Nicolas Girod or Nicholas Girod was the fifth mayor of New Orleans, from late in 1812 to September 4, 1815. Born in Cluses, he presided over the then-Francophone city during the 1814-15 British invasion. Nicolas Girod was the mayor of New Orleans from 1812-1815. Born in French Savoy, he migrated to Spanish Louisiana in the late 1770s with brother Claude François [1752-1813) and brother-in-law Andre Quetand and was joined by brother Jean François, he prospered as a commission merchant and owner of extensive property in New Orleans in the American quarter. The war of 1812 limited his hopes for material growth of the city, he resigned office September 1815 to salvage his waning personal finances. He never had no children. Nicolas Girod was in a predominantly Catholic city, he was the first regularly-elected mayor of New Orleans after Louisiana's admission to the Union. He was elected on September 21, 1812. Girod took office on November 5 of that year and served until September 4, 1814. Girod was a member of a prominent family who owned considerable interests in shipping and mercantile enterprises.
He was one of three brothers with brother-in-law Andre Quetand who conducted commercial enterprises with area planters in what was known as the commission or factorage business. The Girods kept a wholesale and retail store in the vicinity of the levee landing, which in years was transferred to the building at the corner of Chartres and St. Louis streets, he owned a large number of properties in the area of today's Central Business District, in the vicinity of Girod Street. New Orleans was full of excitement in the spring of 1821 when Girod remodeled and furnished the house on Chartres Street, that he inherited from Cluade Francois Girod, in readiness for Napoleon Bonaparte; the ship Seraphine was being outfitted for a secret voyage by Commander Bossier and Dominique You, Nicolas Girod was one of the sponsors of the plan to rescue Napoleon from his exile in Saint Helena. A residence was established for Napoleon at Chartres and St Louis streets by Nicholas Girod, the ship "Seraphine" was built and equipped with the object of rescuing Napoleon from St. Helena.
Under command of Capt. Bossier and Dominique You, the expedition set sail with this purpose, but returned when signalled by a French merchantman that Napoleon had died May 5, 1821. Girod was quite a philanthropist. Among other provisions in his 1837 holographic will, he left a bon of $100,000 to be applied to the construction of a facility in Orleans Parish for the housing and care of Louisiana's French orphans. Other institutions and individuals were recipients under this will, including Charity Hospital, $30,000. Nicolas Girod died on September 1, 1840, at his home located on the corner of Chartres and St. Louis streets, his former residence in the French Quarter is now known as the Napoleon House. Both New Orleans and Mandeville, have a Girod Street, named in Nicolas Girod's honor. Battle of New Orleans Napoleon House Girod Street Cemetery Girod administration at New Orleans Public Library website, transcription from a 1940 WPA compilation Nicolas Girod at Find a Grave
House numbering is the system of giving a unique number to each building in a street or area, with the intention of making it easier to locate a particular building. The house number is part of a postal address; the term describes the number of any building with a mailbox, or a vacant lot. House numbering schemes vary by location, in many cases within cities. In some areas of the world, including many remote areas, houses are named but are not assigned numbers. A house numbering scheme was present in Pont Notre-Dame in Paris in 1512. However, the purpose of the numbering was to determine the distribution of property ownership in the city, rather than for the purpose of organization. In the 18th century the first street numbering schemes were applied across Europe, to aid in administrative tasks and the provision of services such as Mail delivery; the New View of London reported in 1708 that "at Prescott Street, Goodman's Fields, instead of signs, the houses are distinguished by numbers". Parts of the Paris suburbs were numbered in the 1720s.
Street numbering took off in the mid 18th century in Prussia, where authorities were ordered to "fix numbers on the houses... in little villages on the day before the troops march in". In the 1750s and 60s, street numbering on a large scale was applied in Madrid, London and Vienna, as well as many other cities across Europe. On 1 March 1768, King Louis XV of France decreed that all French houses outside of Paris affix house numbers for tracking troops quartered in civilian homes. In Australia and New Zealand, the current standard is directed at local governments that have the primary responsibility for addressing and road naming; the standard calls for lots and buildings on newly created streets to be assigned odd numbers and numbers when facing in the direction of increasing numbers reflecting common practice. It first came into force in 2003 under AS/NZS 4819:2003 – Geographic Information – Rural & Urban Addressing. Exceptions are where the road forms part of the boundary between different council cities.
