Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles. There are several categories of bicycle racing including road bicycle racing, time trialling, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, track cycling, BMX, cycle speedway. Non-racing cycling sports include artistic cycling, cycle polo, freestyle BMX and mountain bike trials; the Union Cycliste Internationale is the world governing body for cycling and international competitive cycling events. The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is the governing body for human-powered vehicles that imposes far fewer restrictions on their design than does the UCI; the UltraMarathon Cycling Association is the governing body for many ultra-distance cycling races. Bicycle racing is recognised as an Olympic sport. Bicycle races are popular all over the world in Europe; the countries most devoted to bicycle racing include Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Other countries with international standing include Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The first bicycle race is popularly held to have been a 1,200 meter race on the 31 May 1868 at the Parc de Saint-Cloud, Paris. It was won by expatriate Englishman James Moore; the machine is now on display at the museum in Ely, England. The Union Cycliste Internationale was founded on 14 April 1900 by Belgium, the United States, France and Switzerland to replace the International Cycling Association, formed in 1892, over a row with Great Britain as well as because of other issues. Road bicycle racing involve both team and individual competition, races are contested in various ways, they range from the one-day road race and time trial to multi-stage events like the Tour de France and its sister events which make up cycling's Grand Tours. The races take place from spring through to autumn. Many riders from the northern hemisphere spend the winter in countries such as Australia, to compete or train. Professional races range from the three-week "Grand Tour" stage races such as the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España to multi-day stage races such as the Tour de Suisse and Tour of California, to single day "Classics" such as the Tour of Flanders and Milan–San Remo.
The longest one-day road race sanctioned by USA Cycling is Lotoja which covers the 206 miles from Logan, Utah to Jackson, Wyoming. Criteriums are races based on circuits less than a mile in length and sometimes run for a set time rather than a specific distance. Criteriums are the most popular form of road racing in North America. In Belgium, kermesses are popular, single-day events of over 120 km; as well as road races in which all riders start individual time trial and team time trial events are held on road-based courses. Track cycling encompasses races that take place on banked velodromes. Events are quite diverse and can range from individual and team pursuits, two-man sprints, to various group and mass start races. Competitors use track bicycles which do not have freewheels. Cyclo-cross originated as a sport for road racers during the off season, to vary their training during the cold months. Races take place in the autumn and winter and consist of many laps of a 2–3 km or 1–2 mile course featuring pavement, wooded trails, steep hills, obstacles requiring the rider to dismount, carry the bike and remount in one motion.
Races for senior categories are between 30 minutes and an hour long, the distance varying depending on the conditions. The sport is strongest in traditional road cycling countries such as France. Mountain bike races involve moderate to high degree of technical riding. There are several varieties. BMX takes place off-road. BMX races are sprints on purpose-built off-road single-lap tracks on single-gear bicycles. Riders navigate a dirt course of banked and flat corners. Cycle speedway is bicycle racing on 70 -- 90 m in length. Motor-paced racing and Keirin use motorcycles for pacing so bicyclists achieve higher speeds. Speeds achieved on indoor tracks are greater than those on roads. Other factors affecting speed are the route profile, wind conditions and elevation. At a 2013 event in Mexico, François Pervis achieved an average of 21.40 metres per second with a flying start over 200 meters. The top average speed over the men's 1 km time trial at the 2004 Summer Olympics was 16.4 metres per second recorded by Chris Hoy.
