Fujian Province, Republic of China
Fujian is a streamlined province of the Republic of China. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County; the seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County. The current Fujian Province under ROC control was once part of a larger Fujian Province, which consisted of a mainland portion and some islands. After the Chinese Civil War of 1949, the majority of the historical province became Fujian, People's Republic of China, while the remaining islands remained under ROC control, which compose 0.5% of the ROC's territories. The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly twenty years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains; the first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war.
These immigrants were from eight families in central China: Lin, Chen, Zhan, Qiu, He, Hu. The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian. Isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's backward economy and level of development, despite major population boost from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan, Fujian served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian; the Tang dynasty oversaw the next golden age of China. As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by general Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou.
After the death of the founding king, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, was soon swallowed up by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom. Quanzhou was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom, is the largest seaport in the world, its population is greater than Fuzhou. Due to the Ispah Rebellion, Quanzhou was damaged. In the early Ming dynasty, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was hampered by the sea trade ban of the Ming dynasty, the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550. Large scale piracy by Wokou was wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in Taiwan. Incoming refugees, did not translate into a major labor force owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong.
In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan and annexed it into Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Settlement of Taiwan by Han Chinese followed, the majority of people in Taiwan are descendants of Hoklo people from Southern Fujian. Fujian arrived at its present extent after Taiwan was split as its own province in 1885. Just ten more years Taiwan Province would be lost to Japan due to the Qing losing the First Sino-Japanese War which ended in 1895. During the Chinese Civil War, the ROC lost control of mainland China, including most of Fujian province, was forced to relocate to Taiwan, while the victorious Chinese Communist forces established the PRC in 1949, subsequently the capital of Fujian was moved from Foochow to Jincheng. In the Battle of Guningtou, however, ROC forces were able to defend the island of Quemoy just off the coast of Fujian from communist attack; as a result, the ROC has been able to hold on to a number of offshore islands of Fujian, has continued to maintain a separate Fujian Provincial Government to govern these islands, parallel to the province of Fujian in mainland China.
In 1956, due to heightened potential for military conflict with the PRC, the ROC central government moved the Fujian provincial government out of Fujian to within Taiwan Province in Xindian, the islands were placed under an extraordinarily tight military administration due to their extreme proximity to mainland China. This was an unusual situation where the government of a province was located and operating in a different province. With the easing of cross-strait relations between the PRC and ROC and the democratization of the ROC in the 1990s, the islands were returned to civilian government in 1992. On January 15, 1996, the provincial government moved back on Fujian soil; the ROC has diluted the powers of the two provinces it governs, namely Taiwan and Fujian. Most of the authority at the Fujian province level has been delegated to the two county governments of Kinmen and Lienchiang; the Governor of Fujian Province is the head of the Fujian Provincial Government, the governor
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Republic of China Armed Forces
The Republic of China Armed Forces known as the Taiwanese Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Air Force and Military Police Force. It is a military establishment, which accounted for 16.8% of the central budget in the fiscal year of 2003. Since 2002, the military comes under the full civilian control of the Ministry of National Defense and oversight by the Legislative Yuan, it was the National Revolutionary Army before being renamed as the Republic of China Armed Forces in 1947 due to the implementation of the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China. It was historically known as Chinese National Armed Forces; until the 1970s, the military's primary mission was to retake mainland China from the communist People's Republic of China through the Project National Glory. The military's current foremost mission is the defense of the islands of Taiwan, Kinmen and other ROC's islands against a possible military invasion by the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China, seen as the predominant threat to the Republic of China in the ongoing dispute over the political status of Taiwan.
The Republic of China Armed Forces is the national military of the ROC. It is known as "Guojun 國軍", which means "National Army"; when the ROC was in power in mainland China, its army was the National Revolutionary Army until 1928. Other names during the period included the "Chinese Nationalist Army" or the "KMT Army"; the nationalization of the armed forces in 1947 detached the Kuomintang's direct control of the armed forces, it became a national defense force. Due to the institution of civilian control of the military and the 1947 constitution, it was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces. Two years in 1949, The ROC government was forced into exile on the island of Taiwan, the Republic of China Armed Forces continues to be called the Chinese National Armed Forces in connection with the continuing state of unresolved exile; the earliest use of the name "Republic of China Armed Forces" can be found in the first Constitution of the Republic of China in the Beiyang Government in 1923. The Republic of China's army was known as the National Revolutionary Army, founded on mainland China in 1925.
