SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

August H. Runge

August H. Runge was the Fire Chief of Minneapolis for 20 years, he became the Fire Marshal for North Dakota and was involved in a North Dakota Supreme Court case Runge v. Glerum that forbade interfering with a fire marshal or police officer while on duty. Runge was born on February 1852 in New York City. In 1864 he joined the U. S. Navy. In 1865 he was transferred to the Colorado, of the European squadron. In 1867 he was again transferred, this time to the Pacific contingent. Soon after he resigned and went to the Pennsylvania oil regions, where he studied mechanical engineering. In 1873 he returned to New York, after a brief stay came to Minneapolis, where he took charge of the steam heating plant at the Minneapolis City Hall. While there, in 1874, he volunteered as a member of Hook and Ladder Company No. 1. The same change in the force that affected the chief, on December 21, 1881 influenced his career, he was accordingly advanced to the position of 2d assistant chief, he died in 1921

Paper marbling

Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to smooth marble or other kinds of stone. The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, carefully transferred to an absorbent surface, such as paper or fabric. Through several centuries, people have applied marbled materials to a variety of surfaces, it is employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Part of its appeal is. There are several methods for making marbled papers. A shallow tray is filled with water, various kinds of ink or paint colors are applied to the surface with an ink brush. Various additives or surfactant chemicals are used to help float the colors. A drop of "negative" color made of plain water with the addition of surfactant is used to drive the drop of color into a ring; the process is repeated. The floating colors are carefully manipulated either by blowing on them directly or through a straw, fanning the colors, or using a human hair to stir the colors.

In the 19th century, the Kyoto-based Japanese suminagashi master Tokutaro Yagi developed an alternative method that employed a split piece of bamboo to stir the colors, resulting in concentric spiral designs. A sheet of washi paper is carefully laid onto the water surface to capture the floating design; the paper, made of kozo, must be unsized and strong enough to withstand being immersed in water without tearing. Another method of marbling more familiar to Europeans and Americans is made on the surface of a viscous mucilage, known as size or sizing in English. While this method is referred to as "Turkish marbling" in English and called ebru in modern Turkish, ethnic Turkic peoples were not the only practitioners of the art, as Persian and people of Indian origin made these papers; the use of the term Turkish by Europeans is most due to both the fact that many first encountered the art in Istanbul, as well as essentialist references to all Muslims as Turks, much as Europeans were referred to as Firengi in Turkish and Persian, which means Frankish.

Historic forms of marbling used both organic and inorganic pigments mixed with water for colors, sizes were traditionally made from gum tragacanth, gum karaya, guar gum, fleabane and psyllium. Since the late 19th century, a boiled extract of the carrageenan-rich alga known as Irish moss, has been employed for sizing. Today, many marblers use powdered carrageenan extracted from various seaweeds. Another plant-derived mucilage is made from sodium alginate. In recent years, a synthetic size made from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, a common ingredient in instant wallpaper paste, is used as a size for floating acrylic and oil paints. In the size-based method, colors made from pigments are mixed with a surfactant such as ox gall. Sometimes, oil or turpentine may be added to a color; the colors are spattered or dropped onto the size, one color after another until there is a dense pattern of several colors. Straw from the broom corn was used to make a kind of whisk for sprinkling the paint, or horsehair to create a kind of drop-brush.

Each successive layer of pigment spreads less than the last, the colors may require additional surfactant to float and uniformly expand. Once the colors are laid down, various tools and implements such as rakes and styluses are used in a series of movements to create more intricate designs. Paper or cloth is mordanted beforehand with aluminium sulfate and laid onto the floating colors; the colors are thereby adhered to the surface of the paper or material. The paper or material is carefully lifted off the size and hung up to dry; some marblers drag the paper over a rod to draw off the excess size. If necessary, excess bleeding colors and sizing can be rinsed off, the paper or fabric is allowed to dry. After the print is made, any color residues remaining on the size are skimmed off of the surface, in order to clear it before starting a new pattern. Contemporary marblers employ a variety of modern materials, some in place of or in combination with the more traditional ones. A wide variety of colors are used today in place of the historic pigment colors.

