The Detroit River flows for 24 nautical miles from Lake St. Clair west and south to Lake Erie as a strait in the Great Lakes system and forms part of the border between Canada and the United States; the river divides the metropolitan areas of Detroit and Windsor, Ontario—an area referred to as Detroit–Windsor. The two cities are connected by the Ambassador Bridge, the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel, the Michigan Central Railway Tunnel; the river's name comes from the French Rivière du Détroit. The Detroit River has served an important role in the history of Detroit and Windsor, is one of the busiest waterways in the world, it serves as an important transportation route connecting Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Superior to the St. Lawrence Seaway and Erie Canal; when Detroit underwent rapid industrialization at the turn of the 20th century, the Detroit River became notoriously polluted and toxic. Since the late 20th century, however, a vast restoration effort has been undertaken because of the ecological importance of the river.
In the early 21st century, the river today has a wide variety of recreational uses. There are numerous islands in the Detroit River, much of the lower portion of the river is incorporated into the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge; the portion of the river in the city of Detroit has been organized into the Detroit International Riverfront and the William G. Milliken State Park and Harbor; the Detroit River is designated an American Heritage River and a Canadian Heritage River — the only river to have this dual designation. The Detroit River flows for 24 nautical miles from Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie. By definition, this classifies it as both a river and a strait — a strait being a narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water, how the river earned its name from early French settlers. However, the Detroit River is referred to as a strait, because bodies of water referred to as straits are much wider; the Detroit River is only 0.5 to 2.5 miles wide. The Detroit River starts on an east to west flow but bends and runs north to south.
The deepest portion of the Detroit River is 53 feet deep in the northern portion of the river. At its source, the river is at an elevation of 574 feet above sea level; the river drops only three feet before entering into Lake Erie at 571 feet. As the river contains no dams and no locks, it is navigable by the smallest of vessels; the watershed basin for the Detroit River is 700 square miles. Since the river is short, it has few tributaries, its largest tributary is the River Rouge in Michigan, four times longer than the Detroit River and contains most of the watershed. The only other major American tributary to the Detroit River is the much smaller Ecorse River. Tributaries on the Canadian side include Turkey Creek and the River Canard; the discharge for the Detroit River is high for a river of its size. The river's average discharge is 188,000 cubic feet per second, the river's flow is constant; the Detroit River forms a major element of the international border between the United States and Canada.
The river on the American side is all under the jurisdiction of Wayne County and the Canadian side is under the administration of Essex County, Ontario. The largest city along the Detroit River is Detroit, most of the population along the river lives in Michigan; the Detroit River has only two automobile traffic crossings connecting the United States and Canada: the Ambassador Bridge and the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel. Both of these are protected by the U. S. Customs and Border Protection and the Canada Border Services Agency; the upper portion of the river is one of the few places where a Canadian city lies directly south of an American city. In this case, the city of Detroit is directly north of the city of Ontario; the only other location where this occurs is Fort Erie, lying south of several cities in Niagara County, New York. The cities and communities southwest of Detroit along the American side of the river are popularly referred to as the Downriver area, because those areas are said to be "down the river" from Detroit.
Several of these communities do not border the Detroit River. The Detroit River contains numerous islands, whose ownership and control varies depending on their location along the river; the majority are on the American side of the river. Many are small and uninhabited. But, Grosse Île on the U. S. side and Bois Blanc Island on the Canadian side have permanent populations. Most islands are in the southern portion of the waterway, close to where the river empties into Lake Erie. Belle Isle, in the northern section of the river, is a Michigan State Park, is open to the public via a bridge connection with Detroit; the Detroit River was first navigated by non-natives in the 17th century. The Iroquois traded furs with the Dutch colonists at New Amsterdam by traveling through the Detroit River; the French claimed the area for New France. The famed sailing ship Le Griffon reached the mouth of the Detroit River in mid-August 1679 on its maiden voyage through the Great Lakes; when the French began settling in the area, they navigated the river using canoes made of birch or elm bark.
