Frants Peter Diderik Henningsen was a Danish painter and professor. His paintings depict unfortunate occurrences in the lives of people living in Copenhagen during difficult times. Erik Henningsen, an artist, was his younger brother, after graduating from Borgerdyd School in Christianshavn, Henningsen attended C. V. Nielsens drawing school and attended the Danish Academy where he completed his studies in 1875. From 1877 to 1878, he studied at Léon Bonnats school in Paris, in 1878, he travelled to Spain together with Peder Severin Krøyer, Frans Schwartz and Julius Lange. His painting of En Begravelse shows how he had mastered the use of colour from the Spanish school and his dark tones and a deep, dull black are not unlike Édouard Manet and the early works of Krøyer. His interest in compassion rather than beautification can be seen in his masterpiece of a mother in Forladt. Dog ej af Venner i Nøden, media related to Frants Henningsen at Wikimedia Commons
Michael Peter Ancher was a Danish realist artist. He is remembered above all for his paintings of fishermen and other scenes from the Danish fishing community in Skagen, Michael Peter Ancher was born at Rutsker on the island of Bornholm. The son of a merchant, he attended school in Rønne but was unable to complete his secondary education as his father ran into financial difficulties. In 1865, he work as an apprentice clerk at Kalø Manor near Rønde in eastern Jutland. The following year, he met the painters Theodor Philipsen and Vilhelm Groth who had arrived in the area to paint, impressed with his own early work, they encouraged him to take up painting as a profession. In 1871, he spent a period at C. V Nielsens art school as a preliminary to joining the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen in the year. Although he spent some time at the academy, he left in 1875 without graduating, one of his student companions was Karl Madsen who invited him to travel to Skagen, a small fishing village in the far north of Jutland where the Baltic and North Sea converge.
From the mid-1870s, he and Madsen became key members of a group of artists who congregated there each summer, after Ancher first visited Skagen in 1874, he settled there joining the growing society of artists. The colony of painters regularly met in the Brøndums Hotel in Skagen in order to exchange ideas, in 1880 Ancher married fellow painter and Skagen native Anna Brøndum, whose father owned the Brøndums Hotel. In the first years of their marriage, the couple had a home and studio in the Garden House, after the birth of their daughter Helga in 1883, the family moved to Markvej in Skagen. He achieved his breakthrough in 1879 with the painting Vil han klare pynten. Michael Anchers works depict Skagens heroic fishermen and their experiences at sea, combining realism. Key works include The Lifeboat is Carried Through The Dunes, The Crew Are Saved, Michael Ancher was influenced by his traditional training at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in the 1870s which imposed strict rules for composition.
His marriage to Anna Ancher did, introduce him to the concept of undecorated reproduction of reality. By combining the pictorial composition of his youth with the teachings of naturalism, Michael Ancher created what has been called modern monumental figurative art, such as A Baptism. The works of Anna and Michael Ancher can among other places be seen at the Skagens Museum, Statens Museum for Kunst, Michael Ancher received the Eckersberg Medal in 1889 and in 1894 the Order of the Dannebrog. Originally many of Anchers paintings hung in the room of the Brøndums Hotel. Krøyer conceived the idea of placing paintings by different artists in the wall panels, in 1946 the dining hall was moved to Skagens Museum
Architecture of Denmark
The architecture of Denmark has its origins in the Viking period, richly revealed by archaeological finds. It became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, Gothic churches and it was during this period that, in a country with little access to stone, brick became the construction material of choice, not just for churches but for fortifications and castles. In parallel, the style became popular for ordinary dwellings in towns. Late in his reign, Christian IV became a proponent of Baroque which was to continue for a considerable time with many impressive buildings both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism came initially from France but was adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th century National Romantic style and it was not, until the 1960s that Danish architects entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalism. Archaeological excavations in parts of Denmark have revealed much about the way the Vikings lived.
One of the most notable sites is Hedeby, located some 45 km south of the Danish border near the German town of Schleswig, it probably dates back to the end of the 8th century. The houses are deemed to be among the most sophisticated dwellings of their time, oak frames were used for the walls, and the roofs were probably thatched. Viking ring houses, such as those at Trelleborg, near Slagelse on the Danish island of Zealand, have a different, ship-like shape. Each house consisted of a central hall,18 m ×8 m. Those at Fyrkat in the north of Jutland were 28.5 m long,5 m wide at the ends and 7.5 m in the middle, the walls consisted of double rows of posts with planks wedged horizontally between them. A series of posts slanted towards the wall were possibly used to support the building like buttresses. Denmarks first churches from the 9th century were built of timber and have not survived, hundreds of stone churches in the Romanesque style were built in the 12th and 13th centuries. They had a nave and chancel with small rounded windows.