Average speeds drop with increasing distance, so that over the 120 km Cootamundra Annual Classic it is 11.8 metres per second. In the 259 km 2010 Paris-Roubaix, Fabian Cancellara set a speed of 10.9 metres per second, while over the 818 km Furnace Creek 508, the speed drops to 8.3 metres per second. For an extreme road distance such as the 4800 km Race Across America, the average speed of the record holder is 5.7 metres per second, while the 2350 km Freedom Trail over mountainous terrain in South Africa is at a record speed of 1.9 metres per second. Mountain bike trials is a sport where riders navigate natural and man-made obstacles without putting down their foot, or "dabbing", it is similar to motorcycle trials. Points are awarded for bike handling skills. Freestyle BMX is an extreme sport of stunt riding BMX bikes. Cycling Mountain bi
The Vélodrome d'Hiver, colloquially Vel' d'Hiv, was an indoor bicycle racing cycle track and stadium on rue Nélaton, not far from the Eiffel Tower in Paris. As well as a cycling track, it was used for ice hockey, boxing, roller-skating, bullfighting and demonstrations, it was the first permanent indoor track in France and the name persisted for other indoor tracks built subsequently. In July 1942, French police, acting under orders from the German authorities in Occupied Paris, used the velodrome to hold thousands of Jews and others who were victims in a mass arrest; the Jews were held at the velodrome before they were moved to a concentration camp in the Parisian suburbs at Drancy to the extermination camp at Auschwitz. The incident became known as the "Vel' d'Hiv Roundup"; the original track was housed in the Salles des Machines, the building used for the industrial display of the World's Fair which ended in 1900. The building stayed unoccupied after the exhibition. In 1902, the Salle des Machines was inspected by Henri Desgrange, who the following year inaugurated the Tour de France on behalf of the newspaper that he edited, L'Auto.
With him were Victor Goddet, the newspaper's treasurer, an engineer named Durand, an architect, Gaston Lambert. It was Lambert who said he could turn the hall into a sports arena with a track 333 metres long and eight metres wide, he finished it in 20 days. The first meeting there, on 20 December 1903, had an audience of 20,000, they paid seven francs for a single franc to see hardly anything at all. The seating was primitive and there was no heating; the first event was not a cycle race but a walking competition over 250 metres. The first cycling competition was a race ridden behind pacing motorcycles. Only one rider - Cissac - managed to complete the 16 km, the others having crashed on the unaccustomed steepness of the track banking. In 1909 the Salle des Machines was listed for demolition. Desgrange moved to another building nearby, at the corner of the boulevard de Grenelle and the rue Nélaton; the venue was named the Vélodrome d'Hiver. The new track designed by Lambert, was 253.16m round at the base but 250m on the line ridden by the motor-paced riders considered the stars of the day.
Lambert built two tiers of seats, which towered above bankings so steep for their day that they were considered cliff-like. In the track centre Lambert built a roller-skating rink of 2,700 square metres, he lit the whole lot with 1,253 hanging lamps. There could be so many spectators jammed in the track centre for cycling events that they resembled passengers in the Paris métro in the rush hour; the richer and more knowledgeable spectators bought seats in the trackside seats and the rest crowded into the upper balcony from which the track looked a distant bowl. A rivalry grew up between those in the top row and those below them, to the extent that those on high sometimes threw sausages, bread rolls and bottles on to those below or, if they could throw that far, on to the track; the hall's managers had to install a net to catch the larger missiles. Six-day cycle racing had started in London in the 19th century but it had taken a change to a race not for individuals but for teams of two to make it popular.
The new formula was created in America at Madison Square Garden. It became known in English in French as l'américaine; the first such six-day race at the Vel' d'Hiv' started on 13 January 1913. The riders included the Tour de France winners Louis Trousselier and Émile Georget and other prominent riders such as Octave Lapize; the race began by 9 pm all 20,000 seats were sold. Among those who watched was the millionaire Henri de Rothschild, who offered a prize of 600 francs, the dancer Mistinguett, who offered 100f; the winners were an American-Australian pairing. The Franco-American writer René de Latour said: "I have known the time when it was considered quite a feat to get into the Vel' d'Hiv' during a six-day race. There were mounted police all round the block, barriers were erected some way from the building, if you did not have a ticket or a pass to show, you were not allowed anywhere near the place. You can guess that the disappointed fans produced a near-riot."A tradition started in 1926 of electing a Queen of the Six, whose job included starting the race.
