Battle of Evesham
The Battle of Evesham was one of the two main battles of 13th century Englands Second Barons War. It marked the defeat of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and it took place on 4 August 1265, near the town of Evesham, Worcestershire. Forced to engage the royalists at Evesham, he faced an army twice the size of his own, the battle soon turned into a massacre, Montfort himself was killed and his body mutilated. Though the battle effectively restored royal authority, scattered resistance remained until the Dictum of Kenilworth was signed in 1267. Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, had gained a dominant position in the government of the Kingdom of England after his victory at the Battle of Lewes a year earlier. He held the King, Prince Edward, and the Kings brother Richard of Cornwall in his custody, his sphere of influence rapidly began to deteriorate due to loss of key allies. In February, Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Derby was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower, an even more important collaborator, Gilbert de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, deserted to the side of the King in May of the same year.
With Gloucesters assistance, Prince Edward escaped from Montforts captivity, with the Lords of the Welsh Marches now in rebellion, Montfort solicited the aid of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the Prince of Wales. Llywelyn agreed to help, in return for recognition of his title. Whatever benefits this alliance might have brought Montfort, the great concessions cost him popularity at home, Edward laid siege to the town of Gloucester, which fell on 29 June. Montforts goal now became to unite with the forces of his son Simon, and engage with the royal army, but the younger Simon moved much too slowly westwards from London. Eventually Simon made it to the stronghold of Kenilworth, but Edward managed to inflict great losses on the enemy. When Montfort realized this, he commented, May the Lord have mercy upon our souls. Heeding a lesson learned at the Battle of Lewes, the royals took position on the high ground, along a ridge called Green Hill, just north of Evesham, Edward set up his forces on the left, with Gloucester commanding the right.
At about eight in the morning, Montfort left the town of Evesham as a thunderstorm began to rage. At Lewes, the forces had gained confidence to win the day by a sense of divine destiny. This time the army had taken their lead, and wore a red cross as their distinguishing mark. According to the chronicler William Rishanger, when Montfort saw the advance of the troops, he exclaimed that They have not learned that for themselves
Valentinian I, known as Valentinian the Great, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375. Upon becoming emperor he made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian fought successfully against the Alamanni, most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium. His brilliant general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great Conspiracy, an assault on Roman Britain by Picts, Scots. Valentinian was the last emperor to conduct campaigns across both the Rhine and Danube rivers, Valentinian rebuilt and improved the fortifications along the frontiers, even building fortresses in enemy territory. Due to the nature of his reign and the rapid decline of the empire after his death. He founded the Valentinian Dynasty, with his sons Gratian and Valentinian II succeeding him in the half of the empire. Valentinian was born in 321 at Cibalae in southern Pannonia and his younger brother Valens were the sons of Gratianus Major, a prominent commander during the reigns of emperors Constantine I and Constans I.
He and his brother grew up on the estate where they were educated in a variety of subjects. Gratian the Elder was promoted to Comes Africae in the late 320s or early 330s, Gratian was soon accused of embezzlement and was forced to retire. Valentinian joined the army in the late 330s and acquired the position of protector domesticus. Gratian was recalled during the early 340s and was made comes of Britannia, after holding this post, Gratianus retired to the family estate in Cibalae. In 350, Constans I was assassinated by agents of the usurper Magnentius, Constantius II, older brother of Constans and emperor in the East, promptly set forth towards Magnentius with a large army. The following year the two met in Pannonia. The ensuing Battle of Mursa Major resulted in a victory for Constantius. Two years he defeated Magnentius again in southern Gaul at the Battle of Mons Seleucus, now realizing the futility of continuing his revolt, committed suicide in August that year, making Constantius sole ruler of the empire.
It was around this time that Constantius confiscated Gratianus property, for supposedly showing hospitality to Magnentius when he was in Pannonia. Despite his fathers fall from favor, Valentinian does not seem to have adversely affected at this time
Second Barons' War
The Second Barons War was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against Royalist forces led by Prince Edward, in the name of Henry III. As a result, a feud developed between de Montfort and Henry and their relationship reached a crisis in the 1250s, when de Montfort was put on trial for actions he took as lieutenant of Gascony, the last remaining Plantagenet lands across the English Channel. Henry became embroiled in funding a war against the Hohenstaufen Dynasty in Sicily on behalf of Pope Innocent IV in return for the Hohenstaufen title King of Sicily for his second son Edmund. This made many barons fearful that Henry was following in the footsteps of his father King John and, like him, when Henrys treasury ran dry, Innocent withdrew the title, and in regranting it to Charles of Anjou in effect negated the sale. Simon de Montfort became leader of those who wanted to reassert the Magna Carta, Henry was forced to take part in the swearing of a collective oath to uphold the Provisions of Oxford.