For example, Underwood Road in Rochedale South, divided between the City of Brisbane. In New South Wales, the vast majority of streets were numbered before 2003, some with odd numbers assigned to houses on the right of the street when facing the direction along which numbers increase. There is no plan to reassign these numbers. On some long urban roads numbers ascend until the road crosses a council or suburb boundary start again at 1 or 2, where a street sign gives the name of the relevant area – these streets have repeating numbers. In semi-rural and rural areas, where houses and farms are spaced, a numbering system based on tens of metres or metres has been devised, thus a farm 2,300 metres from the start of the road, on the right-hand side would be numbered 230. Ballarat Central, Victoria uses the US system of increasing house numbers by 100 after a major cross street. Streets are designated South depending upon their relative position to Sturt Street; the number system will always start with No. 1 or No. 2 at the end, closer to the States GPO In Japan and South Korea, a city is divided into small numbered zones.
The houses within each zone are labelled in the order in which they were constructed, or clockwise around the block. This system is comparable to the system of sestieri used in Venice. Visitors to a large, complex city like Tokyo must resort to asking for directions at a local police substation. In Hong Kong, a former British colony, the British and European norm to number houses on one side of the street with odd numbers, the other side with numbers, is followed; some roads or streets along the coastline may however have numbering only on one side if the opposite side is reclaimed. These roads or streets include Ferry Street, Connaught Road West, Gloucester Road. Most mainland Chinese cities use the European system, with odd numbers on one side of the road and numbers on the opposite side. In high-density old Shanghai, a street number may be either a hao or nong, both of them being numbered successively. A hao refers a door rather than a building, for example, if a building with the address 25 Wuming Rd is followed by another building, which has three entrances opening to the street, the latter will be numbered as three different hao, from 27 to 29 Wuming Rd.
A nong, sometimes translated as "lane", refers to a block of buildings. So if in the above example the last building is followed by an enclosed compound, it will have the address "lane 31, Wuming Rd". A nong is further subdivided in its own hao, which do not correlate with the hao of the street, so the full address of an apartment within a compound may look like "Apartment 5005, no. 7, lane 31, Wuming Rd". The most common street address formats in Vietnam are: A number followed by the street name, for example "123 đường Lê Lợi"; this is the most common format. A number with an alphabetic suffix: "123A đường Lê Lợi", "123B đường Lê Lợi", etc; this format occurs when a property is numbered 123 but subdivided into two houses with different addresses. If the house lies on an alley, the alley number is combined with the house number: for example, in "123/3 đường Lê Lợi", 123 is the alley's address, 3 is the house number on that alley. More complex house numbers may occur on alleys
Louis A. Wiltz
Louis Alfred Wiltz was an American politician from the state of Louisiana. He served as 29th Governor of Louisiana from 1880 to 1881 and before that time was mayor of New Orleans, lieutenant governor of Louisiana, a member of the Louisiana House of Representatives. Wiltz was born on January 21, 1843 in New Orleans to J. B. Theophile Wiltz and the former Louise Irene Villanueva, his paternal family were among the first German settlers in Louisiana and his mother came from a noble Spanish family, her father coming to Louisiana with the Spanish Army. He attended public school until the age of 15, when he began work with Company. After the company failed, Wiltz became the clerk for the Second District Court of Louisiana. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, Wiltz joined the Confederate States Army as a private but rose to the rank of captain. In 1863, Wiltz married Miss Bienvinue of the seat of St. Martin Parish, they had one son. In 1868, Wiltz was elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives and the New Orleans School Board.
In 1872, he was elected mayor but could not take office until January 1873 because of the refusal of the Republican mayor to vacate the office. In addition to serving two years as mayor, Wiltz was once again elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives and served as lieutenant governor, he was succeeded by E. D. Estilette. With the implementation of the new Louisiana state constitution of 1879, the gubernatorial term of Francis T. Nicholls was cut short by one year. An election was held in 1879, Louis Wiltz defeated his Republican opponent. Wiltz’s term as governor was one rife with corruption; the corrupt Louisiana Lottery continued to have influence over the state legislature. The state treasurer, Edward A. Burke, embezzled state funds while the public schools were neglected, black disenfranchisement continued. Wiltz died of tuberculosis while in office on October 1881, in New Orleans. Lieutenant Governor Samuel D. McEnery, a fellow Democrat, succeeded Wiltz. State of Louisiana – Biography Kendall's History of New Orleans, Chapter 22: Wiltz New Orleans Public Library page Works by Louis A. Wiltz at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Louis A. Wiltz at Internet Archive
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Esteban Rodríguez Miró
Esteban Rodríguez Miró y Sabater, KOS known as Esteban Miro and Estevan Miro, was a Spanish army officer and governor of the Spanish American provinces of Louisiana and Florida. Miró was one of the most popular of the Spanish governors because of his prompt response to the Great New Orleans Fire, which destroyed all of the city. Esteban Miró was born in Spain, to Francisco Miró and Marian de Miró y Sabater, he joined the military in 1760 during the Seven Years' War. Around 1765, he rose to the rank of lieutenant, he returned to Spain in the 1770s and received military training before being sent to Louisiana in 1778. In 1779 during the American Revolutionary War and Anglo-Spanish War, Miró was a part of the forces commanded by Bernardo de Gálvez in campaigns against the British in West Florida. Gálvez appointed Miró as acting Governor of Louisiana on January 20, 1782, he became proprietary governor on December 16, 1785. Spain had taken over this territory from France after the latter's defeat in 1763 by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War.