Among them were Édith Piaf, Annie Cordy and the accordionist Yvette Horner, who played from the roof of a car while preceding the Tour de France. Races at the Vel' d'Hiv' were sometimes doubted for their genuineness. While the spectacle drew large and capacity crowds, the best riders were rumoured to control the race; the French journalist Pierre Chany wrote: "There was a lot of talk about the relative honesty of the results, journalists sometimes asked themselves what importance they ought to place on victories in these six-day races. The best of the field combined between themselves, it was known, to fight against other teams and to get their own hands on the biggest prizes, which they shared between them; this coalition, cruelly nicknamed the Blue Train imposed its rule and sometimes the times of the race, the length of the rest periods. The little teams fought back on certain days but the law belonged to the cracks, better equipped physically and better organised." For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the velodrome hosted boxing, fencing and wrestling events.
The American writer Ernest Hemingway was a regular fan of six-day and other races at the Vel' d'Hiv' while he lived in Paris. He wrote: "I have started many stori
Metz is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle department and the seat of the parliament of the Grand Est region. Located near the tripoint along the junction of France and Luxembourg, the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion. Metz has a rich 3,000-year-history, having variously been a Celtic oppidum, an important Gallo-Roman city, the Merovingian capital of Austrasia, the birthplace of the Carolingian dynasty, a cradle of the Gregorian chant, one of the oldest republics in Europe; the city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has been influenced by Germanic culture due to its location and history. Because of its historical and architectural background, Metz has been submitted on France's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List; the city features noteworthy buildings such as the Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral with its largest expanse of stained-glass windows in the world, the Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains being the oldest church in France, its Imperial Station Palace displaying the apartment of the German Kaiser, or its Opera House, the oldest one working in France.
Metz is home to some world-class venues including the Arsenal Concert Hall and the Centre Pompidou-Metz museum. A basin of urban ecology, Metz gained its nickname of The Green City, as it has extensive open grounds and public gardens; the historic city centre is one of the largest commercial pedestrian areas in France. A historic garrison town, Metz is the economic heart of the Lorraine region, specialising in information technology and automotive industries. Metz is home to the University of Lorraine and a centre for applied research and development in the materials sector, notably in metallurgy and metallography, the heritage of the Lorraine region's past in the iron and steel industry. In ancient times, the town was known as "city of Mediomatrici", being inhabited by the tribe of the same name. After its integration into the Roman Empire, the city was called Divodurum Mediomatricum, meaning Holy Village or Holy Fortress of the Mediomatrici it was known as Mediomatrix. During the 5th century AD, the name evolved to "Mettis".
Metz has a recorded history dating back over 2,000 years. Before the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, it was the oppidum of the Celtic Mediomatrici tribe. Integrated into the Roman Empire, Metz became one of the principal towns of Gaul with a population of 40,000, until the barbarian depredations and its transfer to the Franks about the end of the 5th century. Between the 6th and 8th centuries, the city was the residence of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, Metz became the capital of the Kingdom of Lotharingia and was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire, being granted semi-independent status. During the 12th century, Metz became a republic and the Republic of Metz stood until the 15th century. With the signature of the Treaty of Chambord in 1552, Metz passed to the hands of the Kings of France; as the German Protestant Princes who traded Metz for the promise of French military assistance, had no authority to cede territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the change of jurisdiction wasn't recognised by the Holy Roman Empire until the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.
Under French rule, Metz was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics and became a strategic fortified town. With creation of the departments by the Estates-General of 1789, Metz was chosen as capital of the Department of Moselle. Despite that Metz was a French-speaking city, after the Franco-Prussian War and according to the Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871, the city was annexed into the German Empire, being part of the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine and serving as capital of the Bezirk Lothringen. Metz remained German until the end of World War I. However, after the Battle of France during the Second World War, the city was annexed once more by the German Third Reich. In 1944, the attack on the city by the U. S. Third Army freed the city from German rule and Metz reverted one more time to France after World War II. During the 1950s, Metz was chosen to be the capital of the newly created Lorraine region. With the creation of the European Community and the European Union, the city has become central to the Greater Region and the SaarLorLux Euroregion.