At the Battle of Lewes in 1264, Henry was defeated, while Henry was reduced to a figurehead king, de Montfort broadened parliamentary representation to include groups beyond the nobility, members from each county of England and many important towns. Henry and Edward continued under house arrest and his son, attempted a negotiated surrender but it was rejected by de Montfort loyalists. The impasse culminated in the six-month Siege of Kenilworth at which the King prevailed, de Montforts forces were permitted to leave the castle with their weapons and horses. Following this victory, savage retribution was exacted on the rebels, the casualties of the war are estimated at 15,000. 1261 – King Henry III of England obtains a papal bull releasing him from the Provisions of Oxford 1264 – Before May – The war officially begins. By the end of the battle, de Montforts forces capture both King Henry and his son, future King Edward I, making de Montfort the uncrowned king of England. 1265 –20 January – In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting in the Palace of Westminster,1265 –28 May – Future King Edward I of England escapes captivity at the hands of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester.
1266 –15 May – The Battle of Chesterfield is fought in Chesterfield,1266 – October – The war winds down as supporters of the slain Simon de Montfort make an offer of peace to the king in the Dictum of Kenilworth. 1267 – The war ends, as the rebels and King Henry III of England agree to terms as laid out in the Dictum of Kenilworth. R. Simon de Montfort, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-37493-6 Carpenter, the reign of Henry III, Hambledon ISBN 1-85285-070-1 Simon de Montfort 2014
For other figures with this name, including his paternal grandfather, see Gratian. Gratian was Roman emperor from 367 to 383, the eldest son of Valentinian I, during his youth Gratian accompanied his father on several campaigns along the Rhine and Danube frontiers. Upon the death of Valentinian in 375, Gratians brother Valentinian II was declared emperor by his fathers soldiers, in 378, Gratians generals won a decisive victory over the Lentienses, a branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria. Gratian subsequently led a campaign across the Rhine, the last emperor to do so and that same year, his uncle Valens was killed in the Battle of Adrianople against the Goths – making Gratian essentially ruler of the entire Roman Empire. He favoured Christianity over traditional Roman religion, refusing the divine attributes of the Emperors, Gratian was the son of Emperor Valentinian I by Marina Severa, and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia. He was named after his grandfather Gratian the Elder, Gratian was first married to Flavia Maxima Constantia, daughter of Constantius II.
His stepmother was Empress Justina and his half siblings were Emperor Valentinian II, Galla. On 24 August 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus, on the death of Valentinian, the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son emperor under the title of Valentinian II. The division, was nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian. Gratians general Mallobaudes, a king of the Franks, and Naniemus, completely defeated the Lentienses, upon receiving news of the victory, Gratian personally led a campaign across the Upper Rhine into the territory of the Lentienses. After initial trouble facing the Lentienses on high ground, Gratian blockaded the enemy instead, the Lentienses were forced to supply young men to be levied into the Roman army, while the remainder were allowed to return home. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on 9 August. Valens refused to wait for Gratian and his army to arrive and assist in defeating the host of Goths and Huns, as a result and Theodosius cleared the Illyricum of barbarians in the Gothic War.
A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain, who was in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the generals, Andragathius. The reign of Gratian forms an important epoch in ecclesiastical history, Gratian published an edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the bishops of Rome and Alexandria. The move was mainly thrust at the various beliefs that had arisen out of Arianism, under the influence of his chief advisor the Bishop of Milan Ambrose, took active steps to repress pagan worship. This brought to an end a period of widespread, if unofficial, in 382, Gratian appropriated the income of the Pagan priests and Vestal Virgins, forbade legacies of real property to them and abolished other privileges belonging to the Vestals and to the pontiffs
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. It was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which inherited its foundation. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Changan and they spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire. By the middle of the dynasty, the unified empire entered a golden age of prosperity with vast agricultural surplus that supported rapid population growth. A lasting legacy of the Sui dynasty was the Grand Canal, the dynasty, which lasted only thirty-seven years, was undermined by ambitious wars and construction projects, which overstretched its resources. Particularly, under Emperor Yang, heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties would eventually induce widespread revolts, the dynasty is often compared to the earlier Qin dynasty for unifying China after prolonged division. Wide-ranging reforms and construction projects were undertaken to consolidate the newly unified state, after crushing an army in the eastern provinces, Yang Jian usurped the throne to become Emperor Wen of Sui.
