The Führer Headquarters, abbreviated FHQ, were a number of official headquarters used by the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and various other German commanders and officials throughout Europe during the Second World War. The last one used, the Führerbunker in Berlin, where Hitler committed suicide on 30 April 1945, is the most known headquarters. Other notable headquarters are the Wolfsschanze in East Prussia, where Claus von Stauffenberg in league with other conspirators attempted to assassinate Hitler on 20 July 1944, Hitler's private home, the Berghof, at Obersalzberg near Berchtesgaden, where he met with prominent foreign and domestic officials. At the beginning of World War II there were no permanent headquarters constructed for the German supreme leader, the Führer. Hitler visited the frontlines by using his special train, the Führersonderzug; the first permanent installation which became a Führer Headquarters was the Felsennest, used by Hitler during the Battle of France in May, 1940. Hitler spent little time in Berlin during the war, the dwellings he most used were the Berghof and the Wolfsschanze, spending more than 800 days at the latter.
The Führer Headquarters were designed to work as command facilities for the Führer, which meant all necessary demands were taken into consideration. Berghof and the Obersalzberg complex were modified and extended with considerable defense facilities; the Wehrmachtbericht, a daily report on the situation at the front, was broadcast from the Führer Headquarters. The Fuhrerhauptquartiere programme used over one million cubic metres of concrete, more than half at Anlage Riese and Wolfsschlucht II. Forced labourers worked for nearly twelve million working days; the Führer Headquarters cannot be considered as strict military headquarters. Since Hitler frequently intervened in the military command structure, the FHQs more than became de facto military headquarters. In reality, the Führer Headquarters consisted of Adolf Hitler and his entourage, including the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, liaison officers and adjutants; every place Hitler stayed cannot be considered as a Führer Headquarters, he did not stay at every official FHQ.
Furthermore, some sources may not refer to the Berghof and the Führerbunker as official German Führerhauptquartiere at that time in history, but both of them became de facto Führer Headquarters. The Berghof was modified in much the same way as other FHQs, Hitler had daily conferences on military matters there in the latter part of the war; the "Eagle's Nest", i.e. the Kehlsteinhaus, was used and may not be considered a FHQ as such alone. The Führerbunker was located about 8.5 metres beneath the garden of the old Reich Chancellery at Wilhelmstraße 77, 120 metres north of the new Reich Chancellery building at Voßstraße 6 in Berlin. It became a de facto Führer Headquarters during the Battle of Berlin, the last one of his headquarters. There were about 14 known completed Führer Headquarters: The Führersonderzug train was named Führersonderzug "Amerika" in 1940, Führersonderzug "Brandenburg"; the train was used as a headquarters until the Balkans Campaign. Afterwards, the train was not used as Führer Headquarters, however Hitler continued to travel on it throughout the war between Berlin, Berchtesgaden and other headquarters.
National Redoubt Nazi architecture Vorbunker Map over places Antony. Berlin – The Downfall 1945. Viking-Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-670-03041-5. Eberle, Henrik; the Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler's Personal Aides. New York: Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-366-1. Hansen, Hans-Josef: Felsennest - Das vergessene Führerhauptquartier in der Eifel. Bau, Zerstörung. Aachen 2006, Helios-Verlag, ISBN 3-938208-21-X. Kuffner, Alexander: Zeitreiseführer Eifel 1933-45. Helios, Aachen 2007, ISBN 978-3-938208-42-7. Lehrer, Steven; the Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker Complex. An Illustrated History of the Seat of the Nazi Regime. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-2393-4. McNab, Chris. Hitler's Fortresses: German Fortifications and Defences 1939-45. Oxford. ISBN 978-1-78200-828-6. Raiber, Guide to Hitler's Headquarters, After the Battle, No.19, Special Edition, Battle of Britain International Ltd, 1977, London Ramsey, Winston G. & Posch, The Berlin Führerbunker: The Thirteenth Hole, After the Battle, No.61, Special Edition, Battle of Britain International Ltd, 1988, London Pierre Rhode/Werner Sünkel: Wolfsschlucht 2 – Autopsie eines Führerhauptquartiers, Verlag Werner Sünkel Geschichte+Technik, Leinburg 1993, ISBN 3-930060-81-7 Werner Sünkel/Rudolf Rack/Pierre Rhode: Adlerhorst – Autopsie eines Führerhauptquartiers, Verlag Werner Sünkel Geschichte +Technik, Offenhausen 1998, ISBN 3-930060-97-3 von Loringhoven, Bernd Freytag/d’Alançon, François: Mit Hitler im Bunker.
