Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, military communications. Cryptography prior to the modern age was synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense; the originator of an encrypted message shares the decoding technique only with intended recipients to preclude access from adversaries. The cryptography literature uses the names Alice for the sender, Bob for the intended recipient, Eve for the adversary. Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become complex and its application more widespread.
Modern cryptography is based on mathematical theory and computer science practice. It is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means; these schemes are therefore termed computationally secure. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken with unlimited computing power—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to use in practice than the best theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms; the growth of cryptographic technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptography's potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led many governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or prohibit its use and export. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation. Cryptography plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.
The first use of the term cryptograph dates back to the 19th century—originating from The Gold-Bug, a novel by Edgar Allan Poe. Until modern times, cryptography referred exclusively to encryption, the process of converting ordinary information into unintelligible form. Decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. A cipher is a pair of algorithms that create the reversing decryption; the detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a "key". The key is a secret a short string of characters, needed to decrypt the ciphertext. Formally, a "cryptosystem" is the ordered list of elements of finite possible plaintexts, finite possible cyphertexts, finite possible keys, the encryption and decryption algorithms which correspond to each key. Keys are important both formally and in actual practice, as ciphers without variable keys can be trivially broken with only the knowledge of the cipher used and are therefore useless for most purposes.
Ciphers were used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks. There are two kinds of cryptosystems: asymmetric. In symmetric systems the same key is used to decrypt a message. Data manipulation in symmetric systems is faster than asymmetric systems as they use shorter key lengths. Asymmetric systems use a public key to encrypt a private key to decrypt it. Use of asymmetric systems enhances the security of communication. Examples of asymmetric systems include RSA, ECC. Symmetric models include the used AES which replaced the older DES. In colloquial use, the term "code" is used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a more specific meaning, it means the replacement of a unit of plaintext with a code word. Cryptanalysis is the term used for the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the key required to do so; some use the terms cryptography and cryptology interchangeably in English, while others use cryptography to refer to the use and practice of cryptographic techniques and cryptology to refer to the combined study of cryptography and cryptanalysis.
English is more flexible than several other languages in which crypto
Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Anthony Ulrich, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1685 until 1702 jointly with his elder brother Rudolph Augustus, from 1704 until his death. He was one of the main proponents of enlightened absolutism among the Brunswick dukes, he was born in Hitzacker the residence of his father Duke Augustus the Younger of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his second wife Princess Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst. The next year his father, at the age of 55, assumed the rule in the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel after his Welf cousin Duke Frederick Ulrich had died childless. Anthony Ulrich was the second surviving son of the ducal couple. Anthony Ulrich's sister was Sibylle Ursula von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who stood out as a writer and translator, he studied at the University of Helmstedt. On his Grand Tour, he travelled to Italy and the Low Countries, he met with Madeleine de Scudéry and became passionate about theatre; when he married Elisabeth Juliane, daughter of Duke Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg, in 1656, he wrote a stage play on this occasion.
His father consulted him in politics and the government business. After Augustus the Younger's death in 1666, Rudolph Augustus, Anthony Ulrich's elder brother, became reigning duke and made Anthony Ulrich his proxy. Rudolph Augustus had more interest in hunting and his library than in government affairs and left most decisions to his brother; the young prince united the forces of the Welf principalities to combat the rebellious City of Brunswick, whose citizens had to accept the ducal overlordship in 1671. In the following year, his main concern was the rivalry with his cousin Duke Ernest Augustus, who from 1679 ruled over the Brunswick Principality of Calenberg. After the Ernest Augustus had received the new ninth prince-electorship from Emperor Leopold I in 1692 and went on to rule as Elector of Hanover, tensions between the two states rose, as both Anthony Ulrich and Rudolph Augustus were dismayed that they had not received the electorship according to the right of primogeniture. While both Hanover under Ernest Augustus' son Elector George Louis and the Welf Principality of Lüneburg sided with the Habsburg emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession, Anthony Ulrich decided to enter into an agreement with King Louis XIV of France.