Among the finest examples of brick Romanesque buildings are St. Bendts Church in Ringsted, the church at Østerlars on the island of Bornholm was built around 1150. Like three other churches on the island, it is a round church, the three-storeyed building is supported by a circular outer wall and an exceptionally wide, hollow central column. Construction of Lund Cathedral in Scania started in about 1103 when the region was part of the Kingdom of Denmark and it was the first of great Danish Romanesque cathedrals in the shape of a three-aisled basilica with transepts
Otto Bache was a Danish Realist painter. Many of his works depict key events in Danish history, at the age of only eleven, he received a dispensation and was admitted into the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, studying under Wilhelm Marstrand, among others. In 1866, he received the Academys travel grant and went to Paris and his stay in Paris had a particularly deep impact on his work, turning it in a direction characterized by more freedom, more colour, stronger light, and broader scope. Upon his return in 1868, he was married and he was named a Commander in the Order of the Dannebrog and was awarded the Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn. He received early recognition as a painter but he showed great interest in painting animal motifs, gradually turning to genre works. Media related to Otto Bache at Wikimedia Commons
Erik Ludvig Henningsen was a Danish painter and illustrator. He is best known for his Social Realist paintings of poor and he was the younger brother of Frants Henningsen who was a painter. Erik Henningsen was born on 29 August 1855 in Copenhagen to Frants Ludvig Henningsen, a grocer and he showed an early artistic talent and was articled to decorative painter A. Hellesen. He took drawing lessons privately with C. V. Nielsen and was admitted to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1873. He graduated in 1877 and won awards and distinctions, including the Academys Annual Medal in 1887 and 1890, the Ancher Prize in 1889. His travels took him to Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, Henningsen became part of the group Bogstaveligheden, a forum for the Realists humanitarian ideals about creating a better society through illumination and debate. In his paintings from the 1880s and 1890s, Henningsen was preoccupied with the rights and living conditions of such as the unemployed, workers, children. Examples are Summum jus, summa injuria, the infanticide (1886, The Hirschsprung Collection and Evicted.
He depicted the lighter aspects of life, as in his paintings of street life in Copenhagen. Towards the turn of the century Henningsen mainly painted historical scenes, an example is his mural in the banquet hall of the University of Copenhagens main building on Vor Frue Plads in Copenhagen. It depicts the banquet at the Scandinavian Scientist Conference held in Roskilde in 1847 and it completed a series of murals depicting the history of the university of which the earlier painting had been created by Vilhelm Marstrand, Carl Bloch and Vilhelm Rosenstand. During the two first decades of the 20th century he mainly painted genre works from the lives of the bourgeoisie, Henningsen worked as an illustrator, both for the weekly magazine Ude og Hjemme and books such as Pietro Krohns Peters Jul. In 1900, the Tuborg Breweries announced a competition for an advertisement poster to mark its 25 years jubilee. It has since obtained iconic status and become one of the most immediately recognizable posters in Denmark, morning in Adressekontorets Gaard A snowy day at Gammeltorv Summum jus, summa injuria
Jesus Church, Copenhagen
The Jesus Church is a church situated just off Valby Langgade in the Valby district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was commissioned by second-generation Carlsberg brewer Carl Jacobsen and designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup, noted for its extensive ornamentation and artwork, it is considered to be one of the countrys most idiosyncratic and unconventional examples of church architecture. The church was built as a mausoleum for Carl Jacobsen and his family and is located close to their house as well as the former Carlsberg brewery site. Their sarcophagi lie in the crypt, throughout the church, there are ornaments and inscriptions associated with the family. Jacobsen, had decided to bequeath Gammel Carlsberg to the Carlsberg Foundation, on his death, Carl Jacobsen received a sum of 1,000,000 Danish kroner. In 1883, he and his wife Ottilia decided to divide the money into four equal amounts, the first of these was the Ny Carlsberg Church Grant that was to fund the creation of a new church in Valby within 10 years.
Jacobsen had already acquired the land in 1879 and in 1882 he assigned Vilhelm Dahlerup to the project. He requested a church which would surpass all other churches in Copenhagen in beauty, specifying that it should be in the style of early Christian basilica architecture as seen in Italy and France. The sum proved inadequate but, thinking more about art than money, on completion of the work, the costs had exceeded the original budget fourfold. Construction of the church was begun in 1884 and it was consecrated on 15 November 1891, the campanile was not added until 1894-95 as a birthday present from his mother. There were, rather precise instructions on how the Jesus Church should be designed. In particular, Jacobsen provided Dahlerup with a number of photographs of the old churches and artwork in Ravenna, Dahlerup was inspired by Notre-Dame la Grande in Poitiers, and by the synagogue in Toledo, Spain. The church is indeed designed in the style of an early basilica with a campanile or detached bell tower.