Aufzeichnungen aus dem Führerhauptquartier Juli 1944 – April 1945. Berlin 2005, wjs-V
The Holocaust known as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews—around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—between 1941 and 1945. Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including Slavs, the Roma, the "incurably sick", political and religious dissenters such as communists and Jehovah's Witnesses, gay men. Taking into account all the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises to over 17 million. Germany implemented the persecution of the Jews in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor in January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935.
On 9–10 November 1938, during Kristallnacht, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria, which Germany had annexed in March that year. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. Thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe; the deportation of Jews to the ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, across all territories controlled by the Axis powers. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with Wehrmacht police battalions and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings between 1941 and 1945.
By mid-1942, victims were being deported from the ghettos in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were killed in gas chambers. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945; the term holocaust, first used in 1895 to describe the massacre of Armenians, comes from the Greek: ὁλόκαυστος, translit. Holókaustos; the Century Dictionary defined it in 1904 as "a sacrifice or offering consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations". The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews, first used in a pamphlet in 1940, Sho'at Yehudei Polin, published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland. On 3 October 1941 the cover of the magazine The American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust" to refer to the situation in France, in May 1943 The New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".
In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish". The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust, about a fictional family of German Jews, in November 1978 the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established; as non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims too, many Jews chose to use the terms Shoah or Churban instead. The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between 1941 and 1945, of the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews. In Teaching the Holocaust, Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views the events of Kristallnacht in Germany in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; the third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators", distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust". According to Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, most historians regard the start of the "Holocaust era" as January 1933, when Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Other victims of the Holocaust era include. Hitler came to see the Jews as "uniquely dangerous to Germany", according to Peter Hayes, "and therefore uniquely destined t
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Adolf Hitler and Stefanie Rabatsch
Stefanie Rabatsch was an Austrian woman, an unrequited love of then-teenage Adolf Hitler, a claim made by Hitler's childhood friend August Kubizek. Her Jewish-sounding maiden name, has been subject to speculation in this context. However, there is no evidence apart from Kubizek that Hitler had such an attachment. Kubizek, a childhood friend and biographer of his childhood experience with Hitler, wrote about Stefanie in his book, Adolf Hitler, My Childhood Friend, he alleges that Hitler fell in love with her after she passed by him during her daily daughter-mother stroll in Linz, glancing at him. In Kubizek's account, although in love with her to the point of suicide, Hitler never once spoke with her, she married an Austrian army officer. Stefanie stated in interviews that she was unaware of Hitler's feelings towards her, little is known about her life; the one-sided relationship has been discussed in many books. Some question the accuracy of the only source for the story. Others accept that there is some basis of fact, but downplay the significance of the youthful infatuation, while yet others consider that it gives valuable insight into the development of Hitler's personality.