In a bloody purge, he had fifty-nine princes of the Zhou royal family eliminated, Emperor Wen abolished the anti-Han policies of Zhou and reclaimed his Han surname of Yang. In his campaign for southern conquest, Emperor Wen assembled thousands of boats to confront the forces of the Chen dynasty on the Yangtze River. The largest of ships were very tall, having five layered decks. They were outfitted with six 50-foot-long booms that were used to swing and damage enemy ships, besides employing Xianbei and other Chinese ethnic groups for the fight against Chen, Emperor Wen employed the service of people from southeastern Sichuan, which Sui had recently conquered. In 588, the Sui had amassed 518,000 troops along the bank of the Yangtze River. The Chen dynasty could not withstand such an assault, by 589, Sui troops entered Jiankang and the last emperor of Chen surrendered. Although Emperor Wen was famous for bankrupting the treasury with warfare and construction projects. He established granaries as sources of food and as a means to market prices from the taxation of crops.
The large agricultural surplus supported rapid growth of population to historical peak, the state capital of Changan, while situated in a military-secured heartland of Guanzhong, was remote from the economic centers to the east and south of the empire. Emperor Wen initiated the construction of the Grand Canal, with completion of the first route that directly linked Changan to the Yellow River, Later Emperor Yang would enormously enlarge the scale of the Grand Canal construction. Externally, the emerging nomadic Turkic Khaganate in the north posed a threat to the newly founded dynasty
Manchuria is a modern name, first created by the Japanese, given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the Peoples Republic of China, the definition of Manchuria can be any one of several regions of various size. These are, from smallest to largest, Northeast China, consisting of Heilongjiang and this is the area referred to as Manchuria in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions. Inner Manchuria, the above, plus parts of modern Inner Mongolia, The above, plus Outer Manchuria, the area from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains, in Russian administrative terms, Ussuri krai, southern Harbin oblast, Primorskiy kray. The above, plus Sakhalin Island, which is included on Qing dynasty maps as part of Outer Manchuria even though it is not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The island was included in Manchuria on maps made by the Japanese Shogunate.
Despite of lines on maps and empiress political claims, the island was inhabited by Ainu people until the Soviet Union enforced a policy after 1945. Three centuries and a half must now pass away before entering upon the act of the Manchu drama. During the ensuing two hundred years the Nü-chêns were scarcely heard of, the House of Ming being busily occupied in other directions and it may be noted here that Manchuria is unknown to the Chinese or to the Manchus themselves as a geographical expression. The present extensive home of the Manchus is usually spoken of as the Three Eastern Provinces, namely, Shêngking, or Liao-tung, or Kuan-tung and Heilungchiang or Tsitsihar. — Herbert A. Giles and the Manchus,1912 Manchuria is a translation of the Japanese word Manshū, the Manchu and Chinese languages had no such word as Manchuria and the word has imperialist connotations. According to Bill Sewell, it was Europeans who first started using the name Manchuria to refer to the location, the historian Gavan McCormack agreed with Robert H. G.
The Japanese had their own motive for deliberately spreading the usage of the term Manchuria, the historian Norman Smith wrote that The term Manchuria is controversial. Professor Mariko Asano Tamanoi said that she should use the term in quotation marks when referring to Manchuria, in his 2012 dissertation on the Jurchen people to obtain a Doctor of Philosophy degree in History from the University of Washington, Professor Chad D. In the 18th-century Europe, the known as Manchuria was most commonly referred to as Tartary. However, the term Manchuria started appearing by the end of the century, in current Chinese parlance, an inhabitant of the Northeast, or Northeast China, is a Northeasterner. In China, the term Manchuria is rarely used today, and this usage is seen in the expression Chuǎng Guāndōng referring to the mass migration of Han Chinese to Manchuria in the 19th and 20th centuries. The name Guandong came to be used more narrowly for the area of the Kwantung Leased Territory on the Liaodong Peninsula and it is not to be confused with the southern province of Guangdong
Edward I of England
Edward I, known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law, through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, Edwards attention was drawn towards military affairs, the first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his fathers reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he sided with a baronial reform movement. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained throughout the subsequent armed conflict. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land, the crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died.
Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on 19 August, after suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Initially invited to arbitrate a dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom. In the war followed, the Scots persevered, even though the English seemed victorious at several points. At the same there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation and these crises were initially averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son, Edward II, Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname Longshanks. He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, nevertheless, he held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith.
The Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18 June 1239, to King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Among his childhood friends was his cousin Henry of Almain, son of King Henrys brother Richard of Cornwall, Henry of Almain would remain a close companion of the prince, both through the civil war that followed, and during the crusade. Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard – father of the future Chancellor Godfrey Giffard – until Bartholomew Pecche took over at Giffards death in 1246, there were concerns about Edwards health as a child, and he fell ill in 1246,1247, and 1251
James Douglas, Lord of Douglas
Sir James Douglas was a Scottish knight and feudal lord. He was one of the commanders during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He was the eldest son of Sir William Douglas, known as le Hardi or the bold and his mother was Elizabeth Stewart, the daughter of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, who died circa 1287 or early 1288. His father remarried in late 1288 so Douglas birth had to be prior to that, Douglas was sent to France for safety in the early days of the Wars of Independence, and was educated in Paris. There he met William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews and he returned to Scotland with Lamberton. His lands had seized and awarded to Robert Clifford. The English, since he slew that man, Are keen to him if they can. Now, therefore, if it be your will, With him will I take good or ill, through him I hope my land to win Despite the Clifford and his kin. This was a dramatic moment in Scottish history, Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick had slain John Comyn. Bruce immediately claimed the crown of Scotland, in defiance of the English king, less than seven weeks after the killing in Dumfries, Bruce was crowned King on 25 March.
It was while he was on his way to Glasgow to meet with Bishop Wishart, and to Scone, the site of Scottish coronations. Riding on a horse borrowed from Bishop Lamberton, the site is traditionally believed to be the summit of a hill in Dumfries and Galloway, that is now known as the Crown of Scotland. Douglas explained his circumstances and immediately offered his services, And thus began their friendship true That no mischance could eer undo Nor lessen while they were alive and their friendship more and more would thrive. Douglas was set to share in Bruces early misfortunes, being present at the defeats at Methven and he soon created a formidable reputation for himself as a soldier and a tactician. While Bruce was campaigning in the north against his domestic enemies and he showed himself to be utterly ruthless, particularly in his relentless attacks on the English garrison in his own Douglas Castle, the most famous of which quickly passed into popular history. Barbour dates this incident to Palm Sunday 1307, which fell on 19 March, some question whether this date is too early as Bruce and his small army were not yet established in south-west Scotland, suggesting Palm Sunday 1308 –17 April – as a more accurate date.
Barbour says that the Larder was the first act toward becoming established in part of Scotland. Gathering local support he entered the church and the war-cry Douglas, went up for the first time
Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui, personal name Yang Jian, Xianbei name Puliuru Jian, nickname Naluoyan, was the founder and first emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. He was an administrator and a micromanager. The Sui Shu records him as having withdrawn his favour from the Confucians, giving it to the group advocating Xing-Ming, as a Buddhist, he encouraged the spread of Buddhism through the state. He is regarded as one of the most important emperors in Chinese history, during his reign began the construction of the Grand Canal. As a Northern Zhou official, Yang Jian served with apparent distinction during the reigns of Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou, when the erratic Emperor Xuan died in 580, Yang, as his father-in-law, seized power as regent. After defeating the general Yuchi Jiong, who resisted him, he seized the throne for himself and he was the first Chinese to rule North China after the Xianbei invasion which conquered that area from the Liu Song dynasty. Generally speaking, Emperor Wens reign was a period of prosperity not seen since the Han Dynasty.
It was said there was enough food stored for 50 years. At the beginning of his reign, Sui faced the threat of Tujue to the north, and neighbored Tibetan tribes to the west, Goguryeo in the northeast, and Champa threatening the south. By the end of Emperor Wens reign, Tujue had split into an eastern and a western kaganate, Champa was defeated and, while not conquered, did not remain a threat. Emperor Wen is famous for having the fewest number of concubines for an adult Chinese emperor. Emperor Wen was known for having only two concubines, with whom he not have had sexual relations until after the death in 602 of his wife Empress Dugu. The Yang of Hongnong 弘農楊氏 were asserted as ancestors by the Sui Emperors like the Longxi Lis were asserted as ancestors of the Tang Emperors, Yang Jians clan claimed descent from the Han Dynasty general Yang Zhen. Yang Zhens eighth-generation descendant Yang Xuan served as a governor for a Yan state during the Sixteen Kingdoms Period. Yang Jians father Yang Zhong followed the late-Northern Wei general Yuwen Tai and became prominent in the successor state of Northern Wei, Western Wei.
