Rosenborg Castle Gardens
Rosenborg Castle Gardens is the oldest and most visited park in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The park plays host to art exhibitions and other events such as concerts throughout the summer. A drawing by Otto Heider from 1649, the oldest dated garden plan from Denmark, the garden contained a pavilion, statues, a fountain and various other features. Its plants included mulberries, apples, pears, in the century, as fashions changed, the garden was redesigned. A garden plan from 1669 show a garden maze, a feature of the Baroque garden. It had a system of paths which led to a central space with an octagonal summerhouse in its centre. The 12-hectare park is bounded by the streets Gothersgade, Øster Voldgade, Sølvgade and Kronprinsessegade, Rosenborg Castle is located in the north-western section of the park and is surrounded by a moat on three sides. The two main entrance are the Kings Gate at the corner of Gothersgade and Kronprinsessegade, and the Queens Gate at the corner of Øster Voldgade and Sølvgade, there are four other entrances to the park.
The tree-lined avenues were planted as part of Kriegers Baroque garden, special sections include the PerennialsGarden in front of the wall along Sølvgade and the Rose Garden. Rosenborg Barracks is located on the corner of Gothersgade and Øster Voldgade and was originally a pavilion, in 1709 they were built together to form one large orangery complex and in 1743 it was redesigned into the Baroque style by Johan Cornelius Krieger. From 1885 to 1886 it was converted for use by the Royal Life Guard by Engineer Officer Ernst Peymann, in 1985 they moved to new premises at Høvelte between Allerød and Birkerød and since Rosenborg Barracks has only housed guards on duty at Copenhagen. The Commandants House is located just left of the entrance to Rosenborg Castle. It was built from 1760 to 1763 to designs by Jacob Fortling, today the building plays host to special exhibitions. The building is used as an exhibition space. It was built in 1688 and extended with a story in 1777. The gateway affords access to the park, the Gartners House is attached to Slotsforvalterboligen.
It was built around the same time The Hercules Pavilion stands at the end of Kavalergangen and it is flanked by two smaller niches with statues of Orpheus and Eurydice. The three statues were made by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Baratta and acquired by Frederik IV during his visit to Italy, along Kronprinsessegade and parts of Gothersgade, the park is enclosed by a wrought-iron grill incorporating 16 small pavilions, which opens to the street side
Frederiks Church, popularly known as The Marble Church for its rococo architecture, is an Evangelical Lutheran church in Copenhagen, Denmark. The church forms the point of the Frederiksstaden district, it is located due west of Amalienborg Palace. Fredericks Church has the largest church dome in Scandinavia with a span of 31m, the dome rests on 12 columns. The inspiration was probably St. Peters Basilica in Rome, the foundation stone was set by king Frederick V on October 31,1749, but the construction was slowed by budget cuts and the death of Eigtved in 1754. In 1770, the plans for the church were abandoned by Johann Friedrich Struensee. The church was incomplete and, in spite of several initiatives to complete it. The deal was at the highly controversial. On 25 January 1877, a case was brought by the Folketing at the Court of Impeachment, tietgen got Ferdinand Meldahl to design the church in its final form and financed its construction. Due to financial restrictions, the plans for the church to be built almost entirely from marble were discarded.
The church was opened to the public on August 19,1894. Inscribed in gold lettering on the entablature of the front portico are the words, a series of statues of prominent theologians and ecclesiastical figures, including one of the eminent Danish philosopher Kierkegaard, encircles the grounds of the building
Herman Wilhelm Bissen
Herman Wilhelm Bissen was a Danish sculptor. Bissen first studied painting in Copenhagen, became a pupil of the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, in 1824, he travelled to Rome and met Christian Daniel Rauch in Berlin. Under the influence of Thorvaldsen, his style changed from romanticism to neo-classicism, back in Denmark, Bissen became professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen in 1834, changing in style to realism. Among his works are the monumental Landsoldaten in Fredericia and the Isted Lion, media related to Herman Wilhelm Bissen at Wikimedia Commons Black & white photos of Bissens major works Bio of Bissen in Danish
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish/Icelandic sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life in Italy. Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, working part-time with his father, who was a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy. He was awarded a stipend to travel to Rome and continue his education, in Rome, Thorvaldsen quickly made a name for himself as a sculptor. Maintaining a large workshop in the city, he worked in a heroic neo-classicist style and his patrons resided all over Europe. Upon his return to Denmark in 1838, Thorvaldsen was received as a national hero, the Thorvaldsen Museum was erected to house his works next to Christiansborg Palace. Thorvaldsen is buried within the courtyard of the museum, in his time, he was seen as the successor of master sculptor Antonio Canova. His strict adherence to classical norms has tended to estrange modern audiences, Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen in 1770, the son of Gottskálk Þorvaldsson, an Icelander who had settled in Denmark.