August Kubizek, a music student from Linz, first met Hitler when the two were competing for a place to stand during an opera performance. According to him, Hitler's passion for Stefanie began in spring 1905, when he was 16 and attending school in Linz, she was 17. Kubizek describes the first time he heard about Hitler's obsession as follows: "One evening in the spring of 1905, as we were taking our usual stroll, Adolf gripped my arm and asked me excitedly what I thought of that slim blonde girl walking along the Landstrasse arm-in-arm with her mother.'You must know, I'm in love with her,' he added resolutely."Stefanie Beata Isak was born on 26 December 1887 in Niemes, Kingdom of Bohemia. She was more than a year older than him. Stefanie had returned to Linz after professional training in Geneva, she had a brother, Karl Richard Isak, studying law in Vienna. In the 1950s, Dr. Franz Jetzinger had two pictures of Stefanie in her youth, one from 1904 and one in ball dress from 1907. Kubizek describes her as "a distinguished-looking girl and slim.
She had thick fair hair, which she wore swept back in a bun. Her eyes were beautiful". According to Kubizek, Hitler never spoke to Stefanie, always saying he would do so "tomorrow". Kubizek wrote that Hitler loathed those who flirted with her the military officers, whom he called "conceited blockheads", it annoyed him that Stefanie mixed with such idlers who, he insisted, wore corsets and used scent". Hitler insisted that Kubizek stalk Stefanie and delivered daily reports on her activity while he was away visiting his mother or family. In one report, Kubizek wrote that Stefanie had taken lessons. Hitler disliked dancing and replied, "Stefanie only dances because she is forced to by society on which she depends on. Once Stefanie is my wife, she won't have the slightest desire to dance!" In June 1906, Stefanie gave Hitler a smile and a flower from her bouquet as she was passing him in her carriage. Kubizek described the scene:"Never again did I see Adolf as happy as he was at that moment; when the carriage had passed he dragged me aside and with emotion he gazed at the flower, this visible pledge of her love.
I can still hear his voice, trembling with excitement,'She loves me!' "After Hitler's mother died of breast cancer in 1907, the funeral procession went through Urfahr to Leonding. Kubizek remarks that Hitler said he had seen Stefanie at the funeral procession, which gave him some consolation. Kubizek claims that "Stefanie had no idea how Adolf was in love with her; when she responded with a smile to his inquiring glance, he was happy and his mood became unlike anything I had observed in him. But when Stefanie, as happened just as coldly ignored his gaze, he was crushed and ready to destroy himself and the whole world."Kubizek claims that Hitler stated he planned to kidnap Stefanie and kill both her and himself by jumping off a bridge into the Danube. Instead he moved to Vienna, according to Kubizek, an idealised image of Stefanie became his moral touchstone. Stefanie stated in interviews that she was unaware of Hitler at the time, but that she had received an anonymous love letter asking her to wait for him to graduate and to marry him, which she only realised after being questioned about him, must have been from Hitler.
She recalled: "I once received a letter from someone who said they were to attend the Academy of Arts, that I should wait for him. I had no idea who the letter might have been from or who I should have send it to."At Christmas in 1913, when he was living in Munich, Hitler was said to have placed an anonymous personal ad in the Linz newspaper with his best wishes to her, but she was married and in Vienna by then. Little is known about Stefanie's overall life, she became engaged in 1908 to an officer in the Hessian regiment stationed in Linz. On 24 October 1910, Stefanie married Maximilian Rabatsch in Vienna in St. Gertrud, Mäynollogasse 3, in the parish of Währing. Maximilian was appointed captain on 1 November 1909, he was promoted to major on 1 October 1917 and to colonel on 1 August 1918. According to Kubizek, her h
Martin Ludwig Bormann was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery. He gained immense power by using his position as Adolf Hitler's private secretary to control the flow of information and access to Hitler. After Hitler's suicide on 30 April 1945, he was Party Minister of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. Bormann joined a paramilitary Freikorps organisation in 1922 while working as manager of a large estate, he served nearly a year in prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss in the murder of Walther Kadow. Bormann joined the Nazi Party in 1927 and the Schutzstaffel in 1937, he worked in the party's insurance service, transferred in July 1933 to the office of Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess, where he served as chief of staff. Bormann used his position to create an extensive bureaucracy and involve himself as much as possible in the decision making, he gained acceptance into Hitler's inner circle, accompanied him everywhere, providing briefings and summaries of events and requests.
