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Larsen Harbour

Larsen Harbour is a narrow 2.6 miles long inlet of indenting volcanic rocks and sheeted dykes known as the Larsen Harbour Formation. It is a branch of Drygalski Fjord, entered 2.5 miles west-northwest of Nattriss Head, at the southeast end of South Georgia. It was charted by the German Antarctic Expedition, 1911–12, under Filchner, who named it for Captain Carl Anton Larsen a Norwegian Antarctic Explorer, who made significant contributions to the exploration of Antarctica; the most significant being the first discovery of fossils, for which he received the Back Grant from the Royal Geographical Society. Larsen is considered the founder of the Antarctic whaling industry and the settlement at Grytviken, South Georgia; the peaks and mountain crests surrounding the land-locked harbour was described by Sir Ernest Shackleton's photographer Frank Hurley as "most beautiful and exceeding all in grandeur that of Milford Sound ". The Niall Rankin expedition aboard the Albatross, spent some time here as they studied the Weddell seal colony before going on to Esbensen Bay.

The area is rat-free, allowing species such as the South Georgia pipit, burrowing petrels and prions to thrive. Mountains descend steeply into the sea here, various glaciers calve into the sea. Headland, Robert; the Island of South Georgia. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25274-1. Mills, William James. Exploring Polar Frontiers A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Pp. 373–374. ISBN 1-57607-422-6. Murphy, Shane. Shackleton's photographer: Photographs of scenes and diary of incidents in connection with happenings to the Weddell Sea Party, 12 October, 1914 – 16 October, 1917. Scottsdale, AZ: Shane Murphy. ISBN 0-9703148-2-5. Rabassa, Jorge. Antarctic Peninsula & Tierra del Fuego. Taylor and Francis. P. 40. ISBN 978-0-415-41379-4. Stonehouse, Dr Bernard, ed.. Encyclopedia of Antarctica and the Southern Oceans. Toronto: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-98665-8. Wheeler, Tony; the Falklands & South Georgia Island. Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet Publications. P. 160. ISBN 1-74059-643-9. Bell, C. M.. F.. C. "The pre-Cretaceous Larsen Harbour Formation of southern Soulh Georgia".

British Antarctic Survey. MAIR, B. F. "The Larsen Harbour Formation and associated intrusive rocks of southern South Georgia". Bulletin - British Antarctic Survey. British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge. 52: 87–107. ISSN 0007-0262. Carr, Tim. Antarctic oasis: Under the spell of South Georgia. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-04605-2. Retrieved 25 October 2009; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Larsen Harbor"

Fort Pierce, Florida

Fort Pierce is a city in and the county seat of St. Lucie County, United States; the city is part of the Treasure Coast region of Atlantic Coast Florida. It is known as the Sunrise City, sister to San Francisco, the Sunset City; the population was 41,590 at the 2010 census. As of 2018, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau was 46,071, it was named after the Fort Pierce Army post, built nearby in 1838 during the Second Seminole War. The military post had been named for Benjamin Kendrick Pierce, a career United States Army officer and the brother of President Franklin Pierce. Fort Pierce was awarded the 2005 City of Excellence Award by the Florida League of Cities for overall excellence in city government and in 2011, Main Street Fort Pierce, Inc. received the Great American Main Street Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation in downtown. Fort Pierce is located at 27°26′20″N 80°20′8″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.8 mi², of which 14.7 square miles is land and 6.0 square miles of it is water.

According to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Fort Pierce Beach Shore Protection project includes 1.3 miles of shore line running from south of the Fort Pierce Inlet southward to Surfside Park. The project is on a two-year renourishment cycle due to impacts to the beach from the federal navigation project at Fort Pierce Inlet; this two-year renourishment cycle is a much shorter renourishment interval than what is typical for other projects along the east coast of Florida. The initial construction of the project occurred in 1971 and the ninth nourishment was completed in May 2013. Completion of plans and specifications and award for the 10th renourishment contract were completed in FY 2014; the project was scheduled to start mid-February 2015. Sand for the project is dredged from an approved offshore borrow area known as the Capron Shoal and pumped via a pipeline onto the 1.3 miles of beach south of the Fort Pierce Inlet. The sponsor, St. Lucie County, is preparing a General Reevaluation Report for the project at their own expense that will evaluate extending Federal participation for an additional 50 years.

Current Federal participation expires in 2020. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates the total cost of the project to be $75.9 million, with an estimated U. S. Federal Government share of $46.4 million. No funding for the project was requested by the U. S. President from the U. S. Congress in Fiscal Year 2016; the Experimental Oculina Research Reserve preserves the Oculina Banks, a reef of ivory bush coral off the coast of Fort Pierce, Florida. In 1984, a 92 square-nautical-mile portion of these reefs was designated the "Oculina Habitat Area of Particular Concern". In 1994, the area was closed to all manner of bottom fishing and was redesignated as a research reserve. In 2000, the marine protected area was expanded to 300 square nautical miles and prohibited all gears that caused mechanical disruption to the habitat; the city is known for its large manatee population. Due to the devastation caused at the Fort Pierce City Marina by hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in 2004, FEMA mandated a plan to ensure that the rebuilt facility would be protected from future such events before FEMA would release funding for the repairs.

Starting in 2012, construction began to create 12 artificial barrier islands including oyster beds, lime rock artificial reefs, mangrove fringes and coastal dune. The "core" of the islands was constructed of TITANTubes, sometimes referred to as geotextile tubes or geotubes, manufactured by Flint Industries and covered by a coastal marine mattress and armor stone; the project was completed in 2013 after six years of planning and construction and a cost of $18 million. As of the census of 2010, there were 41,910 people, 15,170 households, 9,418 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,021.9 people per square mile. There were 17,170 housing units at an average density of 1,164.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 40.9% African American, 45.3% White, 0.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino were 21.6% of the population. There were 15,170 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.9% were non-families.

32.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.50. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 20 to 24, 13.3% from 25 to 34, 13.0% from 45 to 54, 9.8% from 55 to 64 and 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,869, the median income for a family was $36,337. Males had a median income of $32,412 versus $26,349 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,782. 30.2% of the population were below the poverty line. The city of Fort Pierce has a council–manager government form of local government; the offices of commissioner and mayor are nonpartisan, have a term of four years. The climate of Ft. Pierce is a humid subtropical climate, although it borders a tropical monsoon and a tropical savannah climate.

Summertime temperatures range between 80 and 100 degrees F. Temperatures in the winter range between 55 and 80 degrees F, although some winter days can drop d