Thorvaldsens mother was Karen Dagnes, a Jutlandic peasant girl and his birth certificate and baptismal records have never been found, and the only record is of his confirmation in 1787. Thorvaldsen had claimed descent from Snorri Thorfinnsson, the first European born in America, Thorvaldsens childhood in Copenhagen was humble. His father had a habit that slowed his career. Nothing is known of Thorvaldsens early schooling, and he may have been schooled entirely at home and he never became good at writing, and he never acquired much of the knowledge of fine culture that was expected from an artist. In 1781, by the help of friends, eleven-year-old Thorvaldsen was admitted to Copenhagens Royal Danish Academy of Art first as a draftsman. At night he would help his father in the wood carving, among his professors were Nicolai Abildgaard and Johannes Wiedewelt, who are both likely influences for his neo-classicist style. At the Academy he was praised for his works and won all the prizes from the small Silver Medal to the large Gold Medal for a relief of St.
Peter healing the crippled beggar in 1793. As a consequence, he was granted a Royal stipend, enabling him to complete his studies in Rome. Leaving Copenhagen on August 30 on the frigate Thetis, he landed in Palermo in January 1797 traveled to Naples where he studied for a month before making his entry to Rome on 8 March 1797. Since the date of his birth had never recorded, he celebrated this day as his Roman birthday for the rest of his life. In Rome he lived at Via Sistina in front of the Spanish Steps and had his workshop in the stables of the Palazzo Barberini and he was taken under the wing of Georg Zoëga a Danish archeologist and numismatist living in Rome
Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality. It is located on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula, in the centre of Denmark,187 kilometres northwest of Copenhagen and 289 kilometres north of Hamburg. The inner urban area contains 264,716 inhabitants and the population is 330,639. Aarhus is the city in the East Jutland metropolitan area. The history of Aarhus began as a fortified Viking settlement founded in the 8th century, the city was founded on the northern shores of a fjord at a natural harbour and the primary driver of growth was for centuries seaborne trade in agricultural products. Market town privileges were granted in 1441, but growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades, in the 19th century it was occupied twice by German troops during the Schleswig Wars but avoided destruction. As the industrial revolution took hold, the city grew to become the second-largest in the country by the 20th century, today Aarhus is at the cultural and economic core of the region and the largest centre for trade and industry in Jutland.
The city ranks as the 92nd largest city in the European Union and it is a top 100 conference city in the world. Aarhus is the industrial port of the country in terms of container handling. Major Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and it is a centre for research and education in the Nordic countries and home to Aarhus University, Scandinavias largest university, including Aarhus University Hospital and INCUBA Science Park. Aarhus is notable for its musical history, in the 1950s many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population. By the 1960s, the music scene diversified into rock and other genres, in the 1970s and 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmarks rock music fostering many iconic bands such as TV-2 and Gnags. Aarhus is home to the annual eight-day Aarhus International Jazz Festival, the SPoT Festival, in 2017 Aarhus are European Capital of Culture. In Valdemars Census Book the city was called Arus, and in Icelandic it was known as Aros and it is a compound of the two words ār, genitive of ā, and ōss.
The name originates from the location around the mouth of Aarhus Å. The spelling Aarhus is first found in 1406 and gradually became the norm in the 17th century, aarhus/Århus spelling With the Danish spelling reform of 1948, Aa was changed to Å. Some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aalborg, Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, as it was thought to enhance an image of progressiveness. In 2010, the city voted to change the name from Århus to Aarhus in order to strengthen the international profile of the city
Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen
Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen was a Danish sculptor. Her preferred themes were animals and people, with an intense. She depicted themes from Nordic mythology and she was one of the first women to be taken seriously as a sculptor, a trend-setter in Danish art for most of her life. She was married to the prominent Danish composer Carl Nielsen, Anne Marie Brodersen was born on Thygesminde, a large farm estate in South Stenderup, near Kolding. Her father Povl Julius Brodersen served in the German Dragoons before purchasing the farm and he married Friderikke Johanne Kirstine Gilling, who was his housekeeper. The Brodersens were successful, daring people, some of the first to import livestock directly from England, Anne Marie was thus familiar with farming and animals from an early age. Her first work, a small sheep using clay from the farm garden, from 1881–1882 she trained at schools for carving and for drawing and applied art. She studied with sculptor August Saabye and painters Jørgen Roed and she first exhibited work at Charlottenborg Spring Exhibition in 1884.