Handcrafted vessels were a common mode of travel across the river, the pirogue and bateaux were used. As the North American fur trade intensified, E
M-3 (Michigan highway)
M-3 is a north–south state trunkline highway in the Detroit metropolitan area of the US state of Michigan. For most of its length, the trunkline is known as Gratiot Avenue; the trunkline starts in Downtown Detroit and runs through the city in a northeasterly direction along one of Detroit's five major avenues. The highway passes through a historic district, it connects residential neighborhoods on the city's east side with suburbs in Macomb County and downtown. Gratiot Avenue in Detroit was one of the original avenues laid out by Judge Augustus Woodward after the Detroit fire in 1805, it was used as a supply road for Fort Gratiot in Port Huron under authorization from the US Congress in the 1820s. The roadway was included in the State Trunkline Highway System in 1913 and signposted with a number in 1919, it was used as a segment of US Highway 25 before that highway was functionally replaced by Interstate 94 in the 1960s. The M-3 designation was applied to the current highway in 1973, a southern section was reassigned to M-85 in 2001.
The southern end of M-3 is at an intersection between Jefferson Avenue and Randolph Street near the near entrance to the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel, the Mariners' Church, the Renaissance Center in downtown Detroit. This intersection serves as the termini for M-10 and Business Spur I-375. M-3 follows Randolph Street northward under the Detroit People Mover past Cadillac Square. North of Monroe Avenue, the street runs through the Randolph Street Commercial Buildings Historic District before M-3 crosses under the People Mover again and turns northeasterly along Gratiot Avenue, one of Detroit's five major thoroughfares; this street is a boulevard setup with four lanes divided with a center turn lane. Gratiot Avenue runs northeasterly past Ford Field. Near the stadium, the street passes over I-375 without any direct connections. On the east side of the freeway, M-3 runs past the Historic Trinity Lutheran and St. John's-St. Luke's Evangelical churches before intersecting the end of the Fisher Freeway, which at this location is an unnumbered connector to I-75 and I-375.
Gratiot continues past the freeway on the city's east side, bordering residential neighborhoods along the way. Through this area, it had a continuous center turn lane, losing the grassy median it had in places downtown; the highway intersects Grand Boulevard near Dueweke Park, at Van Dyke Avenue, it intersects the southern end of M-53. Gratiot Avenue crosses I-94 at the latter's exit 219 near the Coleman A. Young International Airport and an adjacent industrial area. Past the airport, Gratiot Avenue once again runs through residential neighborhoods while being bordered by commercial properties; the southern end of M-97 is at the intersection between Gratiot and Gunston avenues just northeast of the Outer Drive junction by the airport. The trunkline passes the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Church near a branch location of the Detroit Public Library at McNichols Street. Just before crossing M-102, Gratiot Avenue widens back to a boulevard; this intersection marks the transition from Wayne County to Eastpointe in Macomb County.
In Macomb County, M-3 follows a boulevard setup complete with Michigan lefts at the major intersections in the suburbs of Detroit. There are a series of commercial properties between 10 Mile Road and I-696 that includes the Eastgate Shopping Center in Roseville. Near 13 Mile Road, there is a partial interchange with I-94 that allows eastbound traffic, physically traveling northbound to access northbound M-3 and southbound M-3 traffic to access westbound I-94; the missing connections are possible through the adjacent interchange for Little Mack Avenue on I-94 which connects to 13 Mile Road and Gratiot Avenue. North of 14 Mile Road, M-3 crosses into Clinton Charter Township next to the Hebrew Memorial Park, a cemetery. North of the intersection with Metropolitan Parkway, Gratiot Avenue splits into a one-way pairing of Northbound and Southbound Gratiot avenues as it crosses into Mount Clemens near the Clinton River; the two separate streets are one, two, or three blocks apart through the city's downtown area.
