterwards the bend of the middle course. Returning to Rome in 13 BC, Tiberius was appointed as consul, around this same time his son, Drusus Julius Caesar, was born. Agrippa's death in 12 BC elevated Drusus with respect to the succession. At Augustus’ request in 11 BC, Tiberius divorced Vipsania and married Julia the Elder, Augustus' daughter and Agrippa's widow. Tiberius was reluctant to do this, as Julia had made advances to him when she was married and Tiberius was married.
His new marriage with Julia turned sour. Tiberius once ran into Vipsania again, proceeded to follow her home crying and begging forgiveness. Tiberius continued to be elevated by Augustus, after Agrippa's death and his brother Drusus' death in 9 BC, seemed the clear candidate for succession; as such, in 12 BC he received military commissions in Germania. In 6 BC, Tiberius launched a pincer movement against the Marcomanni. Setting out northwest from Carnuntum on the Danube with four legions, Tiberius passed through Quadi territory in order to invade Marcomanni territory from the east. Meanwhile, general Gaius Sentius Saturninus would depart east from Moguntiacum on the Rhine with two or three legions, pass through newly annexed Hermundur
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
The Hodna Mountains are a mountain massif in northeastern Algeria. It rises on the northern side of the Hodna natural region in the M'Sila Province, near the town of Maadid around 200 km southeast of Algiers; these mountains are one of the ranges of the Saharan Atlas, part of the Atlas Mountain System. The Hodna Mountain ridge is located south of Kabylie, it sits at a parallel latitude in a east–west direction between the Bibans in the northwest and the Belezma Range in the east. The highest peak, at 1,902 meters, is the Djebel Tachrirt; the Maadid Range, the Kiyāna Range and the'Aqqār Range are other subranges of the Hodna Mountains. The Hodna Range has a zone of about 8,000 ha of natural cedar forest near Boutaleb growing in xerophile conditions; the former inhabitants of the Hodna Mountains built a complex system of water retention walls named jessour. They were built parallel to the level curves forming steps in the talwegs. On the northern slopes of the Djebel Tachrirt the walls were constructed above the ground level, allowing the snow to accumulate and to melt in order to distribute the available water resulting from the snow melting period.
Most of these traditional water management works are now in ruins. The Beni Hammad Fort or Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad is the ruin of a fortified Muslim city belonging to the Hammadid dynasty, built and settled in 1007 and abandoned in 1090, it includes a 7 km-long line of walls. Inside the walls are four residential complexes, the largest mosque built in Algeria after that of Mansourah, similar to the Grand Mosque of Kairouan, with a tall minaret; the remains of the emir's palace, known as Dal al-Bahr, include three separate residences separated by gardens and pavilions. Excavations of the area have brought to light numerous terracotta items, jewels and ceramics, including a number of decorative fountains using the lion as a motif. In 1980 the Beni Hammad Fort was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. In 945, as Abu Yazid besieged Sousse, Caliph al-Qa'im Bi-Amrillah died and was succeeded by his son al-Mansur. Under al-Mansur's leadership, the Fatimid forces recovered their position, first breaking the siege of Sousse and driving Abū Yazīd's forces out of Kairouan back into the Aurès Mountains.
In 947, the Fatimids defeated them in the Kiyana Mountains of this massif near what became the Beni Hammad Fort. Geography of Algeria Abu Yazid Recueil des Notices et Memoires de la Societe Archeologique du Departement de Constantine Commune mixte des Maâdid puis sous-préfecture de Bordj Bou Arreridj Jessour Histoire Et Archeologie de l'Afrique du Nord - Colloque 1983 Geographie Militaire - Le Hodna
Baldwin III of Jerusalem
Baldwin III was King of Jerusalem from 1143 to 1163. He was the eldest son of Fulk of Jerusalem, he became king while still a child, was at first overshadowed by his mother Melisende, whom he defeated in a civil war. During his reign Jerusalem became more allied with the Byzantine Empire, the Second Crusade tried and failed to conquer Damascus. Baldwin captured the important Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, but had to deal with the increasing power of Nur ad-Din in Syria, he was succeeded by his brother Amalric. Baldwin III was born in 1130, during the reign of his maternal grandfather Baldwin II, one of the original crusaders; this made him the third generation to rule Jerusalem. Baldwin's mother Princess Melisende was heiress to Baldwin II King of Jerusalem. Baldwin III's father was Fulk of the former Count of Anjou. King Baldwin II died at the age of 60 when his grandson was a year old, which led to a power struggle between Melisende and Fulk. Melisende asserted her right to rule as successor to her father, Melisende and Fulk reconciled and conceived a second child, Baldwin III's brother Amalric.