After the Revolutionary War, Miró was a key figure in Spain's boundary dispute with the U. S. over the northern boundary of West Florida. Under Spanish rule, the boundary had been 31° north latitude. In 1763, it came under British control at the end of the Seven Years' War. In 1767, the northern boundary was moved to 32°28' north latitude. In 1783, Britain recognized the Spanish conquest of West Florida in the war, but it did not specify the northern border. In the separate treaty with the U. S. Britain specified the southern boundary as 31 degrees north latitude. Spain claimed the British expansion of West Florida, while the U. S. held to the older boundary. Britain had granted free navigation on the Pearl River to the United States in areas where Spain claimed both sides of the river. In 1784, the Spanish government closed the lower Mississippi River to the Americans, causing significant fear and resentment among settlers in the western frontiers of Kentucky and Tennessee, who depended on river trade and the major port of New Orleans.
The settlers' anger was directed as much toward the U. S. government for not acting aggressively enough to protect their interests as it was against Spain. A significant faction within Kentucky considered becoming an independent republic rather than joining the U. S. One of the leaders of this faction was James Wilkinson, who met with Miró in 1787, declared his allegiance to Spain, secretly acted as an agent for Spain. Wilkinson's schemes to set up an independent nation friendly to Spain in the west did little except cause controversy; this resurfaced in another form through Wilkinson's dealings with Aaron Burr. Miró fortified Nogales and the mouth of the Mississippi against the possibility of war with the U. S. After the Good Friday fire in March of 1788 destroyed all of the city of New Orleans, Miró arranged for tents for residents, brought in food from warehouses, sent ships to Philadelphia for aid, lifted Spanish regulations restricting trade to the city; the city of New Orleans, was rebuilt with more fire-resistant buildings of brick, heavy masonry, ceramic tiled roofs, courtyards.
Among the new buildings built under his watch was the Saint Louis Cathedral. Miró surrendered governorship at the end of 1791 to return to Spain and serve in the Ministry of War, he served as Field Marshal from 1793-1795 in the war with the French Republic. He died from natural causes during the War of the Pyrenees at the battlefront in June 1795. In 1788, North Carolina formed a judicial district called the Mero District in its westernmost territory. Among Louisianians, Miró is chiefly remembered for having prevented the establishment of the Inquisition in the territory. Charles Gayarré wrote the following account: "The reverend Capuchin, Antonio de Sedella, who had arrived in the province, wrote to the Governor to inform him that he, the holy father, had been appointed Commissary of the Inquisition. Wherefore, after having made his investigations with the utmost secrecy and precaution, he notified Mirò that, in order to carry, as he was commanded, his instructions into perfect execution in all their parts, he might soon, at some late hour of the night, deem it necessary to require some guards to assist him in his operations.
Not many hours had elapsed since the reception of this communication by the Governor, when night came, the representative of the Holy Inquisition was reposing in bed, when he was roused from his sleep by a heavy knocking. He started up, opening his door, saw standing before him an officer and a file of grenadiers. Thinking that they had come to obey his commands, in consequence of his letter to the Governor, he said:'My friends, I thank you and his Excellency for the readiness of this compliance with my request, but I have now no use for your services, you shall be warned in time when you are wanted. Retire with the blessing of God.' Great was the stupefaction of the Friar when he was told that he was under arrest.'What!' Exclaimed he,'will you dare lay your hands on a Commissary of the Holy Inquisition?' —'I dare obey orders,' replied the undaunted officer, the Reverend Father Ant
A serial killer is a person who murders three or more people in service of abnormal psychological gratification, with the murders taking place over more than a month and including a significant period of time between them. Different authorities apply different criteria. While most set a threshold of three murders, others lessen it to two; the Federal Bureau of Investigation defines serial killing as "a series of two or more murders, committed as separate events but not always, by one offender acting alone". Although psychological gratification is the usual motive for serial killing, most serial killings involve sexual contact with the victim, the FBI states that the motives of serial killers can include anger, thrill-seeking, financial gain, attention seeking; the murders may be completed in a similar fashion. The victims may have something in common, for example, demographic profile, gender or race. A serial killer is neither a mass murderer, nor a spree killer, although there may be conceptual overlaps between serial killers and spree killers.