He began acting as Hitler's personal secretary on 12 August 1935. Bormann assumed Hess' former duties, with the title of Head of the Parteikanzlei, after Hess' solo flight to Britain on 10 May 1941 to seek peace negotiations with the British government, he had final approval over civil service appointments and approved legislation, by 1943 had de facto control over all domestic matters. Bormann was one of the leading proponents of the ongoing persecution of the Christian churches and favoured harsh treatment of Jews and Slavs in the areas conquered by Germany during World War II. Bormann returned with Hitler to the Führerbunker in Berlin on 16 January 1945 as the Red Army approached the city. After Hitler committed suicide and others attempted to flee Berlin on 2 May to avoid capture by the Soviets. Bormann committed suicide on a bridge near Lehrter station, his body was buried nearby on 8 May 1945, but was not found and confirmed as Bormann's until 1972. Bormann was tried in absentia by the International Military Tribunal in the Nuremberg trials of 1945 and 1946.
He was sentenced to death by hanging. Born in Wegeleben in the Kingdom of Prussia in the German Empire, Bormann was the son of Theodor Bormann, a post office employee, his second wife, Antonie Bernhardine Mennong; the family was Lutheran. He had two half-siblings from his father's earlier marriage to Louise Grobler, who died in 1898. Antonie Bormann gave birth to three sons. Martin and Albert survived to adulthood. Theodor died when Bormann was three, his mother soon remarried. Bormann's studies at an agricultural trade high school were interrupted when he joined the 55th Field Artillery Regiment as a gunner in June 1918, in the last days of World War I, he never saw action, but served garrison duty until February 1919. After working a short time in a cattle feed mill, Bormann became estate manager of a large farm in Mecklenburg. Shortly after starting work at the estate, Bormann joined an antisemitic landowners association. While hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic meant that money was worthless, foodstuffs stored on farms and estates became more valuable.
Many estates, including Bormann's, had Freikorps units stationed on site to guard the crops from pillaging. Bormann joined the Freikorps organisation headed by Gerhard Roßbach in 1922, acting as section leader and treasurer. On 17 March 1924 Bormann was sentenced to a year in Elisabethstrasse Prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss in the murder of Walther Kadow; the perpetrators believed Kadow had tipped off the French occupation authorities in the Ruhr District that fellow Freikorps member Albert Leo Schlageter was carrying out sabotage operations against French industries. Schlageter was arrested and was executed on 23 May 1923. On the night of 31 May, Höss, Bormann and several others took Kadow into a meadow out of town, where he was beaten and his throat cut. After one of the perpetrators confessed, police laid charges in July. Bormann was released from prison in February 1925, he joined the Frontbann, a short-lived Nazi Party paramilitary organisation created to replace the Sturmabteilung, banned in the aftermath of the failed Munich Putsch.
Bormann returned to his job at Mecklenburg and remained there until May 1926, when he moved in with his mother in Oberweimar. In 1927, Bormann joined the National Socialist German Workers Party, his membership number was 60,508. He joined the Schutzstaffel on 1 January 1937 with number 278,267. By special order of Heinrich Himmler in 1938, Bormann was granted SS number 555 to reflect his Alter Kämpfer status. Bormann took a job with Der Nationalsozialist, a weekly paper edited by NSDAP member Hans Severus Ziegler, deputy Gauleiter for Thuringia. After joining the NSDAP in 1927, Bormann began duties as regional press officer, but his lack of public-speaking skills made him ill-suited to this position, he soon put his organisational skills to use as business manager for the Gau. He moved to Munich in October 1928; the NSDAP provided coverage through insurance companies for members who were hurt or killed in the frequent violent skirmishes with members of other political parties. As insurance companies were unwilling to pay out claims for such activities, in 1930 Bormann set up the Hilfskasse der NSDAP, a be