Yang Jians mother Lady Lü gave birth to him at a Buddhist temple in Fengyi, a Buddhist nun was impressed with his appearance, and raised him in his early years. Yang Jian attended the college for the sons of the nobility. When he was 14 years old, he was appointed to serve in the military under Yüwen Tai, in 555, on account of Yang Zhongs accomplishments, Yang Jian received several official ranks, including the title of the Duke of Chengji
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester
He led the rebellion against King Henry III of England during the Second Barons War of 1263–64, and subsequently became de facto ruler of England. During his rule, Montfort called two famous parliaments, the first stripped the King of unlimited authority, while the second included ordinary citizens from the towns. For this reason, Montfort is regarded today as one of the progenitors of modern parliamentary democracy, after a rule of just over a year, Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the King in the Battle of Evesham. Montfort was a son of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, a French nobleman and crusader. His paternal grandmother was Amicia de Beaumont, the senior co-heiress to the Earldom of Leicester, the elder Simon had acquired vast domains during the Albigensian Crusade, but was killed during the Siege of Toulouse in 1218 and his eldest son Amaury was not able to retain them. When Amaury was rebuffed in his attempt to get the earldom back, Henry was in no position to confront the powerful Earl of Chester, so Simon approached the older, childless man himself and convinced him to cede him the earldom.
It would take nine years before Henry formally invested him with the title Earl of Leicester. Simon de Montfort shared various levels of consanguinuity and by-marriage connections with both English and French royal lineages, for instance, his ancestor Simon I de Montfort was father of Bertrade de Montfort who herself was a paternal great-grandmother of King Henry II. He was descended from Henry I, as a younger son, Simon de Montfort attracted little public attention during his youth, and the date of birth remains unknown. He is first mentioned when his mother made a grant to him in 1217, as a boy, Montfort accompanied his parents during his fathers campaigns against the Cathars. He was with his mother at the Siege of Toulouse in 1218, in addition to Amaury, Simon had another older brother, who was killed at the siege of Castelnaudary in 1220. As a young man, Montfort probably took part in the Albigensian Crusades of the early 1220s and he and Amaury both took part in the Barons Crusade. In 1229 the two surviving brothers came to an arrangement with King Henry whereby Simon gave up his rights in France and Amaury gave up his rights in England.
As Lord of Leicester, he expelled the small Jewish community from Leicester in 1231 and they moved to the eastern suburbs, which were controlled by Montforts great-aunt Margaret, Countess of Winchester. It was a strategy to enhance his popularity in his new domains by banishing the practice of usury, Montfort became a favourite of King Henry III and even issued a charter as Earl of Leicester in 1236, despite having not yet been granted the title. In that same year Simon tried to get Joan, Countess of Flanders to marry him, the idea of an alliance between the rich County of Flanders and a close associate of Henry III of England did not sit well with the French crown. The French Queen Dowager Blanche of Castile convinced Joan to marry Thomas II of Savoy instead, in January 1238, Montfort married Eleanor of England, daughter of King John and Isabella of Angoulême and sister of King Henry III. While this marriage took place with the Kings approval, the act itself was performed secretly and without consulting the great barons, as a marriage of such importance warranted
First War of Scottish Independence
De facto independence was established in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn. England attempted to establish its authority over Scotland while the Scots fought to keep English rule, when King Alexander III ruled Scotland, his reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. On 19 March 1286, Alexander died after falling from his horse, the heir to the throne was Alexanders granddaughter, Maid of Norway. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians, Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney on 26 September 1290. The lack of a clear heir led to a known as the Great Cause. With Scotland threatening to descend into civil war, King Edward I of England was invited in by the Scottish nobility to arbitrate, before the process could begin, he insisted that all of the contenders recognise him as Lord Paramount of Scotland. In early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, Edward proceeded to reverse the rulings of the Scottish Lords and even summoned King John Balliol to stand before the English court as a common plaintiff.
John was a king, known as Toom Tabard or Empty Coat. John renounced his homage in March 1296 and by the end of the month Edward stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, in April, the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar in East Lothian and by July, Edward had forced John to abdicate. Edward instructed his officers to receive homage from some 1,800 Scottish nobles. Throughout Scotland, there was discontent and disorder after the dominion exercised by the English Crown. In 1297, the country erupted in revolt, and Andrew de Moray. Andrew de Moray was the son of a landowner, Sir Andrew de Moray of Petty. Andrew and his father were both captured in the rout after the Battle of Dunbar in April 1296, Andrew the younger was initially held captive in Chester Castle on the Anglo-Welsh border, from which he escaped during the winter of 1296-97. He returned to his fathers castle at Avoch on the shore of the Moray Firth. Moray quickly gathered a band of like-minded patriots, and employing hit-and-run guerrilla tactics, began to attack and devastate every English-garrisoned castle from Banff to Inverness.
The entire province of Moray was soon in revolt against King Edward Is men, and before long Moray had secured Moray, leaving him free to turn his attention to the rest of the northeast of Scotland. Wallace rose to prominence in May 1297, when he killed Sir William Haselrig, the English sheriff of Lanark, when news of Wallaces latest attack on the English rippled throughout Scotland, men rallied to him