Purnima is the Indian and Nepali word for full moon, while in Indonesian it is known as Purnama. The day of Purnima is the day in each month when the full moon occurs, marks the division in each month between the two lunar fortnights. A full moon occurs when the Sun and the Moon appear separated by 180°; this lunar day is the considered auspicious for new beginnings. The Shukla Paksha is the fortnight before, the Krishna Paksha is the fortnight after Purnima; this lunar phase lasts only for a while, when the Sun and the Moon are aligned in a straight line, called a syzygy of the Sun–Earth–Moon system. Full moon is considered the third of the four primary phases of the Moon; the full moon shows 100% illumination, causes high tides, can concur with lunar eclipses. The following festivals occur on Purnima. Kartik Poornima, is celebrated on the full moon day of Kartik of Nepali Calendar, it is called Tripura Purnima. Shravan Poornima, is the full moon day in Shravan; this day has a number of different names.
Hayagriva Jayanti is celebrated on Shravana Purnima. It is known as Narali Purnima Vat Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Jyeshta. Women pray for their husbands by tying threads around a banyan tree on this day, it honors the legendary wife of Satyavan who escaped death for her husband's life. It is the chosen day for worshipping Yama deva Guru Purnima, devotees offer puja to their Guru, on a full moon day; this is well known as Vyasa Purnima after the birthday of the celebrated author of Mahabharata, declared as the guru of all in the Shiva Purana. Sharad Purnima or Kojagiri purnima, the Autumn Harvest Festival, on a full moon day. Buddha Poornima, the day of birth and passing away of Gautama Buddha, on a full moon day. Holi/Phalgun Purnima, the Spring Festival of Colours in Hinduism/Buddhism/Jainism, the full moon day in Phalgun. Dattātreya Jayanti is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Margashira Hanuman Jayanti is celebrated on the full mon of the lunar month Chaitra.
However, this is celebrated on different days in different states. While Orissa celebrates this as Vaisakha Sankranti, Andhra Pradesh celebrates Vaisakha shukla paksha dashami, Kerala celebrates it in a previous month Margashira Amavasya coinciding with Mula Nakshatra. Chaitra Purnima is the chosen day for donation of rice to please Moon god. Shakambhari Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Pausha Madhu Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Bhaadra. On this day Uma Maheswara Vrata as well as Shakra Vrata where Indra is worshiped for children and well-being. Satyanarayan Puja vrata is observed on all full moon days Get Purnima vrat dates 2018 more information about full moon and guru Purnima. Introduction to the Hindu Calendar
Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
Satara district is a district of Maharashtra state in western India with an area of 10,480 km² and a population of 3,003,741 of which 14.17% were urban. Satara is the capital of the district and other major towns include Wai, Karad,Koregaon, Koynanagar, Phaltan, Mahabaleshwar and Panchgani; this district comes under Pune Administrative Division along with Pune, Sangli and Kolhapur. The district of Pune bounds it to the north, Raigad bounds it to the North-West, Solapur the east, Sangli to the south, Ratnagiri to the west; the Sahyadri range, or main range of the Western Ghats, runs north and south along the western edge of the district, separating it from Ratnagiri District. The Mahadeo range starts about 10 m. north of Mahabaleshwar and stretches east and south-east across the whole of the district. The Mahadeo hills are bold; the Satara district is part of two main watersheds. The Bhima River watershed, a tributary of the Krishna, includes the north and northeast of the district, north of the Mahadeo hills.
The rest of the district is drained by its tributaries. The hill forests firewood; the whole of Satara district falls within the Deccan Traps area. This soil, when well watered, is capable of yielding heavy crops. Satara contains some important irrigation works, including the Krishna canal. In some of the western parts of the district the average annual rainfall exceeds 5 m.. The district is traversed from north to south by a railway line, which passes 15 km east of Satara town; the Mandher Devi temple in Mandhradevi, near Wai, is the Kalubai temple. Located on a hill 4,650 feet above sea level, the temple, some 20 km from Wai, overlooks the picturesque Purandhar fort. Devotees attribute miraculous properties to a grove around the shrine. Lore was built during Shivaji's Maratha rule. However, no definite date on the temple's construction is available, it was the scene of a tragic stampede on 25 January 2005. Historical inscriptions as old as 200 BCE indicate the oldest known place in Satara district in Maharashtra is Karad.