North of the Patterson Street intersections, the two streets cross back into Clinton Township and merge back together in four-lane street with a center turn lane. North of M-59. M-3 clips the southeastern corner of Macomb Township near Selfridge Air National Guard Base; the highway continues into Chesterfield Township. M-3 parts from Gratiot Avenue at the intersection with 23 Mile Road, turning eastward along that roadway to an intersection with I-94. At exit 243, M-3 terminates at this interchange and 23 Mile Road continues easterly as M-29. M-3 is maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation like other state highways in Michigan; as a part of these maintenance responsibilities, the department tracks the volume of traffic that uses the roadways under its jurisdiction. These volumes are expressed using a metric called annual average daily traffic, a statistical calculation of the average daily number of vehicles on a segment of roadway. MDOT's surveys in 2010 showed that the highest traffic levels along M-3 were the 73,957 vehicles daily south of 14 Mile Road in Roseville.
All of M-3 has been listed on the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the country's economy and mobility. The first trunkline to be designated M-3 was Schaefer Highway in 1937, running north–south from US 25 in Melvindale to US 16 in western Detroit. Two years the highway became M-
Washington Irving was an American short story writer, biographer and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow", both of which appear in his collection The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, his historical works include biographies of Oliver Goldsmith, Islamic prophet Muhammad, George Washington, as well as several histories of 15th century Spain that deal with subjects such as Alhambra, Christopher Columbus, the Moors. Irving served as ambassador to Spain from 1842 to 1846, he made his literary debut in 1802 with a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle, written under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle. He moved to England for the family business in 1815 where he achieved fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. serialized from 1819–20. He continued to publish throughout his life, he completed a five-volume biography of George Washington just eight months before his death at age 76 in Tarrytown, New York.
Irving was one of the first American writers to earn acclaim in Europe, he encouraged other American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Herman Melville, Edgar Allan Poe. He was admired by some British writers, including Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Charles Dickens, Francis Jeffrey, Walter Scott, he advocated for writing as a legitimate profession and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement. Washington Irving's parents were William Irving Sr. of Quholm, Orkney and Sarah of Falmouth, England. They married in 1761, they had eleven children. Their first two sons died in infancy, both named William, as did their fourth child John, their surviving children were William Jr. Ann, Catherine, John Treat and Washington; the Irving family settled in Manhattan and were part of the city's merchant class when Washington was born on April 3, 1783, the same week that New York City residents learned of the British ceasefire which ended the American Revolution, Irving's mother named him after George Washington.
Irving met his namesake at age 6, when George Washington was living in New York after his inauguration as President in 1789. The President blessed young Irving, an encounter that Irving commemorated in a small watercolor painting which continues to hang in his home; the Irvings lived at 131 William Street at the time of Washington's birth, but they moved across the street to 128 William St. Several of Irving's brothers became active New York merchants. Irving was an uninterested student who preferred adventure stories and drama, he sneaked out of class in the evenings to attend the theater by the time he was 14. An outbreak of yellow fever in Manhattan in 1798 prompted his family to send him upriver, he stayed with his friend James Kirke Paulding in Tarrytown, New York, it was in Tarrytown that he became familiar with the nearby town of Sleepy Hollow, New York, with its Dutch customs and local ghost stories. He made several other trips up the Hudson as a teenager, including an extended visit to Johnstown, New York where he passed through the Catskill Mountains region, the setting for "Rip Van Winkle".
"Of all the scenery of the Hudson", Irving wrote, "the Kaatskill Mountains had the most witching effect on my boyish imagination". Irving began writing letters to the New York Morning Chronicle in 1802 when he was 19, submitting commentaries on the city's social and theater scene under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle; the name evoked his Federalist leanings and was the first of many pseudonyms that he employed throughout his career. The letters brought Irving moderate notoriety. Aaron Burr was a co-publisher of the Chronicle, he was impressed enough to send clippings of the Oldstyle pieces to his daughter Theodosia. Charles Brockden Brown made a trip to New York to recruit Oldstyle for a literary magazine that he was editing in Philadelphia. Irving's brothers became concerned for his health, so they financed an extended tour of Europe from 1804 to 1806, he bypassed most of the sites and locations considered essential for the social development of a young man, to the dismay of his brother William who wrote that he was pleased that his brother's health was improving, but he did not like the choice to "gallop through Italy… leaving Florence on your left and Venice on your right".