The English term and concept of serial killer are attributed to former FBI Special agent Robert Ressler who used the term serial homicide in 1974 in a lecture at Bramshill Police Academy in Britain. Author Ann Rule postulates in her book, Kiss Me, Kill Me, that the English-language credit for coining the term goes to LAPD detective Pierce Brooks, who created the Violent Criminal Apprehension Program system in 1985. There is ample evidence the term was used in the United States earlier; the German term and concept were coined by criminologist Ernst Gennat, who described Peter Kürten as a Serienmörder in his article "Die Düsseldorfer Sexualverbrechen". The earliest usage attested of the specific term serial killer listed in the Oxford English Dictionary was from a 1960s German film article written by Siegfried Kracauer, about the German expressionist film M, portraying a pedophilic Serienmörder. In his book, Serial Killers: The Method and Madness of Monsters, criminal justice historian Peter Vronsky notes that while Ressler might have coined the English term "serial homicide" within law in 1974, the terms serial murder and serial murderer appear in John Brophy's book The Meaning of Murder.
The Washington DC newspaper Evening Star, in a 1967 review of the book: There is the mass murderer, or what he calls the "serial" killer, who may be actuated by greed, such as insurance, or retention or growth of power, like the Medicis of Renaissance Italy, or Landru, the "bluebeard" of the World War I period, who murdered numerous wives after taking their money. This use of "serial" killer to paraphrase Brophy's serial murderer does not appear to have been influential at the time. In his more recent study, Vronsky states that the term serial killing first entered into broader American popular usage when published in The New York Times in the spring of 1981, to describe Atlanta serial killer Wayne Williams. Subsequently, throughout the 1980s, the term was used again in the pages of The New York Times, one of the major national news publication of the United States, on 233 occasions. By the end of the 1990s, the use of the term had escalated to 2,514 instances in the paper; when defining serial killers, researchers use "three or more murders" as the baseline, considering it sufficient to provide a pattern without being overly restrictive.
Independent of the number of murders, they need to have been committed at different times, are committed in different places. The lack of a cooling-off period marks the difference between a serial killer; the category has, been found to be of no real value to law enforcement, because of definitional problems relating to the concept of a "cooling-off period". Cases of extended bouts of sequential killings over periods of weeks or months with no apparent "cooling off period" or "return to normality" have caused some experts to suggest a hybrid category of "spree-serial killer". In 2005, the FBI hosted a multi-disciplinary symposium in San Antonio, which brought together 135 experts on serial murder from a variety of fields and specialties with the goal of identifying the commonalities of knowledge regarding serial murder; the group settled on a definition of serial murder which FBI investigators accept as their standard: "The unlawful killing of two or more victims by the same offender in separate events."
The definition does not consider motivation for define a cooling-off period. Historical criminologists have suggested that there may have been serial murders throughout history, but specific cases were not adequately recorded; some sources suggest that legends such as werewolves and vampires were inspired by medieval serial killers. In Africa, there have been periodic outbreaks of murder by Leopard men. Liu Pengli of China, nephew of the Han Emperor Jing, was made Prince of Jidong in the sixth year of the middle period of Jing's reign. According to the Chinese historian Sima Qian, he would "go out on marauding expeditions with 20 or 30 slaves or with young men who were in hiding from the law, murdering people and seizing their belongings for sheer sport". Although many of his subjects knew about these murders, it was not until the 29th year of his reign that the son of one of his victims sent a report to the Emperor, it was discovered that he had murdered at least 100 people. The officials of the court requested.