It is believed that the Pandavas stayed in Wai known as'Viratnagari', in the 13th year of exile. Satara District can be proud of the oldest Rashtrakuta history; the oldest Rashtrakutas are believed to be from ancient Kuntala in the valley of river Krishna. Manank ruled from 350 - 375 C. E. and had built his capital in "Manpur". The Vakatakas of Vidarbha, another Rashtrakuta rulers were in conflict with Manank. Subsequently, the Rashtrakutas became feudatories to the Chalukyas and came into prominence under Dantidurga around 753 CE; the empire of Chandragupta II, known as Mahendraditya Kumargupta I, extended as far as Satara district in Deccan when he ruled between 451 AD to 455 AD. The Mauryan empire in the Deccan was followed by the rule of the "Satvahanas" for about two centuries between 550 A. D. to 750 AD. The first Muslim invasion of the Deccan took place in 1296. In 1636 the Nizam Shahi dynasty came to an end. In 1663 Shivaji won Satara fort. After the death of Shivaji, Aurangjeb conquered Satara fort won by Parshuram Pratinidhi in 1706.
In 1708 Chattrapati Shahu was crowned within the Satara fort. The direct descendents of Shivaji continue to live in Satara. After their victory in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the British Empire annexed most of the Maratha territory to Bombay Presidency, but restored the titular Raja Pratap Singh, assigned to him the principality of Satara, an area much larger than the present district; as a result of political intrigues, Pratap Singh was deposed in 1839, his brother Raja Shahaji was placed on the throne. When this prince died without a male heir in 1848, Satara was annexed by the British government and added to Bombay Presidency. Satara district consists of four subdivisions namely Satara, Wai and Phaltan, divided into eleven talukas; these are Satara, Wai, Phaltan, Khatav, Patan and Khandala. There are eight Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district. Karad North, Karad South, Koregaon and Satara are part of Satara and Phaltan, Man are part of Madha. In the year 2009, the Karad was cancelled and it fused in the Satara.
A new Madha was formed in the same year. Jaoli and Khatav Vidhan Sabha constituencies were cancelled, Man, Phaltan were added to Madha. According to the 2011 census Satara district has a population of 3,003,741 equal to the nation of Albania or the US state of Mississippi; this gives it a ranking of 122nd in India. The district has a population density of 287 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 6.93%. Satara has a sex ratio of 988 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 82.87%. According to the 2011 census Hinduism is principal religion followed by 89.63% of district population, while Muslims constituted 4.89% of district population. Buddhism followed by 4.70% of district population. The Sainik School in Satara is one of the oldest residential school preparing boys for military career; the boys are prepare
Raja Ravi Varma
Raja Ravi Varma was a celebrated Indian Malayali painter and artist. He is considered among the greatest painters in the history of Indian art for a number of aesthetic and broader social reasons. Firstly, his works are held to be among the best examples of the fusion of European techniques with a purely Indian sensibility. While continuing the tradition and aesthetics of Indian art, his paintings employed the latest European academic art techniques of the day. Secondly, he was notable for making affordable lithographs of his paintings available to the public, which enhanced his reach and influence as a painter and public figure. Indeed, his lithographs increased the involvement of common people with fine arts and defined artistic tastes among common people for several decades. In particular, his depictions of Hindu deities and episodes from the epics and Puranas have received profound acceptance from the public and are found as objects of worship, across the length and breadth of India. Raja Ravi Varma was related to the royal family of Travancore of present day Kerala state in India.
In his life, two of his granddaughters were adopted into that royal family, their descendants comprise the totality of the present royal family of Travancore, including the latest three Maharajas. Raja Ravi Varma was born M. R. Ry. Ravi Varma, Koil Thampuran of Kilimanoor at Kilimanoor palace in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore into an aristocratic family that for over 200 years produced consorts for the princesses of the matrilineal Travancore royal family; the title Raja was conferred as a personal title by the Governor-General of India. Ravi Varma was the son of Ezhumavil Neelakanthan Umayamba Thampurratti, his mother Uma Ambabayi Thampuratty belonged to the baronial family which ruled the Kilimanoor feudal estate within the kingdom of Travancore. She was a poet and writer of some talent, her work Parvati Swayamvaram was published by Varma after her death. Ravi Varma's father was a scholar of Sanskrit and Ayurveda and hailed from the Ernakulam district in Kerala. Ravi Varma had three siblings, a sister named Mangala Bayi and two brothers named Goda Varma and Raja Varma.