For the Danish Lutheran community, its style and rich ornamentation were rather unconventional, at one point, Carl Jacobsen was described by his own priest as a freethinker, unready to follow the trends and the dogma of the day. Unusually, the church is oriented along an axis with the altar at the southern end. It is built as a basilica with a chancel, topped by a nonagonal dome with a pyramidal spire. The campanile tower stands close to the north-east corner of the church, the main facade is dominated by three large arches, resting on two heavy granite columns with characteristic twin capitals leading into the portico. Above the arches, the pediment has intricate ornamentation, the centre of the pediment boasts a rose window, the largest of its kind in Denmark, composed of cathedral glass in yellow and green nuances supported by cames of lead
Danish Americans are Americans who have ancestral roots originated fully or partially from Denmark. There are approximately 1,500,000 Americans of Danish origin or descent, the first Dane known to have arrived in North America was explorer Vitus Jonassen Bering. In 1728, he documented the narrow body of water that separated North America and Asia, Bering was the first European to arrive in Alaska in 1741. In 1666, the Danish West India Company took control of the island of St. Thomas in the Caribbean and eventually, the Danes brought African slaves to those islands, where the slaves were put to work in the snuff and sugar industries. These early settlers began to trade with New England. In 1917, they sold the islands to the United States, in the early seventeenth century, individual Danish immigrants became established in North America. Scandinavians and Norwegians in particular, made up a portion of the settlers in the Dutch colony of New Netherland. After 1750, Danish families in the Protestant Moravian Brethren denomination immigrated to Pennsylvania, until 1850, most Danes who emigrated to North America were unmarried men.
During this period, some Danes achieved notability and recognition, the trail established by Lassen was followed by the forty-niners during the California Gold Rush. Lassen is considered one of the most important early settlers of California, from 1820 and 1850, about 60 Danes settled in the United States every year. The first significant wave of Danish immigrants consisted mainly of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints members who settled in United States in 1850 and they settled in the newly acquired state of Utah, which had been under Mexican control until 1848. There were 17,000 such immigrants, many of these settled in farming communities in the Sanpete. Today, these counties respectively have the second and fifth largest percentages of Danish Americans in the United States and they were called North Slesvigers, most of these Danes are recorded in the census statistics as immigrants from Germany rather than Denmark. Most Danes who immigrated to the United States after 1865 did so for economic reasons, by 1865, there had been a large increase in the Danish population in Europe because of the improvement in the medicine and food industries.
It caused a high rate of poverty and ultimately resulted in a significant, another reason for migration was the sale of lands. Many Danes became farmers in the United States, during the 1870s, almost half of all Danish immigrants to the United States settled in family groups. By the 1890s, family immigration made up only of 25 percent of the total and it has been suggested that many of these immigrants eventually returned to Denmark. C. has the smallest Danish American population, with 1,047 counted in 2000. About 30,000 Danish Americans continue to speak the Danish language, according to the 2000 US Census Bureau,33,400 people spoke Danish at home, that figure was down to 29,467 five years later, a decrease of about 11. 8%
Paul Gustav Fischer
Paul Gustav Fischer was a Danish painter. Paul Fischer belongs to the generation of Fischers to live in Denmark. This Jewish family originally came from Poland, the family was upper middle class, Pauls father had started as a painter, but succeeded in the business of manufacturing paints and lacquers. His formal art education lasted only a time in his mid teens when he spent two years at the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen. Fischer began to paint when he was young, guided by his father. It was thanks to a painting he had published in Ude og Hjemme that his reputation began to evolve as he came in contact with young Danish naturalists and his earlier paintings depict city life. For this reason, he has been called Copenhagens painter or Københavns maler, after a stay in Paris from 1891–1895, his colours became richer and lighter. It was not long before Fischer gained fame as a painter of cities, not just Copenhagen and he benefited from contemporaries in Norway and Sweden, especially Carl Larsson.
Around this time, he painted bright, sunny bathing scenes, some with nude women. During the period when he painted, Danish art was dominated by Laurits Tuxen. Despite Fischers lack of recognition during his lifetime, his art sold well
Danish art is the visual arts produced in Denmark or by Danish artists. It goes back thousands of years with significant artifacts from the 2nd millennium BC, for many early periods, it is usually considered as part of the wider Nordic art of Scandinavia. Art from what is today Denmark forms part of the art of the Nordic Bronze Age, Danish medieval painting is almost entirely known from church frescos such as those from the 16th-century artist known as the Elmelunde Master. The Reformation greatly disrupted Danish artistic traditions, and left the body of painters and sculptors without large markets. Thereafter for an extended period art in Denmark was either imported from Germany, from the late 18th century on, the situation changed radically and beginning with the Danish Golden Age, a distinct tradition of Danish art has continued to flourish until today. Due to generous art subsidies, contemporary Danish art has a big production per capita, lurs are a distinctive type of giant curving Bronze Age horn, of which 35 of the 53 known examples have been found in bogs in Denmark, very often in pairs.