In the 15th
Marie Delphine Macarty or MacCarthy, more known as Madame Blanque, until her third marriage, when she became known as Madame LaLaurie, was a New Orleans Creole socialite and serial killer who tortured and murdered slaves in her household. Born during the Spanish colonial period, Delphine Macarty married three times in Louisiana, was twice widowed, she maintained her position in New Orleans society until April 10, 1834, when rescuers responded to a fire at her Royal Street mansion. They discovered bound slaves in her attic who showed evidence of cruel, violent abuse over a long period. Lalaurie's house was subsequently sacked by an outraged mob of New Orleans citizens, she escaped to France with her family. The mansion where LaLaurie lived is a landmark in the French Quarter, in part because of its history and for its architectural significance, it is located at 1140 Royal Street. Marie Delphine Macarty was born in New Orleans on March 1787, as one of five children, her father was Louis Barthelemy de McCarty, whose father Barthelemy MacCarthy brought the family to New Orleans from Ireland around 1730, during the French colonial period.
Her mother was Marie-Jeanne L'Érable known as "the widow Le Comte", as her marriage to Louis B. Macarty was her second. Both were prominent in the town's European Creole community. Delphine's uncle, by marriage, Esteban Rodríguez Miró, was Governor of the Spanish American provinces of Louisiana and Florida during 1785–1791, her cousin, Augustin de Macarty, was Mayor of New Orleans from 1815 to 1820. On June 11, 1800, Marie Delphine Macarty married Don Ramón de Lopez y Angulo, a Caballero de la Royal de Carlos, a high-ranking Spanish royal officer, at the Saint Louis Cathedral in New Orleans. Luisiana, as it was spelled in Spanish, had become a Spanish colony in the 1760s after France was defeated by Great Britain in the Seven Years War. In 1804, after the American acquisition of what was again a French territory, Don Ramón had been appointed to the position of consul general for Spain in the Territory of Orleans. In 1804, Delphine and Ramón Lopez traveled to Spain. In June 1808, Delphine married Jean Blanque, a prominent banker, merchant and legislator.
At the time of the marriage, Blanque purchased a house at 409 Royal Street in New Orleans for the family, which became known as the Villa Blanque. Delphine had four children by Blanque, named Marie Louise Pauline, Louise Marie Laure, Marie Louise Jeanne, Jeanne Pierre Paulin Blanque. Blanque died in 1816. On June 25, 1825, Delphine married her third husband, physician Leonard Louis Nicolas LaLaurie, much younger than she. In 1831, she bought property at 1140 Royal Street, which she managed in her own name with little involvement of her husband. In 1832 she had a 2-story mansion built there, complete with attached slave quarters, she lived there with her third husband and two of her daughters, maintained a central position in New Orleans society. The LaLauries maintained several black slaves in slave quarters, attached to the Royal Street mansion. Accounts of Delphine LaLaurie's treatment of her slaves between 1831 and 1834 are mixed. Harriet Martineau, writing in 1838 and recounting tales told to her by New Orleans residents during her 1836 visit, claimed LaLaurie's slaves were observed to be "singularly haggard and wretched.
Court records of the time showed. Martineau wrote that public rumors about LaLaurie's mistreatment of her slaves were sufficiently widespread that a local lawyer was dispatched to Royal Street to remind LaLaurie of the laws for the upkeep of slaves. During this visit, the lawyer found no evidence of mistreatment of slaves by LaLaurie. Martineau recounted other tales of LaLaurie's cruelty that were current among New Orleans residents in about 1836, she said that, subsequent to the visit of the local lawyer, one of LaLaurie's neighbors saw one of the LaLauries' slaves, a twelve-year-old girl named Lia, fall to her death from the roof of the Royal Street mansion while trying to avoid punishment from a whip-wielding Delphine LaLaurie. Lia had been brushing Delphine's hair when she hit a snag, causing Delphine to grab a whip and chase her; the body was subsequently buried on the mansion grounds. According to Martineau, this incident led to an investigation of the LaLauries, in which they were found guilty of illegal cruelty and forced to forfeit nine slaves.
These nine slaves were bought back by the LaLauries through an intermediary relative, returned to the Royal Street residence. Martineau recounted stories that LaLaurie kept her cook chained to the kitchen stove, beat her daughters when they attempted to feed the slaves. On April 10, 1834, a fire broke out in the LaLaurie residence on Royal Street, starting in the kitchen; when the police and fire marshals got there, they found the cook, a seventy-year-old woman, chained to the stove by her ankle. She said that she had set the fire as a suicide attempt because she feared being punished, she said. As reported in the New Orleans Bee of April 11, 1834, bystanders responding to the fire attempted to enter the slave quarters to ensure that everyone had been evacuated. Upon being refused the keys by the LaLauries, the bystanders broke down the doors to the slave quarters and found "seven slaves, more or less horribly mutilated... suspended by the neck, with their limbs stretched and torn from