She was awarded first prize in Neuhausens competition in 1887 for a fountain group Thor with the Midgard Serpent which she completed in Saabyes studio, in 1889 she was awarded a scholarship from the Art School for Women. She travelled to the Netherlands and Paris where she visited the Exposition Universelle, one of the figurines sold for Kr 700 and her father said That is more than I get for my calves. She received a grant from the Academy of Fine Arts in 1890 to visit Paris again. Now in Paris, on 2 March 1891 Anne Marie met Danish composer Carl Nielsen, the couple became inseparable and on 20 March considered themselves married, celebrating with a party on 10 April and agreeing to wed formally once papers arrived from Denmark. They were married on 10 May in St Marks English Church, having decided to visit Italy together before returning to Denmark and her daughter Irmelin Johanne Nielsen was born on 9 December. In 1892, Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen contributed for the first time to the Free Exhibition in Copenhagen and she became a permanent member in 1893.
The two calves in bronze were accepted for the 1893 Chicago Worlds Fair and her second daughter, Anne Marie Frederikke Nielsen and son Hans Børge Nielsen were born on 4 March 1893 and 5 September 1895. Her father died on 14 September 1899 and she received the Anker Scholarship in 1903, undertaking a prolonged journey with her husband to Athens and Constantinople. Before they left they engaged as housekeeper Maren Hansen, who worked with devotion, staying with the family until her death in 1946. In Athens, Anne Marie copied the Poros Group from the gable of the Old Temple of Athena, in 1904, Anne Marie created the three doors of Ribe Cathedral
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754 and its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. The building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 greatly profited from this initiative, in 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It is still situated in its building, the Charlottenborg Palace. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996, the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs. It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, photography, the academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial, graphic.
The school has nine departments, four research institutes and six affiliated research centres. The undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, in 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C
Susanna (Book of Daniel)
Susanna or Shoshana is included in the Book of Daniel by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. It is one of the additions to Daniel, considered apocryphal by Protestants and it is listed in Article VI of the 95 Articles of the Church of England among the books which are read for example of life and instruction of manners, but not for the formation of doctrine. As the story goes, a fair Hebrew wife named Susanna was falsely accused by lecherous voyeurs, as she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two lustful elders secretly observe the lovely Susanna. When she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, after being separated, the two men are cross-examined about details of what they saw but disagree about the tree under which Susanna supposedly met her lover. In the Greek text, the names of the trees cited by the elders form puns with the sentence given by Daniel, the first says they were under a mastic, and Daniel says that an angel stands ready to cut him in two.
The second says they were under an oak tree. The great difference in size between a mastic and an oak makes the elders lie plain to all the observers, the false accusers are put to death, and virtue triumphs. The Anchor Bible uses yew and hew and clove and cleave to get this effect in English, the Greek text survives in two versions. Sextus Julius Africanus did not regard the story as canonical, while translating the Vulgate, treated this section as a non-canonical fable. In his introduction, he indicated that Susanna was an addition because it was not present in the Hebrew text of Daniel. Origens claim is reminiscent of Justin Martyrs charge that Jewish scribes removed certain verses from their Scriptures, there are no known early Jewish references to the Susannah story. Susanna is the subject of paintings by artists, including Lorenzo Lotto, Guido Reni, Van Dyck, Rembrandt, Tiepolo. Some treatments, especially in the Baroque period, emphasize the drama, others concentrate on the nude, the story is portrayed on the Lothair Crystal, an engraved rock crystal made in the Lotharingia region of northwest Europe in the mid 9th century, now in the British Museum.
In 1749, George Frideric Handel wrote an English-language oratorio Susanna, Susanna is the subject of the 1915 poem Peter Quince at the Clavier by Wallace Stevens, which has been set to music by the American composer Dominic Argento and by the Canadian Gerald Berg. American artist Thomas Hart Benton painted a modern Susanna in 1938 and he consciously included pubic hair, unlike the statue-like images of classical art. The fable was set during the Great Depression, and Benton included himself as one of the voyeurs, the Belgian writer Marnix Gijsen borrows elements of the story in his first novel Het boek van Joachim van Babylon,1947. Pablo Picasso, rendered the subject in the mid-twentieth century, the elders are depicted as paintings hanging on the wall behind her. The picture, painted in 1955, is part of the permanent collection at the Museo Picasso Málaga