They are normally made of bronze, and often decorated, a possibly alien find in Denmark is the Gundestrup cauldron, a richly decorated silver vessel, thought to date to the 1st century BC. It was found in 1891 in a bog near the hamlet of Gundestrup in north-eastern Jutland. The silversmithing of the plates is very skilled, the bowl,70 cm across, was beaten from a single ingot. Now in the National Museum of Denmark, it is the largest known example of European silver work from the period, the style and workmanship suggest Thracian origin, while the imagery seems Celtic, so it may not reflect local styles. Danish sites have given their names to two of the six main styles of Viking or Norse art, Jelling style and its successor Mammen style, only one Danish ship burial is known, from Ladbyskibet. The images on the runestones at Jelling are probably the best known Danish works of the period, church wall paintings are to be found in some 600 churches across Denmark, probably representing the highest concentration of surviving church murals anywhere in the world.
Most of them back to the Middle Ages. They lay hidden for centuries as after the Reformation in Denmark, of most interest to Danish art are the Gothic paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters. Adopting the Biblia pauperum approach, they present many of the most popular stories from the Old, albrecht Dürers portrait of her father Christian II of Denmark, painted in Brussels in 1521, has not survived, though portraits of him by other foreign artists have. After a period of development its pupils were indeed to lead the creation of a distinct Danish style, leading Danish artists teaching at the Academy included Christian August Lorentzen and Jens Juel, later Director. Among his works are the series of statues of Christ. Motifs for his works were mostly from Greek mythology, but he created portraits of important personalities, as in his tomb monument for Pope Pius VII in St Peters Basilica
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Anton Rosen was a Danish architect, furniture designer, decorative artist and professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. In his architecture, he combined a free Historicist style with inspiration from contemporary English architecture, anton Rosen was born on 9 September 1859 in Horsens, the son of an apprentice mason. The family moved to Copenhagen and young Rosen was accepted into the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1877, after graduating in 1882 he was employed with Vilhelm Dahlerup and in 1883 moved to Silkeborg to oversee the construction of Silkeborg Bath. The time with Vilhelm Dahlerup, until 1884 and again from 1890 to 1896, had influence on his works. Rosen participated in many of the exhibitions which were popular around the turn of the century. The success with the latter made him a professor at the Academy and won him its gold medal as well as the Eckersberg Medal, with support from Hack Kampmann
Anna Ancher was a Danish artist associated with the Skagen Painters, an artists colony on the northern point of Jutland, Denmark. She is considered to be one of Denmarks greatest visual artists, Anna Kirstine Brøndum was born in Skagen, the daughter of Erik Andersen Brøndum and Ane Hedvig Møller. She was the one of the Skagen Painters who was actually born and grew up in Skagen. The artistic talent of Anna Ancher became obvious at an early age and she studied drawing in Paris at the atelier of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes along with Marie Triepcke, who would marry Peder Severin Krøyer, another Skagen painter. In 1880 she married fellow painter Michael Ancher, whom she met in Skagen and they had one child, daughter Helga Ancher. Despite pressure from society that women should devote themselves to household duties. Anna Ancher was considered to be one of the great Danish pictorial artists by virtue of her abilities as a character painter and colorist. Her art found its expression in Nordic arts modern breakthrough towards a more truthful depiction of reality, e. g.
in Blue Ane, Ancher preferred to paint interiors and simple themes from the everyday lives of the Skagen people, especially fishermen and children. She was intensely preoccupied with exploring light and color, as in Interior with Clematis and she created more complex compositions such as A Funeral. Anna Anchers works often represented Danish art abroad and she was awarded the Ingenio et Arti medal in 1913 and the Tagea Brandt Rejselegat in 1924. The Skagen residence of Anne and Michael Ancher was purchased in 1884, in 1913, a large studio annex was added to the property, and this formed part of what is on display today. Upon her death in 1964, the Anchers daughter, left the house, the former residence was restored and opened as a museum and visitor attraction. In 1967, Michael and Anna Anchers house in Skagen was converted into a museum by the Helga Ancher Foundation before Anchers Hus opened to the public for tours, original furniture and paintings created by the Anchers and other Skagen artists are shown in the restored home and studio.
Anna and Michael Ancher were featured on the front side of the DKK1000 bill, I Am Anna, A Homage to Anna Ancher. Brøndums Hotel Danish Skagen Paintings Paintings and drawings by Anna Ancher