The last-named was a painter and worked with Ravi Varma all his life. In 1866, at the age of 18, Varma was married to 12-year-old Bhageerthi Bayi of the royal house of Mavelikkara, another major fief of Travancore kingdom. Notably, the house of Mavellikara was a branch of the Royal House of Travancore. Bhageerthi was the youngest of three sisters, both of her elder sisters had been adopted into the royal family of Travancore in 1857 in order to carry on the lineage, they were known as the Senior and Junior Rani of Attingal, in their progeny was vested the succession to the throne of Travancore. Therefore, Ravi Varma's connection to the royal family became close due to his marriage with Bhageerthi. Indeed, his children would be royal by birth; the marriage, arranged by the parents in the proper Indian manner, was harmonious and successful. The couple were blessed with two sons and three daughters, their elder son, Kerala Varma was of an excessively spiritual temperament. He never married and renounced the world, leaving home for good in 1912.
The younger son, Rama Varma, inherited his father's artistic talent and studied at the JJ School of Arts, Mumbai. He was married to Gowri Kunjamma, sister of Dewan PGN Unnithan, became the father of seven children, it was however Ravi Varma's daughters who were singled out by destiny for greatness, although not in the field of art, nor but through their daughters. The three daughters of Ravi Varma and Bhageerthi Bayi were Mahaprabha Amma, Uma Amma and Cheria Kochamma. In 1900 CE, the Royal House of Travancore once again faced a succession crisis. Bhageerthi's two elder sisters, adopted in order to carry forward the lineage, had failed to produce the desired heirs, they had had six children between them, but only two of those had survived, both were boys. According to the matrilineal Marumakkathayam system, the succession to the throne could only progress through females, therefore it was necessary to make an adoption. Tradition dictated, they would be designated the Senior and Junior Rani of Attingal, the succession to the throne of Travancore would be vested in their progeny, in accordance with the unusual and unique Marumakkathayam system of succession.
Two of Varma's grand-daughters were marked by destiny to receive this honour, the main reason being that they were the nearest matrilineal kin to the incumbent Rani of Attingal. In August 1900, Mahaprabha's eldest daughter Lakshmi Bayi and Uma's eldest daughter Parvati Bayi were adopted into the Royal family of Travancore, it was their surviving grand-aunt, who formally adopted them. She died within one year of doing this, the two girls were installed as the Senior and Junior Ranis of Attingal respectively, they were married while yet in their early teens to two gentleman from suitable aristocratic families. It was the Junior Rani, Sethu Parvathi Bayi, who gave birth to the much-awaited heir in 1912 a day after her sixteenth birthday. Incidentally, her husband was a grand-nephew of Raja R
Kuladevata or Kuladevi stands for "family deity, a mother Goddess" within Hinduism, as distinct from personal ishta-devata and village deities. One of the iconic example of Kuldev Puja is of Bagbhairab Puja done by the Munsi Newars in Kirtipur, Nepal; the word Kuladevata is derived from two words: Kula, meaning clan and Devata, meaning deity. Thus, it can be said; the deity can be a male, animal or an object, like a holy stone. Hindu families make a pilgrimage to the Kuladevata or Kuladevi temple to obtain the blessing of the deity after an auspicious occasion such as a wedding. Kuladevatas are worshiped in several sects of Jainism. In the state of Maharashtra, the Kuladevatas are manifestations of Shiva or Shakti such as Khandoba or Bhavani, respectively. In the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan, these deities are the various manifestations of Parvati, the wife of Shiva, she is worshiped by different names by different clans. The Indian King Cobra is a famous Kuladevata, it is known by several names, such as, Nagadevata and Nagabaapji and is worshiped by several Hindu and Kshatriya clans.
Some Kshatriya clans claim themselves to be "Nagavanshi" or Descendents of the Naga. In South India, Balaji of Tirupati is one of the main Kuladevatas. In Kerala, amongst the Nair community, each tharavadu has a Kula Devata - the devi form of Bhadra, besides Para Devatas of ancestors in tharavadu temples. However, each branch of the family and members are worship Ishta-Devata depending upon village deities and choices. In Andhra Pradesh, Goddess Vasavi Kanyakaparameshwari is the Kuladevi for the Arya Vysya community. In Tamil Nadu, Goddess Kamakshi, Goddess Renukamba and Lord Muruga are family deities among many others, for many Brahmin Iyers and to Maravar And Vellalars. Goddess Bhadrakali is the tutelary deity of Nadars. Majority of the Nadar Settlements will have a temple for Goddess Bhadrakali. Goddess Angalaparameshwari for majority of chettiars and vellalars. Lord Narashima for Brahmin Iyengars and to Naidu. Worship of Kuladevta is much prominent amongst the Brahmins and Kshatriyas of Goa and Maharashtra, that are the Konkani Saraswats and Daivajna.