This led to Hanover and Lüneburg forces invading the Principality of Wolfenbüttel in March 1702. By order of the emperor, Anthony Ulrich was deposed as duke against his brother's protestations, Rudolph Augustus remained as the only Wolfenbüttel ruler, while Anthony Ulrich fled to Saxe-Gotha. In April 1702, Rudolph Augustus signed a treaty with Hanover and Lüneburg that Anthony Ulrich agreed to. After Rudolph Augustus' death in 1704, Anthony Ulrich took over government again, he continued to settle various disputes with his Hanover cousin George Louis, who in 1705 inherited Lüneburg, until a final agreement between the two sister principalities was reached in 1706. Wolfenbüttel renounced all claims to the former Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg and received several smaller estates in compensation, it was now Anthony Ulrich's turn to approach the Imperial Habsburg dynasty. In 1704, he had concluded an agreement with his cousin Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg, wife of the future Emperor Joseph I, to marry his granddaughter Elisabeth Christine off to Joseph's brother Archduke Charles of Austria.
The young woman was reluctant to convert to the Catholic faith, which she did in a solemn ceremony at Bamberg Cathedral on 1 May 1707. The marriage took place the next year in Vienna. In 1709, Anthony Ulrich himself converted to the Catholic Church, he guaranteed to his subjects that this would not influence his government, although he allowed the consecration of the first Catholic church in Brunswick. He lived to see the election of Archduke Charles as Emperor Charles VI in 1711 and the marriage of his granddaughter Charlotte Christine with Alexei Petrovich Romanov, son of Tsar Peter I, in the same year, he died at the age of 80 at his Schloss Salzdahlum residence, which he had built, was buried in the crypt of the Wolfenbüttel Marienkirche. He was succeeded by Augustus William; as an admirer of King Louis XIV of France, Anthony Ulrich is known as a supporter of scholarship and the arts. He introduced the French language at the Wolfenbüttel court and spent enormous sums on cultural events and amusements.
From 1689 to 1690, he had a public opera house erected in Brunswick, Staatstheater Braunschweig, which soon became a venue for Baroque composers such as Johann Rosenmüller, Johann Sigismund Kusser, Reinhard Keiser, Georg Caspar Schürmann, Johann Adolph Hasse. He extended the Bibliotheca Augusta, a library founded by his father, he hired the philosopher Leibniz as a librarian, was a supporter of Anton Wilhelm Amo, the first black Doctor of Philosophy in Europe. The new rotunda of the Bibliotheca Augusta, built according to plans by Hermann Korb and completed in 1712, was the first genuine library building in Germany. Hermann Korb designed the plans for Schloss Salzdahlum, erected between 1694 and 1695, modelled on the French Château de Marly. Here the Prussian cr
Wolfenbüttel is a town in Lower Saxony, the administrative capital of Wolfenbüttel District. It is best known as the location of the internationally renowned Herzog August Library and for having the largest concentration of timber-framed buildings in Germany, it is an episcopal. It is home to the Jägermeister distillery and houses a campus of the Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences; the town centre is located at an elevation of 77 ft on the Oker river near the confluence with its Altenau tributary, about 13 km south of Brunswick and 60 km southeast of the state capital Hanover. Wolfenbüttel is situated about half-way between the Harz mountain range in the south and the Lüneburg Heath in the north; the Elm-Lappwald Nature Park and the Asse hill range stretch southeast of the town. With a population of about 52,000 people, Wolfenbüttel is part of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region, it is the southernmost of the 172 towns in Northern Germany whose names end in büttel, meaning "residence" or "settlement."
The mayor of the town Wolfenbüttel is since 2006 Thomas Pink. He was reelected in 2014 with 67.7% of the vote. A first settlement restricted to a tiny islet in the Oker river, was founded in the tenth century, it was mentioned in 1118 as Wulferisbuttle, when the Saxon count Widekind of Wolfenbüttel had a water castle erected on the important trade route from Brunswick to Halberstadt and Leipzig. Destroyed by Henry the Lion in 1191, again by his great-grandson Duke Albert I of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1255, the fortress was acquired and rebuilt by the Welf duke Henry I of Brunswick from 1283 onwards. By 1432, the town had become a permanent residence of the Brunswick Princes of Wolfenbüttel. Devastated in the 1542 Schmalkaldic War, it was rebuilt in a Renaissance style under Duke Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg, including several gracht waterways laid out by Hans Vredeman de Vries; the duke vested the citizens with market rights in 1570 and founded the Ducal Library two years later. During the Thirty Years' War, Danish troops under King Christian IV occupied the fortified town in 1626.