Instead, Irving honed the social and conversational skills that made him one of the world's most in-demand guests. "I endeavor to take things as they come with cheerfulness", Irving wrote, "and when I cannot get a dinner to suit my taste, I endeavor to get a taste to suit my dinner". While visiting Rome in 1805, Irving struck up a friendship with painter Washington Allston and was persuaded into a career as a painter. "My lot in life, was differently cast". Irving returned from Europe to study law with his legal mentor Judge Josiah Ogden Hoffman in New York City. By his own admission, he was not a good student and passed the bar examination in 1806, he began socializing with a group of literate young men whom he dubbed "The Lads of Kilkenny", he created the literary magazine Salmagundi in January 1807 with his brother William and his friend James Kirke Paulding, writing under various pseudonyms, such as William Wizard and Launcelot Langstaff. Irving lampooned New York culture and po
Brigadier general or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general; when appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general. In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank, although the rank is not regarded as a general officer; the rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. The rank name général de brigade, was first used in the French revolutionary armies. In the first quarter of the 20th century and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; some armies, such as Taiwan and Japan, use major general as the equivalent of brigadier general.
Some of these armies use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks. Mexico uses the ranks of General de brigada; this gallery displays Air Force brigadier general insignia if they are different from the Army brigadier general insignia. Note that in many Commonwealth countries, the equivalent air force rank is Air Commodore; the rank of brigadier general is used in the Argentine Air Force. Unlike other armed forces of the World, the rank of brigadier general is the highest rank in the Air Force; this is due to the use of the rank of brigadier and its derivatives to designate all general officers in the Air Force: brigadier. The rank of brigadier general is reserved for the Chief General Staff of the Air Force, as well as the Chief of the Joint General Staff if he should be an Air Force officer; the Argentine Army does not use the rank of brigadier-general, instead using brigade general which in turn is the lowest general officer before Divisional General and Lieutenant General.
In the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, the rank of brigadier general was always temporary and held only while the officer was posted to a particular task the command of a brigade. When posted elsewhere, the rank would be relinquished and the former rank resumed; this policy prevented an accumulation of high-ranking general officers brought about by the high turnover of brigade commanders. Brigadier general was used as an honorary rank on retirement; the rank insignia was like that of the current major general, but without the star/pip - example. As in the United Kingdom, the rank was replaced by brigadier. Hence, prior to 1922, a "brigadier general" was a "general officer". Prior to 2001, the Bangladesh Army rank was known as brigadier, in conformity with the rank structure of the Commonwealth Nations. In 2001 the Bangladesh Army introduced the rank of brigadier general, however "the grade stayed equivalent to brigadier", although classified as a "one-star rank", a brigadier general is not considered to be a general officer – the lowest ranking general officer is Major General.
Brigadier general is equivalent to commodore of the Bangladesh Navy and air commodore of the Bangladesh Air Force. It is still more popularly called brigadier; the Belgian Army uses the rank of général de brigadegeneraal. However, in this small military there are no permanent promotions to this rank, it is only awarded as a temporary promotion to a full colonel who assumes a post requiring the rank, notably in an international context. General de brigada is the lowest rank amongst general officers of the Brazilian Army – i.e. like in most British Commonwealth counties, the lowest general officer rank is a two-star rank, a General de Brigada wears a two-star insignia. Hence, it is equivalent to the major general rank of many counties. In the Brazilian Air Force, all of the senior ranks include "Brigadeiro" – the two-star rank is Brigadeiro, the three-star rank is Major-Brigadeiro and the four-star rank is Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar; the rank of brigadier general is known in Burma as bo hmu gyoke and is the deputy commander of one of Burma's Regional Military Commands, commander of the light infantry division or Military Operation Commands.