Most of the Kuladevata temples are found in Goa, Mahalakshmi, Mangesh, Ramnath to name a few. Kuladevatas play a pious role in the Saraswat Brahmins and Daivajnas, it can supplant the role of the Istadevata. Worship of the kula-devata or kula-devi is considered to be of utmost importance; the Kula-devata is the guardian of the lineage. Ancestors of the family have worshipped the deity and there is a bond between the family and the deity. Hence such worship bears fruits early. Worship of the kuladevata is said to appease the deity, the sole protector of the family. One who worships his/her family deity is said to be protected by the deity in times of calamity. 1. Kali 2. Durga 3. Shiva 4. Simhavahini 5. Narayana 6. Krishna 7. Gandheshwari 8. Damodar 9. Shridhar 10. Raghuvir 11. Lakshmi-Narayan/Lakshmi-Janardan 12. Raghunathji 13. Gopinathjiu/Madhusudana/Madanmohana 14. Radha-Govinda/Radha-Krishna/Radha-Madhava 15. Sitala 16. Hara-Parvati/Hara-Gauri 17. Mahalakshmi 18. Baal Gopal 19. Mangalchandi Kuladevata worshipped in Maharashtra include: Ambabai-Mahalakshmi of Kolhapur Mahalakshmi of Dahanu,Palghar Tulja Bhavani of Tuljapur Charbhuja Dist.
Rajsamand Ekvira of Karla Caves Jyotiba Jaganmata/Devi Parvati/Maa Durga of Toppo and Kachhapa Community Khandoba of Jejuri Jyotiba of Kolhapur Khandoba of Pal Kedar Janani of Tise, near Kolad, Maharashtra Laxmi-Narasimha Mahadeva of Toppo and Baghwar Community Mandhradevi of Wai Renuka of Mahur Vasavi Matha of Penugonda Kshetram Mothi Devi of Khamgaon Buldhana, Vidarbha Vyadeshwar of Guhagar Yamai of Aundh Yogeshwari of Ambejogai Manudevi of Adgaon Konkani people worship following deities as their Kuladevatas, most of the temples are located in Goa. Some of the deities were shifted to other places in Konkan by the devotees during the Goa Inquisition; some of them are listed below: Aryadurga Bhagavati Chamundeshwari Damodar Devaki Krishna Gajantalakshmi Jaganmata Kamakshi Mallikarjuna Maha Ganapathi Mahammaya Mahalakshmi Mahalasa Mahamaya Mahamaya Kalika Mangeshi Nageshi Kalkai or kalika devi Waghjai Laxmi-Narasimha Navadurga Ramnath Ravalnath Santeri Saptakoteshwar Shantadurga Sharwani Vetal Vijayadurga Vimleshwar Vetal Rameshwar Devi Mauli Kuladevata worshipped in Gujarat and Rajasthan include: Momai Mata- kuldevi of subclans of Rajgor brahmins, rajputs and merchant communities.
Ashapura Mata - Jadeja Kuldevi Baba Ramdevji Suswani Mata- Kuldevi of Dugar,Surana and Sankhala Gotras Susmad Mata - Kuldevi of Kabra. Temple in Kuchera - a village in Mundwa tahsil in Nagaur district of Rajasthan. Bhadrakali - Hanumangarh Bhavar Mata - Chhoti Sadri Bhatiji Maharaj Bigga Ji - Brahmani Mata Chamunda Mata Dada Jasraj - by Saraswat Brahim Lohana, Bhanushali & others Daryalal - by Lohana Sindhi Dev Narain - Gurjar Gajanan mata - khangar Gogaji - Chauhan Gusainji Harkor - Kuldevi of Lohana and Bhanushali Harsidhhi Mata Hinglaj Mata Jeen Mata Kalsariya Dada - Kalsar, Gujarat Khodiyar Mata leva Patel, Rabari Maha Kali Mata Mansa Devi - Churu Modheswari - Modh Nagnechiya Maa – Rathore Kuldevi Pabuji Rana Jashraj - Kuldevata of Lohana and BhanushaliRandhal Maa- kuldevi of HAPANI's and many others Sakrai Mata - In Sikar, Rajasthan Shakti Mata - Zala Kuldevi, Makwana - in Patdi - Dhama, Gujarat Siriyal Mata - Savla Kuldevi, Bhisra - in Kutch, Gujarat Sachiya Mata Bapu Bhalara Bapa -Kuldev of Palan family Lohana, Dist.