Upon the nearby Battle of Lutter, they were besieged by the Imperial forces of General Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim. Re-conquered in 1627, the Wolfenbüttel fortress remained under the command of Gottfried Huyn von Geleen. In June 1641 the Battle of Wolfenbüttel was fought here, when the Swedish forces under Wrangel and the Count of Königsmark defeated the Austrians under Archduke Leopold of Habsburg, they failed to occupy the town. Over two centuries under Duke Julius' successors Henry Julius and Augustus the Younger, Wolfenbüttel grew to be a centre of the arts and science: Already in 1604, the composer Michael Praetorius served as Kapellmeister of the Brunswick dukes. From 1682, the composer Johann Rosenmüller, who had to flee Germany due to allegations of homosexuality, spent his last years in Wolfenbüttel. Gottfried Leibniz and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing directed the Ducal Library, established one of the first lending libraries in Enlightenment Europe. However, the ducal court returned to Brunswick in 1753 and Wolfenbüttel subsequently lost in importance.
During World War II, the city prison became a major execution site of prisoners of the Gestapo. Most of those executed were members of various Resistance groups. One such victim was a Dom Lambert, a monk of Ligugé Abbey in France, beheaded there on 3 December 1943; the baroque castle Schloss Wolfenbüttel. In 1866, the castle became the Anna-Vorwerk-School for girls. Today part of the building is used as a high school. Herzog-August-Bibliothek, the ducal library, hosts one of the largest and best-known collections of ancient books in the world, it is rich in bibles and books of the Reformation period, with some 10,000 manuscripts. It was founded in 1572 and rehoused in an interpretation of the Pantheon in 1723, built facing the castle. Leibniz and Lessing worked in this library as librarians; the Codex Carolinus in the library is one of the few remaining texts in Gothic. The library houses the bible of Henry the Lion, a book preserved in near mint condition from the year 1170. Klein-Venedig. A pittoresque waterside building ensemble along the River Oker built in the eighteenth century.
The churches Marienkirche, built during the seventeenth century, St.-Trinitatiskirche, built during the early eighteenth century. The town is the location of the former Northampton Barracks, which housed units of the British Army of the Rhine until 1993. Today, Wolfenbüttel is smaller than the neighbouring cities of Braunschweig and Wolfsburg, because it was undamaged by the war, its downtown is rich in half-timber buildings, many dating several centuries back, it still retains its historical character. Wolfenbüttel is located on the German Timber-Frame Road. Wolfenbüttel is home of several departments of the Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences and the Lessing-Akademie, an organisation for the study of Lessing's works, it is home to the Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv, the state archives of Lower Saxony, as well as the renowned Biblioteca Augusta. The herb liqueur Jägermeister's headquarters of Mast-Jägermeister are still located in Wolfenbüttel, some of its distillation sites. Wolfenbüttel hosted
Herzog August Library
The Herzog August Library, in Wolfenbüttel, Lower Saxony, known as Bibliotheca Augusta, is a library of international importance for its collection from the Middle Ages and early modern Europe. The library is overseen by the Lower Saxony Ministry for Culture; the library was founded by Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1572. In the 17th century it was the largest library north of the Alps; the library was named after Duke Augustus, who enlarged the collection, kept at Wolfenbüttel. Armies passed by, back and forth, over the centuries, it was so regarded that generals placed the library under special protection, the library is one of the oldest in the world to have never suffered loss to its collection. In 2006 the library housed around 11,500 manuscripts and 900,000 books, of which 350,000 were printed between the 15th to 18th centuries. Of these, 3,500 are incunabula, 75,000 are from the sixteenth century, 150,000 are from the seventeenth century, 120,000 are from the eighteenth century. Notable librarians have included: 1604–1666: Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1691–1716: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1770–1781: Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 1968–1992: Paul RaabeThe library is famed for its research and for the hundreds of international scholars who collaborate with the library staff on various projects.
Its research programs are described as exploring the "history of international relations, or the history of culture and politics... social history, the history of religion, business and law, constitutional history, the history of society and gender from the Middle Ages to Early Modern Times". The famous palimpsest Codex Guelferbytanus 64 Weissenburgensis, which contains in the lower text Codex Guelferbytanus A, Codex Guelferbytanus B, Codex Carolinus. Gospels of Henry the Lion Liber Floridus ca. 1150 Minuscule 97 Minuscule 126 Minuscule 429 Nine volumes from the library of Matthias Corvinus Schönrainer Liederhandschrift Visio Godeschalci Corpus Agrimensorum Romanorum Magnus liber organi, manuscripts W1 and W2 Luther's Wolfenbuttel Psalter the only extant copy of Luther's glosses of his lectures on the Psalms beginning 1513. Herzog-August-Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, ed. Andrea Kastens, ISSN 0341-8634 Die Herzog-August-Bibliothek und Wolfenbüttel, ed. Leo G. Linder, ISBN 3-07-509702-0 A treasure house of books: the library of Duke August of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, ed. Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer, ISBN 3-447-04119-6 The German book in Wolfenbüttel and abroad.
Studies presented to Ulrich Kopp in his retirement, ed. William A. Kelly & Jürgen Beyer, ISBN 978-9949-32-494-1 Official website Arbeitsgemeinschaft Sammlung Deutscher Drucke Bücherrad im Museum "Das Alte Zollhaus" in Hitzacker
Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst
Dorothea von Anhalt-Zerbst was a member of the House of Askanier and a princess of Anhalt-Zerbst and by marriage Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Dorothea was the daughter of Prince Rudolf of Anhalt-Zerbst from his first marriage to Dorothea Hedwig, daughter of the Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. On 26 October 1623 she married in Zerbst with Duke August the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; this was August's second marriage. His first marriage had remained childless, like that of his brother Julius Ernest. With the birth of her sons, Dorothea thus became the ancestress of the "New House of Brunswick", which became extinct in 1873; the family tree of the Duchess, as of 1617, can still be found in the library in Wolfenbüttel. From her marriage with Augustus, Dorothy had the following children: Henry August Rudolph August, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttelmarried firstly, in 1650 Countess Christiane Elisabeth of Barby married secondly, in 1681 Rosine Elisabeth Menthe Sibylle Ursula married in 1663 Duke Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg Klara Auguste married in 1653 Duke Frederick of Württemberg-Neuenstadt Anton Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttelmarried in 1656 princess Elisabeth Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg Anhalt Askanier William Havemann: History of the territories Brunswick and Lüneburg, Dieterich, 1855, p. 712 Edward Vehse: History of the courts of the House of Brunswick in Germany and England, Hoffmann und Campe, 1853, p. 164
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in, its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Lüneburg. The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion; the duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but each ruler was styled "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" in addition to his own particular title. By 1692, the territories had consolidated to two: the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they would rule in personal union with Hanover until 1837. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg.
The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighboring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick; when the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. He went into exile for several years, but was allowed to stay on the estates inherited from his mother's side until the end of his life. At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. After his death in 1252, he was succeeded by his sons, Albert the Tall and John, who ruled the dukedom jointly.
In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. The towns of Lüneburg and Brunswick remained in the overall possession of the House of Welf until 1512 and 1671 respectively. In 1571 the Amt of Calvörde became an exclave of the Duchy; the various parts of the duchy were further divided and re-united over the centuries, all of them being ruled by the Welf or Guelph dynasty, who maintained close relations with one another—not infrequently by marrying cousins—a practice far more common than is the case today among the peasantry of the Holy Roman Empire, for the salic inheritance laws in effect, encouraged the practice of retaining control of lands and benefits. The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence; the subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
The subordinate states that were created, which had the legal status of principalities, were named after the residence of their rulers. The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a side line when a particular family died out. For example, over the course of the centuries there were the Old and New Houses of Brunswick, the Old and New Houses of Lüneburg; the number of reigning dynastic lines varied from two to five. In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1432, as a result of increasing tensions with the townsfolk of Brunswick, the Brunswick Line moved their Residence to Wolfenbüttel, into the water castle, expanded into a Schloss, whilst the town was developed into a royal seat; the name Wolfenbüttel was given to this principality. From 1546 Wolfenbüttel became the residence of the senior prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince Henry, Duke of Brunswick-Dannenberg. With sole rights to the duchy Brunswick-Lüneburg, he provided a conditional lease of the principality of Lüneburg to the princes of Calenburg with the conditions of payment to Wolfenbüttel heirs, together with the guarantee that only his descendants would inherit this senior principality of Wolfenbüttel.
Not until 1753/1754 was the Residence moved back to Brunswick, into the newly built Brunswick Palace. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick, with its own subordinate principalities that are all apart from the Calenburg principality from which sprang the de facto Kingdom of Hanover, a Kingdom, declared a usurpation by the head of house, Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, in his edict of May 10, 1827. In 1866 Prussia refused to recognize the Kingdom of Hanover. Prince Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel protested the violent annexation from his places of exile in Paris, as well as Geneva Switzerland and sealed the 12th of April 1873. In 1432 the estates gained by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between the Deister and Leine split away as the Principality of Calenberg. To the north this new state bordered on the County of Hoya near Nienburg and extended from there in a narrow, winding strip southwards up the River Leine through Wunstorf and Hanover where it reached the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.
In 1495 it was expanded in 1584 went back to the Wolfenbüttel Line. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest I
The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank when they had come of age. Young women of sufficient means, or those of either gender of a more humble origin who could find a sponsor, could partake; the custom—which flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transport in the 1840s and was associated with a standard itinerary—served as an educational rite of passage. Though the Grand Tour was associated with the British nobility and wealthy landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of other Protestant Northern European nations, from the second half of the 18th century, by some South and North Americans. By the mid 18th century, the Grand Tour had become a regular feature of aristocratic education in Central Europe, as well, although it was restricted to the higher nobility; the tradition declined as enthusiasm for neo-classical culture waned, with the advent of accessible rail and steamship travel—an era in which Thomas Cook made the "Cook's Tour" of early mass tourism a byword.
The New York Times in 2008 described the Grand Tour in this way: Three hundred years ago, wealthy young Englishmen began taking a post-Oxbridge trek through France and Italy in search of art and the roots of Western civilization. With nearly unlimited funds, aristocratic connections and months to roam, they commissioned paintings, perfected their language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the Continent; the primary value of the Grand Tour lay in its exposure to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the Renaissance, to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of the European continent. In addition, it provided the only opportunity to view specific works of art, the only chance to hear certain music. A Grand Tour could last anywhere from several months to several years, it was undertaken in the company of a Cicerone, a knowledgeable guide or tutor. The Grand Tour had more than superficial cultural importance; the legacy of the Grand Tour lives on to the modern day and is still evident in works of travel and literature.
From its aristocratic origins and the permutations of sentimental and romantic travel to the age of tourism and globalization, the Grand Tour still influences the destinations tourists choose and shapes the ideas of culture and sophistication that surround the act of travel. In essence, the Grand Tour was neither a scholarly pilgrimage nor a religious one, though a pleasurable stay in Venice and a residence in Rome were essential. Catholic Grand Tourists followed the same routes as Protestant Whigs. Since the 17th century, a tour to such places was considered essential for budding artists to understand proper painting and sculpture techniques, though the trappings of the Grand Tour—valets and coachmen a cook a "bear-leader" or scholarly guide—were beyond their reach; the advent of popular guides, such as the book An Account of Some of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs and Pictures in Italy published in 1722 by Jonathan Richardson and his son Jonathan Richardson the Younger, did much to popularise such trips, following the artists themselves, the elite considered travel to such centres as necessary rites of passage.
For gentlemen, some works of art were essential to demonstrate the breadth and polish they had received from their tour. In Rome, antiquaries like Thomas Jenkins were dealers and were able to sell and advise on the purchase of marbles. Coins and medals, which formed more portable souvenirs and a respected gentleman's guide to ancient history were popular. Pompeo Batoni made a career of painting the English milordi posed with graceful ease among Roman antiquities. Many continued on to Naples, where they viewed Herculaneum and Pompeii, but few ventured far into Southern Italy, fewer still to Greece still under Turkish rule. Rome for many centuries had been the goal of pilgrims during Jubilee when they visited the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome. In Britain, Thomas Coryat's travel book Coryat's Crudities, published during the Twelve Years' Truce, was an early influence on the Grand Tour but it was the far more extensive tour through Italy as far as Naples undertaken by the'Collector' Earl of Arundel, with his wife and children in 1613–14 that established the most significant precedent.
This is because he asked Inigo Jones, not yet established as an architect but known as a'great traveller' and masque designer, to act as his cicerone. Larger numbers of tourists began their tours after the Peace of Münster in 1648. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first recorded use of the term was by Richard Lassels, an expatriate Roman Catholic priest, in his book The Voyage of Italy, published posthumously in Paris in 1670 and in London. Lassels's introduction listed four areas in which travel furnished "an accomplished, consummate Traveller": the intellectual, the social, the ethical, the political; the idea of travelling for the sake of curiosity and learning was a developing idea in the 17th century. With John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, it was argued, accepted, that knowledge comes entire