Metz is located on the banks of the Moselle and the Seille rivers, 43 km from the Schengen tripoint where the borders of France and Luxembourg meet. The city was built in a place where many branches of the Moselle river creates several islands, which are encompassed within the urban planning; the terrain of Metz forms part of the Paris Basin and presents a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction. Metz and its surrounding countryside are included in the forest and crop Lorraine Regional Natural Park, covering a total area of 205,000 ha; the climate of Lorraine is a semi-continental climate. The summers are warm and humid, sometimes stormy, the warmest month of the year is July, when daytime temperatures average 25 °C; the winters are snowy with temperature dropping to an average low of − 0.5 °C in January. Lows can be much colder through the night and early morning and the snowy period extends from November to February; the length of the day varies over the course of the year.
The shortest day is 21 December with 7:30 hours of sunlight. The median cloud cover is 93% and
Google Books is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, stored in its digital database. Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project. Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives; the Publisher Program was first known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004; the Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge and promoting the democratization of knowledge. However, it has been criticized for potential copyright violations, lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.
As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries. Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world, stated that it intended to scan all of them. Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search and in the dedicated Google Books search website. In response to search queries, Google Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees "snippets" of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight; the four access levels used on Google Books are: Full view: Books in the public domain are available for "full view" and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare.
Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a "preview" set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. The publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview. Users are restricted from downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading "Copyrighted material" appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview. Snippet view: A'snippet view' – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview; this could be because Google can not identify the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of snippets can harm the market for the work.
Google maintains. No preview: Google displays search results for books that have not been digitized; as these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata such as the title, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog. In response to criticism from groups such as the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, Google announced an opt-out policy in August 2005, through which copyright owners could provide a list of titles that it did not want scanned, Google would respect the request. Google stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. Thus, Google provides a copyright owner with three choices with respect to any work: It can participate in the Partner Program to make a book available for preview or full view, in which case it would share revenue derived from the display of pages from the work in response to user queries.
It can let Google scan the book under the Library Project and display snippets in response to user queries. It can opt out of the Library Project. If the book has been scanned, Google will reset its access level as'No preview'. Most scanned works are commercially available. In addition to procuring books from libraries, Google obtains books from its publisher partners, through the "Partner Program" – designed to help publishers and authors promote their books. Publishers and authors submit either a digital copy of their book in EPUB or PDF format, or a print copy to Google, made available on Google Books for preview; the publisher can control the percentage of the book available for preview, with the minimum being 20%. They can choose to make the book viewable, allow users to download a PDF copy. Books can be made available for sale on Google Play. Unlike the Library Project, this does not raise any copyright concerns as it is conducted pursuant to an agreement with the publisher; the publisher can choose to withdraw from the agreement at any time.
For many books, Google Books displays the original page numbers. However, Tim Pa
Publier is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. Communes of the Haute-Savoie department INSEE
Maurice-François Garin was an Italian-born French road bicycle racer best known for winning the inaugural Tour de France in 1903, for being stripped of his title in the second Tour in 1904 along with eight others, for cheating. Garin was born the son of Maurice-Clément Garin and Maria Teresa Ozello in Arvier, in the French-speaking Aosta Valley in north-west Italy, close to the French border; the name Garin was the most common in the native village of Maurice, called "Chez-les-Garin", belonging to five of the seven families. They had five sons, of whom Maurice was the first son. In 1885 the family left Arvier to work on the other side of the Alps to the Belgian border. Garin worked as a chimney sweep, he moved to France. By the age of 15, he was living in Reims as a chimney sweep, he moved to Charleroi in Belgium but by 1889 he was back in France, at Maubeuge. Garin's younger brother, Joseph-Isidore, died in 1889; the father died shortly afterwards in Arvier. Garin's brothers François and César stayed in northern France and, with Maurice, opened a cycle shop in the lower end of the boulevard de Paris in Roubaix in 1895.