The National Revolutionary Army was the military arm of Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China. It become the regular army of the ROC during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928. However, with the promulgation of the second Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces, while the bulk of its forces formed the Republic of China Army; the army was nationalized and thus no longer belonged to the KMT. The ROC Armed Force relocated to the island of Taiwan after the end of the second phase of the Chinese Civil War in 1949; the Land force was established in 1924. It can be traced back to the establishment of the Whampoa Military Academy in Canton by 1911 revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen and built as the National Revolutionary Army, the military arm of KMT. Whampoa Military Academy was relocated to Fengshan District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan after 1949.
It was re-established as the Republic of China Military Academy, modeled after the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. The Navy of the Qing dynasty was first exposed to Western influence. With the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, many former Qing-naval officer agreed with the revolutionary ideal of Xinhai and joined the ROC Navy. However, with warlordism continuing to plague the territory of the Republic of China, the development of the Republican navy was somewhat slow. Furthermore, there were internal conflicts during its development. During the 2nd Sino-Japanese war, most of the ROC Navy was destroyed by the Imperial Japanese Navy. In 1946 the Republic of China Naval Academy was established in Shanghai; the ROC Marine Corps was formed from the former Navy Sentry Corps in December 1914, it used to have two divisions, 66th and 99th divisions, in size, when its doctrine focused on retaking mainland China. Since its transition to a defensive posture, the ROCMC has been downsized from about 38,000 active personnel to only 9,000.
In 2004, the ROCMC redeployed a brigade near the Taipei area to defend against a possible PLA decapitation strike. The ROC Marine Corps' official motto is "永遠忠誠", modeled after the US Marine Corps's "Semper Fidelis". In 1920 Sun Yat-sen established the Aviation Ministry in Canton, but due to the division of the Southern Warlords, it was dismantled. In 1929, Chiang Kai-shek established the Aviation Class in the ROC Military Academy, it was relocated to Hangzhou in 1931. Following the outbreak of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, the ROC Air Force was responsible for shooting down many Japanese Air force fighters. After 1949 the ROC Air Force Academy was relocated to Taiwan island; the ROC Military Police was established in 1914. It was established as a police guard. In 1932 the nationalist government established the "Command Work of Military Police" and the Service Procedure for the Military Police, which established the military police system. In 1936, the Military police Academy was founded in Nanjing.
The school relocated to Taiwan after 1949. In the 21st century as the PRC vastly increased its defense spending, Taiwan registered the lowest growth in defense spending of the major Asia-Pac
Jinhu Township is an urban township of Kinmen, Fujian Province, Republic of China. It is on the coast of mainland China. Jinhu Township is the largest township in Kinmen County, it has a population of 27,368 and an area of 41.6960 km2. Lianan Village Liaoluo Village Qionglin Village Shanwai Village Xihu Village Xinhu Village Xinshi Village Zhengyi Village August 23 Artillery Battle Museum Chen Jing-lan Western House Kinmen Cultural Village Kinmen National Park Yu Da Wei Xian Sheng Memorial Museum Kinmen Airport Chern Jenn-chuan, Minister of Public Construction Commission List of islands of Taiwan Jinhu Provincial Government website
Kinmen or Quemoy Kinmen County, is two groups of islands governed by the Republic of China and located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The county consists of the Kinmen Islands and the Wuqiu Islands more than 110 kilometres to the northeast, it is one of two counties under the streamlined Fujian Province of the Republic of China. The Kinmen Islands are located only about two kilometres east of the mainland city of Xiamen, their strategic position has reflected the significant change of Cross-Strait relations from a battlefront to a trading point between China and Taiwan. Due to the ongoing issue of the political status of Taiwan, the People's Republic of China has continuously claimed Kinmen County as part of its own Fujian Province, claiming the Kinmen Islands as a Jinmen County of Quanzhou prefecture-level city, claiming the Wuqiu Islands as part of Xiuyu District in Putian prefecture-level city. Kinmen was given its name in 1387 when the Hongwu Emperor of China's Ming dynasty appointed a military officer to administer the island and protect it from wokou attacks.
The name is pronounced Jīnmén in the official Standard Chinese but some of the various names used in English for the islands derive from other Chinese varieties. Quemoy is the name for the island in English and in many European languages and the island's name in postal romanization, it began as a Portuguese transcription of the Zhangzhou Hokkien pronunciation of the name, Kim-mûi. This form of the islands' name was used exclusively in English until the late 20th century and is still used in current English-language contexts that involve historical coverage. For example, current works that deal with the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crises when the islands received prominent worldwide news coverage as "Quemoy" still use this form. In addition, the former National Kinmen Institute of Technology was renamed National Quemoy University in 2010. Kinmen scholar Wei Jian-feng advocates the use of "Quemoy" to better connect the island to "international society or achieve more recognition in the world".
Kinmen is a more recent transcription based on the general rules of the postal romanization system. With some exceptions, this form is used in most current English-language contexts on Kinmen and in Taiwan as a whole. Entities such as the county government, the islands' airport, the national park use this spelling. Chin-men is the Wade–Giles romanization form of the island's name and appears on some maps using that as their standard. Jinmen is the hanyu pinyin form of the island's name used in sources from the People's Republic of China; the Kinmen County Government and ROC central government have adopted Hanyu Pinyin as their standard romanization, such as for names of townships within Kinmen County, but this does not apply to the name of Kinmen itself. People began settling down in Kinmen during the Tang Dynasty, changing the original name from Wuzhou to Kinmen. During the Ming Dynasty, more migrants came to settle down in Kinmen. Koxinga used Kinmen as a base to liberate Kinmen and Penghu from the Dutch.
He cut down trees to build his navy, resulting in massive deforestation that made Kinmen vulnerable to soil erosion. The Prince of Lu, a member of the Southern Ming Dynasty, resisted the invading Manchu Qing Dynasty forces. In 1651, he fled to Kinmen, which the Qing dynasty took in 1663. After the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, Kinmen became part of Fukien Province. Japan did however occupy Kinmen during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October 1949, it was claimed by both the ROC and PRC; the People's Liberation Army extensively shelled the island during the First and Second Taiwan Strait crises in 1954–1955 and 1958 respectively. In 1954, the United States considered responding by using nuclear weapons against the PRC. Kinmen was a military reserve, which led to the tragedy of 1987 Lieyu massacre; the island was returned to the civilian government in the mid-1990s, after which travel to and from it was allowed.
Direct travel between mainland China and Kinmen re-opened in January 2001 under the mini Three Links, there has been extensive tourism development on the island in anticipation of mainland tourists. Direct travel was suspended in 2003 as a result of the SARS outbreak, but has since resumed. Many Taiwanese businessmen use the link through Kinmen to enter the Chinese mainland, seeing it as cheaper and easier than entering through Hong Kong. However, this changed following the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China and the 2008 presidential and legislative victories of the KMT, that allowed easier Cross-Strait relations. Kinmen has experienced a considerable economic boom as businessmen relocate to the island for easier access to the vast markets of the PRC. On 30 June 2014, Dadan Island and Erdan Island were handed over from the military to civilians, represented by Kinmen County Government. Since 1 January 2015, tourists from Mainland China could directly apply the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Kinmen.