In civil service, a brigadier general holds the office of deputy minister or director general of certain ministries. In the Canadian Forces, the rank of brigadier-general is a rank for members who wear army or air force uniform, equal to a commodore for those in navy uniform. A brigadier-general is the lowest rank of general officer. A brigadier-general is senior to a colonel or naval captain, junior to a major-general or rear admiral; the rank title brigadier-general is still used notwithstanding that brigades in the army are now commanded by colonels. Until the late
Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, lawyer and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801; the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation. Jefferson was of English ancestry and educated in colonial Virginia, he graduated from the College of William & Mary and practiced law, with the largest number of his cases concerning land ownership claims. During the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress that adopted the Declaration, drafted the law for religious freedom as a Virginia legislator, served as the 2nd Governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781, during the American Revolutionary War, he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, subsequently the nation's first secretary of state under President George Washington from 1790 to 1793.
Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System. With Madison, he anonymously wrote the controversial Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 and 1799, which sought to strengthen states' rights by nullifying the federal Alien and Sedition Acts; as president, Jefferson pursued the nation's shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He organized the Louisiana Purchase doubling the country's territory; as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. He was reelected in 1804. Jefferson's second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former vice president Aaron Burr. American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a controversial process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory, he signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves in 1807.
Jefferson, while a planter and politician, mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and mechanics. He was an architect in the classical tradition. Jefferson's keen interest in religion and philosophy led to his presidency of the American Philosophical Society. A philologist, Jefferson knew several languages, he corresponded with many prominent people. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, considered the most important American book published before 1800. After retiring from public office, Jefferson founded the University of Virginia. Although regarded as a leading spokesman for democracy and republicanism in the era of the Enlightenment, Jefferson's historical legacy is mixed; some modern scholarship has been critical of Jefferson's private life, pointing out the contradiction between his ownership of the large numbers of slaves that worked his plantations and his famous declaration that "all men are created equal." Another point of controversy stems from the evidence that after his wife Martha died in 1782, Jefferson fathered children with Martha's half-sister, Sally Hemings, his slave.
Despite this, presidential scholars and historians praise his public achievements, including his advocacy of religious freedom and tolerance in Virginia. Jefferson continues to rank among U. S. presidents. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children, he was of English, Welsh and was born a British subject. His father Peter Jefferson was a surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of William Randolph, the plantation's owner and Jefferson's friend, who in his will had named him guardian of his children; the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757. Thomas inherited 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello, he assumed full authority over his property at age 21. Jefferson began his childhood education beside the Randolph children with tutors at Tuckahoe. Thomas' father, was self-taught, regretting not having a formal education, he entered Thomas into an English school early, at age five.
In 1752, at age nine, he began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister and began studying the natural world, for which he grew to love. At this time he began studying Latin and French, while learning to ride horses. Thomas read books from his father's modest library, he was taught from 1758 to 1760 by Reverend James Maury near Gordonsville, where he studied history and the classics while boarding with Maury's family. During this period Jefferson came to know and befriended various American Indians, including the famous Cherokee chief, who stopped at Shadwell to visit, on their way to Williamsburg to trade. During the two years Jefferson was with the Maury family, he traveled to Williamsburg and was a guest of Colonel Dandridge, father of Martha Washington. In Williamsburg the young Jefferson met and came to admire Patrick Henry, eight ye
Pierre Charles L'Enfant
Pierre Charles L'Enfant, self-identified as Peter Charles L'Enfant while living in the United States, was a French-American military engineer who designed the basic plan for Washington, D. C. known today as the L'Enfant Plan. L'Enfant was born in Paris, France on August 2, 1754, the third child and second son of Pierre L'Enfant, a painter with a good reputation in the service of King Louis XV of France, Marie L'Enfant, the daughter of a minor official at court. In 1758, his brother Pierre Joseph died at the age of six, Pierre Charles became the eldest son, he studied art at the Royal Academy in the Louvre, as well as with his father at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. He left school in France to enlist in the American Revolutionary War on the side of the rebelling colonials. L'Enfant was recruited by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais to serve in the American Revolutionary War in the United States, he arrived in 1777 at the age of 23, served as a military engineer in the Continental Army with Major General Lafayette.