Baldwin III was 13 years old when his father Fulk died in a hunting accident in 1143, Baldwin III was crowned as co-ruler alongside his mother, echoing Melisende's own crowning alongside her father as his heir. Yet Baldwin showed little interest in the intricacies of governance. With a woman and a child ruling Jerusalem, the political situation was somewhat tense. In the Muslim world, Zengi ruled northern Syria from the cities of Mosul and Aleppo, desired to add Damascus in the south to his control. In 1144, Zengi captured Edessa, which led to the Second Crusade; this crusade did not reach Jerusalem until 1148, in the meantime Zengi was assassinated in 1146. He was succeeded by his son Nur ad-Din, just as eager to bring Damascus under his control. To counter this and Damascus had made an alliance for their mutual protection. However, in 1147 Nur ad-Din and Mu'in ad-Din Unur, the governor of Damascus, made an alliance against Jerusalem, as the kingdom had broken the treaty by allying with one of Unur's rebellious vassals.
Baldwin marched out from Jerusalem and attempted to capture the Muslim fortress Bosra, but Nur ad-Din arrived with his army and forced the Crusaders to withdraw. As the Crusaders marched back toward their own territory they were attacked by Nur ad-Din's cavalry, but Baldwin III's generalship combined with the martial prowess of his knights managed to throw off the Muslim assault. Jerusalem's truce with Damascus was restored. In 1148 the crusade arrived in Jerusalem, led by Louis VII of France, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, Conrad III of Germany. Baldwin held a council at Acre in 1148 to decide on a target. Damascus was considered more important in the history of Christianity than Aleppo and Edessa. Baldwin agreed to the plan to attack Damascus, but the ensuing siege ended in defeat after only four days; the city fell under Nur ad-Din's control in 1154, the loss of a Muslim counterweight to Nur ad-Din was a diplomatic disaster. By 1149 the crusaders had returned to Europe. Nur ad-Din took advantage of the crusader defeat to invade Antioch, Prince Raymond was killed in the subsequent Battle of Inab.
Baldwin III hurried north to take up the regency of the principality. Raymond's wife, was Baldwin's cousin through his mother and heiress of Antioch by right of her father. Baldwin unsuccessfully tried to marry her to an ally. In the north, Baldwin was unable to help defend Turbessel, the last remnant of the County of Edessa, was forced to cede it to Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus in August 1150, he evacuated Turbessel's Latin Christian residents despite being attacked by Nur ad-Din in the Battle of Aintab. In 1152 Baldwin and his mother were called to intervene in a dispute between Baldwin's aunt Hodierna of Tripoli and her husband Count Raymond II; when the matter was settled, Hodierna was about to return to Jerusalem with them, when Raymond was murdered by the Hashshashin. Baldwin remained behind to settle the affairs of Tripoli, while Hodierna took up the regency for her young son Raymond III. By 1152 Baldwin had been of age to rule by himself for seven years, he began to assert himself in political affairs.
Though he had not expressed an interest in the administration of the country, he now demanded more authority. He and his mother had become estranged since 1150, Baldwin blamed the constable Manasses for interfering with his legal succession. In early 1152 Baldwin demanded a second coronation from separate from his mother; the patriarch refused and as a kind of self-coronation Baldwin paraded through the city streets with laurel wreaths on his head. Baldwin and Melisende agreed to put the matter before the Haute Cour, or royal council; the Haute Cour returned a decision. Baldwin would retain Galilee in the north, including the cities of Acre and Tyre, while Melisende held the richer Judea and Samaria, including Nablus and Jerusalem itself. Supporting Melisende in the south were Manasses, Baldwin's younger brother Amalric, who held the County of Jaffa within Melisende's jurisdictio
AD 14 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Appuleius; the denomination AD 14 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Augustus' third 20-year census of the Roman Empire reported a total of 4,973,000 citizens. August 19 – Augustus, the first Roman emperor, dies and is declared to be a god. September 18 – Tiberius succeeds his stepfather Augustus as Roman emperor. Legions on the Rhine revolt after the death of Augustus. Germanicus is appointed commander of the forces in Germany, beginning a campaign that will end in 16. Germanicus leads a brutal raid against the Marsi, a German tribe on the upper Ruhr river, who are massacred; the town and port of Nauportus are plundered by a mutinous Roman legion, sent there to build roads and bridges. Sextus Appuleius and Sextus Pompeius serve as Roman consuls. First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty.