Brothers César and Ambroise competed as professional cyclists. Garin lived there the rest of his life, he bought his first bicycle for 405 francs, twice what a forge worker would earn in a week of 12-hour days, in 1889. Racing did not interest him but he did ride round the town fast enough to be called a madman — le fou, he began racing in northern France in the same year when the secretary of the cycling club at Maubeuge persuaded him to enter a regional race, Maubeuge-Hirson-Maubeuge, over 200 km. Garin decided to ride more, his first win was in Namur-Dinant-Givet in Belgium. He had sold his first bike and bought a lighter one — still 16 kg but with pneumatic tyres — for 850 old French francs; the race was over 102 km. He was leading by Dinant. Spotting a soigneur waiting with a spare bike for a rival, Garin rested his own against the wall of a bridge, grabbed the soigneur's spare bike and rode off. At the finish, winning with ten minutes over the field, he gave back the bike and recovered his own the next day where he had left it.
Garin became a professional by chance. He planned to ride a race at 25 km from where he lived, he arrived to find. Not allowed to compete, he raced after them and passed them all, he finished ahead of the racers. The crowd was enthusiastic but the organisers less so, they refused to pay him the 150 francs due to the real winner, so spectators raised 300 francs among themselves. Garin became a professional, his first true professional win was in a 24-hour race in Paris in 1893. It was held on site of the Eiffel Tower; the riders competed. The event took place in February and the cold drove out riders one after the other. Garin rode 701 km in 24 hours. While other riders would consume lots of strong red wine, Garin chose a more apt diet, said he had survived on In 1894 he won a 24-hour race in Liège, the following year set an hour record for cycling behind pacers; the first Paris–Roubaix was in 1896. He would have come second had he not been knocked over by a crash between two tandems, one of them ridden by his pacers.
Garin "finished exhausted and Dr Butrille was obliged to attend the man, run over by two machines," said the race historian, Pascal Sergent. In 1897 he won Paris–Roubaix, beating the Dutchman Mathieu Cordang in the last two kilometres of the velodrome at Roubaix. Sergent said: As the two champions appeared they were greeted by a frenzy of excitement and everyone was on their feet to acclaim the two heroes, it was difficult to recognise them. Garin was first, followed by the mud-soaked figure of Cordang. To the stupefaction of everyone, Cordang slipped and fell on the velodrome's cement surface. Garin could not believe his luck. By the time Cordang was back on his bike, he had lost 100 metres. There remained six laps to cover. Two miserable kilometres in; the crowd held its breath. The bell rang out. One lap, there remained. 333 metres for Garin. A classic victory was within his grasp but he could feel his adversary's breath on his neck. Somehow Garin held on to his lead of two little metres for a legendary victory.
The stands exploded and the ovation united the two men. Garin exulted under the cheers of the crowd. Cordang cried bitter tears of disappointment. In 1898 he won Paris–Roubaix again, this time by 20 minutes, in 1901 he won the second edition of Paris–Brest–Paris, finishing two hours ahead of Gaston Rivierre after covering 1,208 km in 52h 11m 1s, he started by chasing another Frenchman, Lucien Lesna, who rode the first 600 km at 28kmh and had two hours' lead at Brest. At Rennes he stopped for a bath to recover from the tiredness and heat found he could not get racing again into the headwind. Garin passed him at Mayenne and Lesna gave up shortly afterwards with 200 km to go. Garin finished 19h 11m better than Charles Terront ten years earlier; until 2004, it was admitted that Garin had taken French nationality when he was 21, in 1892 but in 2004, the reporter Franco Cuaz has found the naturalizing act and Garin took French nationality 21 Decembe
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona