History of Burnside
The history of Burnside, a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia, spans three centuries. Burnside was inhabited by the Kaurna Indigenous people prior to European settlement, living around the creeks of the River Torrens during the winter and in the Adelaide Hills during the summer; the area was first settled in 1839 by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek. The village of Burnside was established shortly after, the District Council of Burnside was gazetted in 1856, separating itself from the larger East Torrens Council; the mainstays of the early Burnside economy were viticulture and olive groves. The present council chambers were built in 1926 in Tusmore. With strong growth and development throughout the region, Burnside was proclaimed a city in 1943; the 1960s brought to Burnside a swimming centre. Today, Burnside is one of Adelaide's most upper-class and sought-after regions in; the village of Kensington was established in May 1839, only 29 months after the foundation of the colony.
The village was agricultural and had a close relationship with the nearby village of Norwood. The two villages formed one of Adelaide's first municipalities in 1853 as the Town of Norwood and Kensington, evolving into today's City of Norwood Payneham St Peters. Parts of Kensington that are now included in Burnside are the suburbs of Kensington Gardens and Kensington Park; the village of Makgill was first established as the 524-acre Makgill Estate, owned by two Scots—Robert Cock and William Ferguson—who met on board the Buffalo en route to the newly founded colony. It was named after David M Makgill. Ferguson, charged with farming the estate, built the estate's homestead in 1838. Soon after farming started, the two were short of funds, thus Magill became the first foothills village to be subdivided; the village of Glen Osmond was associated with the discovery of silver and lead on the slopes of Mount Osmond by two Cornish immigrants. Their discovery of minerals provided the colony with valuable export income, at a time when the early South Australian economy was not yet established and facing bankruptcy.
Governor Gawler visited the early discovery and the first mine, Wheal Gawler, was named in his honour. South Australia's first mine exported overseas throughout the 1840s, providing employment to early Cornish and German immigrants after several mines were bought by a German businessman; the early village assumed a strong Cornish, a German character. Mining declined after an exodus of workers when a gold rush began in 1851 in the neighbouring colony of Victoria; the Anderson family was the first to settle the land, to become the village of Burnside. They brought with them good character testimonials from Scotland, valuable farming experience and 3000 pounds; the Andersons moved on to Morphett Vale in 1847, abandoning their homestead. The buyer of the Anderson land, William Randell, soon decided to build a village in his new property in 1849, he hired planner Nathan Hailes to lay out the new village. Hailes was both surprised and disappointed when he found that it had been settled and left—especially since the growth and adaptation of European foliage to the area.
The first villages to be established in the region, those of Glen Osmond and Kensington had existed for some time when the new village of Burnside was proclaimed. The new village was in a good position to grow; the village was soon attracting residents. The village was described in advertisements by Hailes in 1850 as "Burnside the Beautiful" with advantages of "perpetual running water and diversified view, rich garden soil and good building stone..." with a "... direct, newly-opened and unblemished route to Adelaide". All the villages in what was to become the Burnside District Council were in the District Council of East Torrens of 159 km2. East Torrens bordered the River Torrens in the north, the Adelaide Hills to the east, Mount Barker Road to the south, the Adelaide Parklands to the west. East Torrens was gazetted in 1853 by the District Councils Act 1852. Dr David Wark, James Cobbledick, Charles Bonney, Daniel Ferguson and George Müller were the council's first representatives. Bonney, in addition to being a councillor, was the Commissioner of Crown Lands.
The councillors met for the first time at World's End Hotel in Magill on 12 June 1853. Initial plans were put in place to first survey and evaluate the council area and to collect licence fees and taxes as provided for by the Councils Act. TB Penfold of Magill, a former captain, was to become the first District Clerk and Collector on 1 January 1854. On 4 January 1854 there was a vote in which ratepayers decided on how much they would pay to the council.
City of Burnside
The City of Burnside is a local government area in the South Australian city of Adelaide stretching from the Adelaide Parklands into the Adelaide foothills with an area of 2,753 hectares. It was founded in August 1856 as the District Council of Burnside, the name of a property of an early settler, was classed as a city in 1943; the LGA is bounded by Adelaide, Adelaide Hills Council, Mitcham, Norwood Payneham and St Peters and Unley. A residential upper middle class area, Burnside has little to no industrial activity and a small commercial sector. Over 257 hectares of its area is dedicated to Parks and Reserves, the result being one of the greenest areas in Adelaide, it was one of the first areas outside of Adelaide to be settled, with the early villages of Magill, Burnside and Glen Osmond now inner suburbs. At the 2006 census, the City had a SEIFA score of 1108, the highest figure for any local government area in South Australia — individual CCD scores ranged from 909 in eastern Glenside to 1194 in Stonyfell.
Burnside was inhabited by the Kaurna Indigenous people prior to European Settlement, with the natives living around the creeks of the River Torrens during the summer months and living in the Adelaide Hills during the wintertime. The area was first settled in 1839 by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek; the Village of Burnside was established shortly thereafter and the District Council of Burnside was gazetted in 1856, being separated from the larger East Torrens Council. The council's first chairman was Dr. C. R. Penfold of Penfolds Wines fame. Beaumont House, a historic structure, was constructed for the first bishop of Adelaide, Augustus Short, during 1851. Wineries and olive groves were the mainstay of an early Burnside economy; the first council chamber was designed by chairman George Soward and built in 1869 by Thomas Hill and William Yateman. The present Council Chambers were built in 1927/8 in Tusmore, with the council becoming a municipality in 1935.
With strong growth and development throughout the region, Burnside was proclaimed a city in 1943. The 1960s' brought to Burnside a community library and a swimming centre, both were further expanded and upgraded between 1997 and 2001. Burnside has an area of 2,753 hectares and is located from the east to the south-east of the Adelaide city centre and parklands, extending east to the Cleland Conservation Park in the Mount Lofty Ranges. Two creeks of the River Torrens run through a sloping plain from the ranges. Before European Settlement in South Australia, much of the Adelaide Plains were woodland. In what became Burnside, plains leading out to Unley hosted the large Black Forest of Grey Box woodland. To the north and the floodplains of First and Second Creeks, there were Blue Gums and River Red Gums. Nearer to the foothills, in Mount Osmond and Waterfall Gully, a more diverse range of plant species existed, however Manna Gums and Blue Gums were predominant. With colonisation, much of the native foliage was cut down to enable crops and grazing.
Market Gardens in the Adelaide Hills lowered the amount of water flowing down the creeks and some of the Hills Face was used for quarrying. Early crops included olives, grapes for winemaking and barley. Over the years agriculture declined and only vineyards survive today in Magill and Waterfall Gully. With new suburbs being gazetted in the 20th century, the Burnside Council undertook ambitious tree-planting and conservation schemes to slow and reverse the negative impact on the natural environment. 190 hectares of the council area is held in reserves and parks and some 35,000 trees line the streets. A'Second Generation Tree Planting Program' has been underway since 1993. Notable parks and reserves include Langman Reserve and Hazelwood Park; the Burnside city council is divided into the following wards: Kensington Park Kensington Gardens & Magill Burnside Beaumont Eastwood & Glenunga Rose Park & Toorak Gardens Burnside library is the only public library in the city of Burnside. It is part of the civic centre.
The library is open seven days a week, from 9.30am-6pm on weekdays, except Thursday when it closes at 9pm, on the weekend from 10am-4pm on Saturday and 2pm-5pm on Sunday. For State Government Burnside is part of the Electoral Districts of Adelaide, Morialta, Heysen and Unley. Bragg takes in most of the city. Liberal strength is strongest in the wealthy hills suburbs to the south-east around Beaumont and weakest around Norwood in the north where the Labor Party dominates. Before their catastrophic collapse in recent years, the Democrats polled impressive results in the western near-city suburbs; the Greens gained much of the previous Democrats vote in recent elections. Bragg has been held by Vickie Chapman, Shadow Attorney-General of the State Liberal Party, since 2002. Burnside forms the southern part of the Federal Division of Sturt, which takes in much of Adelaide's eastern suburbs, stretchin
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Glen Osmond, South Australia
Glen Osmond is a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Burnside, in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills. It is well known for the road intersection on the western side of the suburb, where the South Eastern Freeway from the Adelaide Hills and the main route from Melbourne splits into National Route A17 Portrush Road, Glen Osmond Road and state route A3 Cross Road west towards the coast and southern suburbs. In 1841, silver and lead were found at Glen Osmond, leading to the establishment of the Wheal Gawler and Wheal Watkins mines; the mines operated in the 1840s, again in the 1890s. Tom Gill, whose family were early settlers in the area, published a History and Topography of Glen Osmond in 1902. A facsimile edition of the book was published by the State Library of South Australia in 1974
Burnside, South Australia
Burnside is a small, upper class suburb, part of the City of Burnside in the eastern suburbs of Adelaide. It is a residential suburb, was one of the first suburbs of Adelaide, it was named Burnside, an amalgamation of the Scottish word for creek, "burn" and "side" because of the original property's location on the side of Second Creek. Burnside is 5 km east of the Adelaide city centre. Burnside was established and named by Peter Anderson and his family who emigrated from Scotland in 1839. Anderson started a large farm on leased land near Second Creek; the farm had a large number of animals including pigs and cattle as well as barley and wheat crops. By the 1870s the area had developed into a small village. Burnside Post Office had opened on 21 July 1863. There are a number of parks but most noticeably bordering several that are shared with other suburbs; the Burnside Swimming Centre is located in nearby Hazelwood Park. Langman Reserve is part of both Burnside and Waterfall Gully and the large Newland Park has several ovals.
The Feathers Hotel, a Georgian style pub, is located within the suburb. It is home to a State government school. A number of churches in various denominations including Baptist and Anglican call the suburb home. Burnside is a upper class suburb. Owing to being one of Adelaide's first suburbs, there are many grand historic homes located within the area. A significant number of its residents own houses that are situated on the hills which offer impressive views of the city. In the 2016 Census, there were 2,930 people in Burnside. 63.3% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 6.7% and China 6.1%. 71.6% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin at 8.0%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 36.3%, Catholic 18.4% and Anglican 14.2%. George Aiston and ethnographer Dorrit Black, artist Jimmy Melrose, aviator Christopher Pyne, federal MP and Liberal frontbencher, a former student of Burnside Primary Sydney Talbot Smith, freelance journalist and civic worker List of Adelaide suburbs City of Burnside
Mount Osmond, South Australia
Mount Osmond is a small suburb of 2,497 people in the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. It is part of the City of Burnside local government area and located in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills, five kilometres south east of the city centre; the suburb is high on the hill of the same name, the last hill on the right when approaching Adelaide down the South Eastern Freeway before the road levels out onto the Adelaide Plains. It is bounded to the north by the suburb of Beaumont, to the north-east by Burnside, to the east by Waterfall Gully, to the south by Leawood Gardens/Eagle On The Hill, to the south-west by Urrbrae, to the west by Glen Osmond and to the north-west by St Georges; the suburb is at a high elevation in the Mount Lofty Ranges, provides views over Adelaide as well as containing a renowned golf course and country club. Mining operations in the 19th century gave the area notoriety, but it has since developed into a small and secluded suburb. Mount Osmond is within the traditional lands of the Kaurna people, forms part of the Mount Lofty Ranges and is therefore part of the Dreamtime story of the ancestor-creator Nganno.
According to the legend, Nganno was wounded in a battle and laid down to die, forming the Mount Lofty Ranges. When Adelaide was first planned and mapped out by Col. William Light, Mount Osmond received the three allotments 1070, 1277 and 1278. While much of Adelaide was quickly bought Mount Osmond did not enjoy any early buyers; the first reported activity in the area was after the mining rush of Glen Osmond due to the Wheal Watkins and Wheal Gawler mines. Lot 1277 yielded a mine in Slaughterhouse Gully but it was worked only briefly. Subsequent finds of bluestone proved fruitful and the mineral was extracted until 1900, when mining ended and the last of the mines were either filled in or cordoned off. Developers bought the lots that composed Mount Osmond but once again interest in the suburb was minor. Attempts to bring in settlers culminated in the construction of Mount Osmond Road in 1882, it wound around the hills from. Developers broke down the three large lots into two hundred 1-acre ones in the hope of sales.
A few lots were sold to quarrymen and gardeners around Mount Barker Road, but the vast remainder was leased to stockowners as pasture for their livestock. Much of Mount Osmond, along with a large portion of the surrounding area, was bought in 1907 by Ernest C. Sanders, his family made great use of the land, with his sons building houses on the vast property while raising sheep and growing hay. Considerable time was spent by the Sanders family in mapping the area; the Sanders family decided to sell much of their portion of Mount Osmond, around 1922–23 it was put on the market. Like earlier attempts at sales on Mount Osmond, little interest was received and none was sold until 1925; the land was developed into a golf course and Country Club with the assistance of the Burnside Council and its engineers. Credit to the novel idea went to H. E. S. Melbourne, Burnside's chief engineer at the time – who found support among numerous Burnside Councillors; the golf course and country club were developed on the highest part of the mount, on 85 acres of former Sanders estate.
The remaining land was sold by the country club to buyers with strict rules on the development and maintenance of the properties – specific rules applying to aesthetic features gardens, are of note. With a golf course and country club in the vicinity, as well as electricity and a water supply from Waterfall Gully's first creek the eighteen marketed lots once again sold poorly. One of the last large land purchases was that of Ross Thiem in the 1940s. A club member, C. W. Lloyd, sold 200 acres around the golf course, again used as pasture by Thiem, who ran sheep on the property – and was the last to do so; the Highways Department acquired land in 1951, buying 200 acres of land above Beaumont for future transport planning. Thiem's land was sold in the 1950s, to the Rossdale Property Co, their subsequent attempts at selling the land were just as fruitless as those before, once again the property changed hands to the Mount Osmond Heights Pty Ltd. The land was newly subdivided, it was in the late 1960s that much of Mount Osmond was sold to residential buyers.
Fifty-two out of the 116 new sites had been sold by 12 October 1968 at an average of $3,500, according to the Adelaide daily The Advertiser. Since the land sales of that era, Mount Osmond has developed because of the scarcity of land and the housing and development restrictions of the Hills Face Zone. Now the suburb is home to large, tree-filled houses and properties. With the upgrade of Mount Barker Road to become part of the South Eastern Freeway from 1997, Mount Osmond received its own freeway interchange as part of the development. Mount Osmond is composed of the Mount itself and a ridge stretching out to the south-east between the valley of the South Eastern Freeway and that of Waterfall Gully. Much of the suburb is more than 300 metres above sea level, with the Mount Osmond peak itself at 384 metres. Between the north-east and north-west are slopes leading down to the suburbs of Beaumont, Glen Osmond and Waterfall Gully, most of, owned as public land by various government departments – either as parks, tracks or vacant land for possible future use.
A somewhat "ring" of reserves exist on the slopes anti-clockwise from the Old Bullock Track to Mount Osmond Road near the freeway interchange. The South Australian Department of Environment and Natur
W. P. Auld
William Patrick Auld known by his initials or as "Pat" or "Patrick", was an Adelaide, South Australian vigneron and wine merchant born in Stalybridge, the son of Patrick Auld and Eliza Auld. He took part in John McDouall Stuart's sixth expedition which crossed Australia from south to north, he was a member of B. T. Finniss's 1864 expedition to select a capital for the Northern Territory – during this expedition an incident occurred which resulted in his being tried for murder of an Aborigine. For many years he managed his father's famous vineyard "Auldana" and was recognised as an accomplished vigneron and wine judge. Patrick and Eliza Auld, with son William Patrick and daughters Agnes and Georgiana, arrived in South Australia on 6 April 1842 on the Fortitude; the father set up as a wine and spirit merchant in the Old Exchange Buildings in Hindley Street and shortly after purchased two lots of land, each of 230 acres at £1 per acre, in Magill which he named "Auldana". In 1847 or 1849 the father sold the Hindley Street business to Messrs.
Disher and Milne and the family returned to England, enrolling the son at an institution named "King's College" King's College School. The father returned to Adelaide alone in 1852, building a residence on one block of "Auldana" and between 1846 and 1856 developed the other as a vineyard which in February 1862 he floated the South Auldana Vineyard Association with a capital of £12,500. Directors of the Association were Abraham Scott, George Tinline, John Hodgkiss, Patrick Auld and William Wadham. In 1863 they sent a shipment of wines to the London Exhibition, favourably received, but the Association went into voluntary liquidation in October 1865. Around this time he set up a wine export business in Gilbert Place. In 1876 he had 104 acres under vines. In 1853 or 1854, the family returned to South Australia where a young W. P. Auld completed his education at J. L. Young's Adelaide Educational Institution, secured a cadet position with G. W. Goyder, Surveyor General of South Australia. In 1861, W. P. Auld.
John McDouall Stuart set out on 25 October 1861 from... the residence of James and Catherine Chambers in North Adelaide. The party physically left Adelaide on 7 November; this was his third, successful attempt to cross Australia. On 24 July 1862, they planted the Union Jack on the beach of Van Diemen's Gulf; the Expedition completed the first European crossing of Australia, from Adelaide to Van Diemen Gulf, passing through the Centre of the Continent, returning along the same route without loss of life. In 1864 the South Australian government charged B. T. Finniss with finding a suitable site by the Adelaide River for the capital of the Northern Territory. Auld, as surveyor, was one of the party that left Port Adelaide on the "Henry Ellis" on 23 April 1864 for Adam Bay, he was a member of the exploration party led by surgeon Belgrave Ninnis which arrived at Palmerston on HMS Beatrice in April 1865. He explored areas west of the Adelaide River as far as King Creek and Port Darwin. During the Finniss expedition Auld was accused of murder of an aboriginal man at either Adam Bay, or Chambers Bay, near Escape Cliffs.
The Colonel gave orders that seven horsemen were to be in readiness to start next morning and try to find the natives' camp, recover the goods they had stolen from us, to treat them as felons. I went over to Chambers' Bay with two men. Fifty tried to surround us. I shot at one, sent one of the men to tell the footmen to come to our assistance, they were showing real fighting. Directly the footmen made their appearance. We recovered a quantity of the goods; the Doctor, has brought a charge against me for shooting the black. He sent it to the Governor, it is only done out of ill-feeling to the Colonel. In another letter, he wrote The natives are not numerous here, but they are great thieves and cunning and artful. There have been two shot by our party here, it is not recorded whether those responsible were apprehended or tried, nor is it clear whether the first referred to himself. At the trial no evidence was brought for the prosecution, rather there was a report that the man shot at was still alive.
Auld was acquitted when the two witnesses against him did not take the stand but he aroused considerable public antipathy by attempting to claim costs from parliament, a move, defeated after strenuous opposition from H. B. T. Strangways, contemptuous of Auld's defence that he was following Finniss's orders. On 1 September Police trooper Potter was sent to Adam Bay 23 September 1866 on the "Ellen Lewis" with warrants for the arrest of Auld's fellow-accused William Dougall and Adam Chandler. Auld had been charged and was out on bail. On 15 November 1866 he married Eliza Hartland Strawbridge, eldest daughter of William S. Strawbridge, who replaced Goyder as Surveyor General, Eliza Stockholm Strawbridge. Eliza wrote poetry in collaboration with her mother, published a volume of her own in 1913, their daughter, Edith Mary Auld (30 October 1867–25 Augus