He was commissioned as a captain in the Corps of Engineers on April 3, 1779 to rank from February 18, 1778. Despite his aristocratic origins, L'Enfant identified with the United States, changing his first name from Pierre to Peter when he first came to the rebelling colonies in 1777. L'Enfant served on General George Washington's staff at Valley Forge. While there, the Marquis de Lafayette commissioned L'Enfant to paint a portrait of Washington. During the war, L'Enfant made a number of pencil portraits of George Washington and other Continental Army officers, he made at least two paintings of Continental Army encampments. L'Enfant was wounded at the Siege of Savannah on October 9, 1779, he recovered and became a prisoner of war at the surrender of Charleston, South Carolina on May 12, 1780. He was exchanged in November 1780 and served on General Washington's staff for the remainder of the American Revolution. L'Enfant was promoted by brevet to Major in the Corps of Engineers on May 2, 1783, in recognition of his service to the cause of American liberty.
He was discharged when the Continental Army was disbanded in December 1783. Following the American Revolutionary War, L'Enfant established a successful and profitable civil engineering firm in New York City, he achieved some fame as an architect by redesigning the City Hall in New York for the First Congress of the United States. L'Enfant designed furniture and houses for the wealthy, as well as coins and medals. Among the medals was the eagle-shaped badge of the Society of the Cincinnati, an organization of former officers of the Continental Army of which he was a founder. At the request of George Washington, the first President of the Society, L'Enfant had the insignias made in France during a 1783-1784 visit to his father and helped to organize a chapter of the Society there. L'Enfant was a friend of Alexander Hamilton; some of their correspondences from 1793 to 1801 now reside in the Library of Congress. While L'Enfant was in New York City, he was initiated into Freemasonry, his initiation took place on April 1789, at Holland Lodge No.
8, F & A M, which the Grand Lodge of New York F & A M had chartered in 1787. L'Enfant took only the first of three degrees offered by the Lodge and did not progress further in Freemasonry; the new Constitution of the United States, which took effect in March and April 1789, gave the newly organized Congress of the United States authority to establish a federal district up to ten miles square in size. L'Enfant had written first to President George Washington, asking to be commissioned to plan the city, but a decision on the capital was put on hold until July 1790 when the First Congress passed the "Residence Act", setting the site of the new federal district and national capital to be on the shores of the Potomac River; the Residence Act was the result of an important early political compromise between northern and southern congressional delegations, brokered by new cabinet members, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton of New York and political opponent, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia.
It specified the new capital would be situated on the northern and southern banks of the Potomac River, at some location, to be determined by the president, between the Eastern Branch near Washington's estate of Mount Vernon and the confluence with the Conococheague Creek, further upstream near Hagerstown, Maryland. The Residence Act gave authority to President Washington to appoint three commissioners to oversee the survey of the ten mile square federal district and "according to such Plans, as the President shall approve," provide public buildings to accommodate the Federal government in 1800. President Washington appointed L'Enfant in 1791 to plan the new "Federal City" under the supervision of the three Commissioners, whom Washington had appointed to oversee the planning and development of the federal territory that would become designated the "District of Columbia". Included in the new district were the river port towns of Georgetown and Alexandria. Thomas Jefferson, who worked alongside President Washington in overseeing the plans for the capital, sent L'Enfant a letter outlining his task, to provide a drawing of suitable sites for the federal city and the public buildings.
Though Jefferson had modest ideas for the Capital, L'Enfant saw the task as far more grandiose, believing he was not only locating the capital, but devising the city plan and designin
U.S. Route 12 in Michigan
US Highway 12 is an east–west US Highway that runs from Aberdeen, Washington, to Detroit, Michigan. In Michigan it runs for 210 miles between New Buffalo and Detroit as a state trunkline highway and Pure Michigan Byway. On its western end, the highway is a two-lane road that runs through the southern tier of counties parallel to the Indiana state line, it forms part of the Niles Bypass, a four-lane expressway south of Niles in the southwestern part of the state, it runs concurrently with the Interstate 94 freeway around the south side of Ypsilanti in the southeastern. In between Coldwater and the Ann Arbor area, the highway angles northeasterly and passes the Michigan International Speedway. East of Ypsilanti, US 12 follows a divided highway routing on Michigan Avenue into Detroit, where it terminates at an intersection with Cass Avenue; when US 12 was designated in Michigan on November 11, 1926, along with the other original US Highways, it ran along a more northerly course. It replaced sections of the original M-11 and M-17 along Michigan Avenue in the state, the route of the much older St. Joseph Trail, a footpath used by Native Americans before European settlement in the area.