Famine hits China. The Hellenistic period ends, according to some scholars. Lucius Caecilius Iucundus, Pompeian banker August 19 – Roman Emperor Augustus August 20 – Agrippa Postumus, grandson of Roman Emperor Augustus Julia the Elder, daughter of Roman Emperor Augustus
The First and Third Samnite Wars were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites, who lived on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains to the south of Rome and the north of the Lucanians. The first of these wars was the result of Rome's intervening to rescue the Campanian city of Capua from a Samnite attack; the second one was the result of Rome's intervention in the politics of the city of Naples and developed into a contest over the control of much of central and southern Italy. The third war involved a struggle over the control of this part of Italy; the wars extended over half a century and the peoples to the east and west of Samnium as well as the peoples of central Italy north of Rome and the Senone Gauls got involved to various degrees and at various points in time. The Samnites were one of early Rome's most formidable rivals. By the time of the first of these wars, the southward expansion of Rome's territory had reached the River Liris, the boundary between Latium and Campania; this river is now called Garigliano and it is the boundary between the modern regions of Lazio and Campania.
In those days the name Campania referred to the plain between the coast and the Apennine Mountains which stretched from the River Liris down to the bays of Naples and Salerno. The northern part of this area was inhabited by the Aurunci and the Ausoni; the central and southern part was inhabited by the Campanians, who were people who had migrated from Samnium and were related to the Samnites, but had developed their distinctive identity. The Samnites were a confederation of four tribes who lived on the mountains to the east of Campania and were the most powerful people in the area; the Samnites and Sidicini spoke Oscan languages. Their languages were part of the Osco-Umbrian linguistic family which included Umbrian and the Sabellian languages to the north of Samnium; the Lucanians who lived to the south were Oscan speakers. Diodorus Siculus and Livy report that in 354 BC Rome and the Samnites concluded a treaty, but neither lists the terms agreed upon. Modern historians have proposed that the treaty established the river Liris as the boundary between their spheres of influence, with Rome's lying to its north and the Samnites' to its south.
This arrangement broke down when the Romans intervened south of the Liris to rescue the Campanian city of Capua from an attack by the Samnites. Livy is the only preserved source to give a continuous account of the war which has become known in modern historiography as the First Samnite War. In addition, the Fasti Triumphales records two Roman triumphs dating to this war and some of the events described by Livy are mentioned by other ancient writers. According to Livy, the First Samnite War started not because of any enmity between Rome and the Samnites, but due to outside events; the spark came when the Samnites without provocation attacked the Sidicini, a tribe living north of Campania with their chief settlement at Teanum Sidicinum. Unable to stand against the Samnites, the Sidicini sought help from the Campanians. However, Livy continues, the Samnites defeated the Campanians in a battle in Sidicine territory and turned their attention toward Campania. First they seized the Tifata hills overlooking Capua and, having left a strong force to hold them, marched into the plain between the hills and Capua.
There they drove them within their walls. This compelled the Campanians to ask Rome for help. At Rome, the Campanian ambassadors were admitted to an audience with the Senate. In a speech, they proposed an alliance between Rome and the Campanians, noting how the Campanians with their famous wealth could be of aid to the Romans, that they could help to subdue the Volsci, who were enemies of Rome, they pointed out that nothing in Rome's treaty with the Samnites prevented them from making a treaty with the Campanians, warning that if they did not, the Samnites would conquer Campania and its strength would be added to the Samnites' instead of to the Romans'. After discussing this proposal, the senate concluded that while there was much to be gained from a treaty with the Campanians, that this fertile area could become Rome's granary, Rome could not ally with them and still be considered loyal to their existing treaty with the Samnites, for this reason they had to refuse the proposal. After being informed of Rome's refusal, the Campanian embassy, in accordance with their instructions, surrendered the people of Campania and the city of Capua unconditionally into the power of Rome.
Moved by this surrender, the Senators resolved that Rome's honour now required that the Campanians and Capua, who by their surrender had become the possession of Rome, be protected from Samnite attacks. Envoys were sent to the Samnites with the introductions to request that they, in view of their mutual friendship with Rome, spare territory which had become the possession of Rome and, if this was not heeded, to warn them to keep their hands off the city of Capua and the territory of Campania; the envoys delivered their message as instructed to the Samnites' national assembly. They were met with a defiant response, "not only did the Samnites declare their intention of waging war against Capua, but their magistrates left the council chamber, in tones loud enough for the envoys to hear, ordered to march out at once into Campanian territory and ravage it." When this news reached Rome, the fetials were sent to demand redress, when this was refused Rome declared war against the Samnites. The