Rajkot, Gujarat Renuka mata - kuldevi of mourya(Raj
Pratapgad literally'Valour Fort' is a large fort located in Satara district, in the Western Indian state of Maharashtra. Significant as the site of the Battle of Pratapgad, the fort is now a popular tourist destination. Pratapgad fort is located 15 kilometres from Poladpur and 23 kilometres west of Mahabaleshwar, a popular hill station in the area; the fort stands 1,080 metres above sea level and is built on a spur which overlooks the road between the villages of Par and Kinesvar. The Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj commissioned Moropant Trimbak Pingle, his prime minister, to undertake the construction of this fort in order to defend the banks of the Nira and the Koyna rivers, to defend the Par pass, it was completed in 1656. The Battle of Pratapgad between Shivaji and Afzal Khan was fought below the ramparts of this fort on 10 November 1659; this was the first major test of the fledgling kingdom's army, set the stage of the establishment of the Maratha empire. Pratapgad continued to be involved in regional politics.
Sakharam Bapu, a well-known minister of Pune, was confined by his rival Nana Phadnis in Pratapgad in 1778. He was moved from fort to fort until he died at Raigad. In 1796, Nana Phadnis, while escaping from the intrigues of Daulatrao Shinde and his minister Baloba, assembled a strong garrison in Pratapgad before heading to Mahad. In 1818, as part of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, Pratapgad surrendered by private negotiation; this was a great loss to the Maratha forces, as Pratapgad was an important stronghold, had a large garrison, could suppress much of the country around Wai. A 17 feet high equestrian bronze statue of Shivaji was unveiled by Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India, on 30 November 1957, the same year a road was constructed by the Public Works Department from Kumbhrosi village up to fort. A guest house and a national park were built inside the fort in 1960; the fort is owned by Uday Raje Bhosale, the heir to the former Satara princely state. The fort can be divided into upper fort.
The upper fort was built upon the crest of the hill. It is square, 180m long on each side, it has several permanent buildings, including a temple to the god Mahadev. It is located at the northwest of the fort, is surrounded by sheer cliffs with drops of up to 250m; the lower fort is around 110m wide. It is located at the southeast of the fort, is defended by towers and bastions ten to twelve metres high; the Afzal tower defends the approach to the fort. It is said to have been constructed after the Battle of Pratapgad, Afzal Khan's body is said to be buried under the tower. In 1661, Shivaji Maharaj was unable to visit the temple of the goddess Bhavani at Tuljapur, he decided to dedicate a temple to the goddess at this fort itself. This temple is on the eastern side of the lower fort; the hall has been rebuilt since the original construction, consists of wooden pillars about 50' long, 30' broad and 12' high. The shrine is made of stone, contains a clothed black stone image of the goddess; the roof of the temple is flat inside, but covered in lead covering put up by the Satara Raja Pratapsinha.
A small spire or shikhar covers the shrine. The temple has the sword of Maratha General Hambirao Mohite adorned with 6 diamond stones signifying that he had killed 600 soldiers in the battle. There is a spatikha linga being worshipped inside the temple; the armors used in the battle during that period by the infantry soldiers are on display just outside the temple A dargah of Afzal Khan is located a short while away from the fort to the south-east. Pratapgad is visited as a day-trip from the hill station of Mahabaleshwar, a popular tourist destination located 25 kilometres away. ST bus service have run daily excursion services to places around Mahabaleshwar including Pratapgad for decades. Many schools arrange educational trips to the fort; the fort is on many trekking routes of the area. List of forts in Maharashtra List of forts in Mumbai List of forts in India List of forts
Vasota Fort is located in Satara district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was famously defended by Tai Telin a mistress of Pant Pratinidhi a killedar of the fort when he was captured. Vasota fort is attributed to the Kolhapur Shilahara Chief Bhoja II of Panhala. Vasota always remained with Shirkes & Mores in 16th century. Shivaji Maharaj incorporated the fort into Swarajya in 1655 during the conquest of Javli. Shivaji Maharaj renamed the fort "Vyaghragad". In 1818 the British bombarded the fort with heavy artillery, destroying many buildings on Vasota and looted property worth 5 lakhs; the fort is overgrown. The remnants of Shree Mahadev mandir and the plinth of a huge "sadar" are there, it is a protected natural reserve. Vasota Fort is located about 70 km from satara near Bamnoli village on the banks of Shivsagar lake. Vasota Fort Info Vasota trek notes -- Roop Mallik List of forts in Maharashtra