It entered from Indiana as it does now, but it followed the Lake Michigan shoreline farther north to Benton Harbor–St. Joseph before turning eastward to run through Kalamazoo, Battle Creek and Jackson. In the Ann Arbor area, it followed a more northerly path into Detroit before terminating downtown. In the 1940s and 1950s, sections of the highway were converted into freeways. Starting in 1959, these freeway segments were renumbered as part of I-94, in January 1962, US 12 was shifted to replace US Highway 112; that highway, when it was designated in 1926 replaced the original M-23 along the Chicago Road. US 112 replaced the first M-151 when the former was extended to New Buffalo in the mid-1930s. Since 1962, the highway has remained unchanged aside from minor truncations in the city of Detroit. US 112 had two business loops, both of which were renumbered Business US 12 in 1962. In 2010, the Niles business loop was decommissioned. One section of the former US 112 was renumbered US 112S for a few years in the 1930s.
Between the state line near Michiana and the interchange with I-94 near New Buffalo, US 12 forms a portion of the Lake Michigan Circle Tour. The full length of the highway in the state is a Pure Michigan Historic Byway. Outside of the various cities, most of US 12 is a two-lane state highway. One section runs concurrently with I-94 south of Ypsilanti. From there eastward, US 12 is a divided highway and a boulevard into the Detroit area; the entire length of the highway east of Coldwater is listed on the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the US's economy and mobility. US 12 enters the state of Michigan southwest of New Buffalo near the town of Michiana; the highway runs a bit inland and parallel to the Lake Michigan shore on Red Arrow Highway past the community of Grand Beach before turning eastward away from the lake on the north side of New Buffalo. US 12 intersects I-94 less than a mile east of this turn and continues due east along Pulaski Highway through rural farmland.
The highway is the main east–west street as it crosses through Three Oaks in southern Berrien County. East of Galien, the highway dips southward around Dayton Lake before passing south of Buchanan; the highway continues eastward. East of that freeway, US 12 expands into an expressway as the Niles Bypass; this bypass intersects M-139, crosses the St. Joseph River and intersects M-51 on the south side of Niles. US 12 turns northeasterly along the bypass east of downtown and departs to the southeast at an interchange with Main Street and M-60 just across the county line with Cass County. Continuing through southern Cass County, US 12 runs parallel to the state line, it turns northeasterly to run into Edwardsburg, where it intersects M-62. The highway turns southeasterly and runs to the south of Eagle Lake before entering the community of Adamsville; the highway continues on this southeasterly course until it intersects the former M-205 and M-217 near Union and turns to the northeast. US 12 intersects the southern end of M-40 before crossing into St. Joseph County at the eastern crossing of the St. Joseph River.
On the eastern side of the river, US 12 enters Mottville and intersects M-103. The highway continues as Chicago Road through intersects US 131 near White Pigeon, it continues to a junction with M-66 in Sturgis. East of Sturgis, US 12 turns northeasterly into Branch County. Still named Chicago Road, it passes through Batavia. Northeast of Batavia, US 12 intersects the eastern end of M-86 near Branch County Memorial Airport; the airport is on the western edge of Coldwater, after crossing the Coldwater River between Cemetery and South lakes, the highway runs through residential neighborhoods and into downtown. East of Division Street, Business Loop I-69 follows US 12 through downtown and out to an interchange with I-69 on the east side of Coldwater; the highway continues past retail businesses and parallel to the Sauk River. US 12 passes through the town of Quincy before crossing into Hillsdale County. East of the Hillsdale County line, US 12 runs easterly into Allen, where it intersects M-49; the highway continues northeastward through farmland to Jonesville, where it runs concurrently with M-99 through downtown and across a different St. Joseph River.
The trunkline continues