Plastic broom straw can be used instead of broom corn, as well as bamboo sticks, plastic pipettes, eye droppers to drop the colors on the surface of the size. Ox gall is still used as a surfactant for watercolors and gouache, but synthetic surfactants are used in conjunction with acrylic, PVA, oil-based paints. An intriguing reference which some think may be a form of marbling is found in a compilation completed in 986 CE entitled 文房四谱 or "Four Treasures of the Scholar's Study" edited by the 10th century scholar-official 蘇易簡 Su Yijian; this compilation contains information on inkstick, ink brush, paper in China, which are collectively called the four treasures of the study. The text mentions a kind of decorative paper called 流沙箋 Liu Sha Jian meaning “drifting-sand” or “flowing-sand notepaper", made in what is now the region of Sichuan; this paper was made by dragging a piece of paper through a fermented flour paste mixed with various colors, creating a free and irregular design. A second type was made with a paste prepared from honey locust pods, mixed with croton oil, and

Klavier├╝bung (Busoni)

The Klavierübung, by the Italian pianist-composer Ferruccio Busoni, is a compilation of piano exercises and practice pieces, including transcriptions of works by other composers and original compositions of his own. Busoni worked on the Klavierübung at various times during the last seven years of his life, with it, he hoped to pass on his accumulated knowledge of keyboard technique; the Klavierübung is not a comprehensive or systematic graduated course of study, nor is it intended for beginning or intermediate students. Instead it assumes the student has mastered standard piano technique and has reached a virtuoso level. Busoni proceeds by adding refinements, short cuts, unusual solutions for pianistic problems encountered in a performing artist's repertoire; the included exercises and examples reflect Busoni's own special, but diverse and abilities. Edward J. Dent, author of the first definitive biography of Busoni, had this to say about the exercises and studies in the Klavierübung: "...they are all extraordinarily interesting and stimulating.

They are interesting too as helping to elucidate some of Busoni's other compositions, for the studies show how certain of his harmonic devices grew out of purely pianistic principles based on definite positions of the hands on the keyboard. Every one of the studies has genuine musical originality, the exercises to be repeated in all keys are a good deal more musical than such forms of torture are made to be." The Klavierübung was first published by Breitkopf & Härtel in separate parts beginning in 1918. Part 2 appeared in 1919, parts 3 and 4 two years later; the fifth, what was to be the final part, appeared in 1922. Kindermann, who prepared the first extensive catalog of Busoni's works in 1980, refers to this "First Edition" as Klavierübung in fünf Teilen, Breitkopf & Härtel republished a collected edition under this name ca. 1996. Part 1 consists of six tutorials. Tutorials I to V were written in three days, tutorial VI one month later; the first piece of Part 2 was written on 7 November 1917, the remainder from 4 to 10 June 1918.

It consists of three tutorials. Each tutorial begins with exercises and moves on to short original pieces and adaptions or transcriptions of excerpts from the repertory. For instance, the first tutorial starts with traditional scales adds two excerpts which require power and speed: the first is from Liszt's Totentanz, the second is based on two bars in Busoni's "Turandots Frauengemach"; this is followed by two original compositions: a 16-bar "Tempo di Valse" and a 33-bar "Preludio," both of which emphasize legato scales at moderate speed. Busoni lists at the bottom one or more pieces from the repertoire as examples suitable for further study. In the case of the "Preludio," the Beispiel is Alkan's first etude from Etudes dans tous les tons majeurs; the first tutorial exemplifies a blueprint, used for the subsequent tutorials, each emphasizing a different aspect of piano technique. These include, in addition to the "simple" scales of the first tutorial: forms derived from scales; because of distractions, including ill health, other concerns, not least being the work on his lifelong masterpiece, the opera Doktor Faust, many planned components of the Klavierübung were delayed or never realized.

For instance, the foreword was not written until July 1920, did not appear until the publication of Part 3 in 1921. Part 2 contains material which should have been included in Part 1, in tutorials V and VI. Part 3 presents additional material appropriate to Part 1, as appendices. A "Chromaticon" for Part 4, mentioned in a footnote to the Foreword, had to be abandoned, was hurriedly replaced with his edition of Eight Etudes by Cramer first published in 1897. Part 5 consists of existing pieces. If Busoni had lived longer, he would have included much more. For example, there are no tutorials on the important technique of pedalling, for which he was well known. From December 1923 to January 1924 Busoni did manage to reorganize and enrich the material for a second edition of 284 pages. Entitled Klavierübung in zehn Büchern, it was published posthumously in 1925 as Volume VIII of the Bach-Busoni Edition. Only a small number of copies of the second edition were printed, until it has been a major rarity.

It is now available online. The second edition is important, since it contains all Busoni's last piano compositions. Two of these are not found elsewhere and are of special interest, since they were intended as source material for the unfinished final scene of Doktor Faust: 1) "Veloce e leggiero" 2) "Study for the Third Pedal" Busoni did not disclose the source of the extracts on which he based many of the pieces in the Klavierübung, they are simply titled, for example, "Nach Bach" or "Nach Schubert." Both Beaumont and Sitsky have provided detailed descriptions of the contents of both the first and sec