This privilege applies to Penghu and Matsu Islands as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan. The people of Kinmen see themselves as Kinmenese, Mínnánrén, or Chinese, but not so much as Taiwanese; the strong Chinese identity was forged during the period of the ROC's military confrontation with the People's Republic of China when Kinmen was under military administration. In the 1980s, as the militarization decreased and martial law wa
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. In this conflict, the PRC shelled the islands of Kinmen and the Matsu Islands along the east coast of mainland China to "liberate" Taiwan from the Chinese Nationalist Party known as the Kuomintang; the crisis started with the 823 Artillery Bombardment at 05:30 PM on August 23, 1958, when the PRC's People's Liberation Army began an intense artillery bombardment against the Islands of Quemoy County. The ROC troops on Kinmen dug in and returned fire. In the heavy exchange of fire 440 ROC soldiers and 460 PRC soldiers were killed; this conflict was a continuation of the First Taiwan Strait Crisis, which had begun after the Korean War ended. The Nationalist Chinese had begun to build on the island of the nearby Matsu archipelago. During 1954, the PLA began some of the nearby Matsu islands; the American Eisenhower Administration responded to the request for aid from the ROC according to its obligations in the ROC-United States mutual defense treaty, ratified in 1954.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the reinforcement of the U. S. Navy Seventh Fleet in the area, he ordered American naval vessels to help the Nationalist Chinese government to protect the supply lines to the islands. In addition, the U. S. Air Force deployed F-100D Super Sabres, F-101C Voodoos, F-104A Starfighters, B-57B Canberras to Taiwan to demonstrate support for the republic; the F-104s were disassembled and airlifted to Taiwan in C-124 Globemaster II transport aircraft, marking the first time such a method was used to move fighter aircraft over a long distance. Under a secret effort called "Operation Black Magic", the U. S. Navy modified some of the F-86 Sabre fighters of the Nationalist Chinese Air Force with its newly developed early AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles; these missiles gave the Nationalist Chinese pilots a decisive edge over the Chinese Communists' Soviet-made MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters in the skies over the Matsu Islands and the Taiwan Strait. The Nationalist Chinese pilots used the Sidewinder missiles to score numerous kills on PLAAF MiG aircraft.
The US Army's contribution reinforced the strategic air defense capability of the Republic of China. A provisional Nike missile battalion was organized at Fort Bliss, TX, sent via USMTS USS General J. C. Breckinridge to Nationalist China; the 2nd Missile Battalion was augmented with detachments of signal and engineers, totaling some 704 personnel. Twelve long-range 203 mm M115 howitzer artillery pieces and numerous 155 mm howitzers were transferred from the U. S. Marine Corps to the Army of the Nationalist China; these were sent west to Kinmen Island to gain superiority in the artillery duel back and forth over the straits there. The impact of these powerful but conventional artillery pieces led some members of the PLA to believe that American artillerymen had begun to use nuclear weapons against them. Soon, the Soviet Union dispatched its foreign minister, Andrei Gromyko, to Beijing to discuss the actions of the PLA and the Communist Chinese Air Force, with advice of caution to the Communist Chinese.
On September 22, 1958, the Sidewinder missile was used for the first time in air-to-air combat as 32 Republic of China F-86s clashed with 100 PRC MiGs in a series of aerial engagements. Numerous MiGs were shot down by Sidewinders, the first "kills" to be scored by air-to-air missiles in combat. Soon, the People's Republic of China was faced with a stalemate, as the PLA's artillerymen had run out of artillery shells; the Communist Chinese government announced a large decrease in bombardment levels on October 6, 1958. Afterwards, both sides continued to bombard each other with shells containing propaganda leaflets on alternate days of the week; this strange informal arrangement continued until the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and the Communist People's Republic of China in 1979. The timed shelling created casualties, it was a way to expend expired ammunition and train new artillery crews for the PRC in what became one-way shelling from Mainland China to Taiwanese-controlled territory.
The question of "Matsu and Quemoy" became an issue in the 1960 U. S. presidential election when Richard Nixon accused John F. Kennedy of being unwilling to commit to using nuclear weapons if the Communist China invaded the Nationalist China outposts; the spent shell casings and fragments have become a recyclable resource for steel for the local economy. Since the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, Kinmen has become famous for its production of meat cleavers made from bombshells. First Taiwan Strait Crisis Third Taiwan Strait Crisis List of battles over Kinmen Chinese Civil War Republic of China Armed Forces Kinmen knife Bush, R. & O'Hanlon, M.. A War Like No Other: The Truth About China's Challenge to America. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-98677-1 Bush, R.. Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-1290-1 Carpenter, T.. America's Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6841-1 Cole, B.. Taiwan's Security: History and Prospects.
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36581-3 Copper, J.. Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China over Taiwan. Praeger Security International General Interest. ISBN 0-275-98888-0 Federati