Robert Nisbet Bain
Robert Nisbet Bain was a British historian and linguist who worked for the British Museum. Bain was a fluent linguist. Besides translating a number of books he used his skills to write learned books on foreign people and folklore. Bain was a frequent contributor to the Encyclopædia Britannica, his contributions were biographies and varied from Andrew Aagensen to Aleksander Wielopolski. He taught himself Hungarian in order that he could read Mór Jókai in the original after first reading him in German, he translated from Finnish and Russian and tackled Turkish authors via Hungarian. He was the most prolific translator into English from Hungarian in the nineteenth century, he died young after publishing a wide range of literature from or about Europe. He is buried in Brookwood Cemetery. Gustavus III. and his contemporaries 1746-1792. 2 Bände. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1894 The daughter of Peter the Great. A history of Russian diplomacy. Westminster: Archibald Constable, 1899 Peter III. Emperor of Russian.
The story of a crisis and a crime. London: Archibald Constable, 1902 Biography of Leo Tolstoy, 1903 Scandinavia. A political history of Denmark and Sweden from 1513 to 1900. Cambridge: University Press, 1905 The First Romanovs. A History of Moscovite Civilisation and the Rise of Modern Russia Under Peter the Great and His Forerunners. 1905. Reprint, New York: Russell & Russell, 1967. Slavonic Europe: A Political History of Poland and Russia from 1447 to 1796, Cambridge University Press, 1908 The last King of Poland and his contemporaries. London: Methuen, 1909 Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire 1682-1719, NA Kessinger Pub. Co. 2006, ISBN 1-4326-1903-9 Russian Fairy Tales, 1892 Cossack Fairy Tales and Folk Tales, London: Lawrence and Bullen 1894 Turkish Fairy Tales and Folk Tales, 1896 Tales from Tolstoi, 1901 Tales from Gorky, 1902Translations Mór Jókai: Egy Magyar Nábob, 1850. A Hungarian Nabob, New York: DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 1899 The Day of Wrath The Poor Plutocrats Jonas Lauritz Idemil Lie: Weird Tales from Northern Seas Elias Bredsdorff: Danish Literature in English Translation.
L. C. Wharton: Transcription of Foreign Tongues. Media related to Robert Nisbet Bain at Wikimedia Commons Works by Robert Nisbet Bain at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Robert Nisbet Bain at Internet Archive Works by Robert Nisbet Bain at LibriVox
Aurél Dessewffy (1846–1928)
Count Aurél Dessewffy de Csernek et Tarkeő was a Hungarian politician, who served as Speaker of the House of Magnates between 1906 and 1910. He functioned as board member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he was the last judge royal of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1917 to 1918. He was the son of president of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Aurél married Countess Pálma Károlyi, only daughter of Count Tibor Károlyi, who served as Speaker of the House of Magnates between 1898 and 1900. Közlekedés ügyében tárgyalt kérdések A gazdakör hitelügyi bizottságának emlékirata Jónás, Károly – Villám, Judit: A Magyar Országgyűlés elnökei 1848–2002. Argumentum, Budapest, 2002. Pp. 233–236
Ferenc Kazinczy was a Hungarian author, translator, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Hungarian language and literature at the turn of the 19th century. Today his name is connected with the extensive Language Reform of the 19th century, when thousands of words were coined or revived, enabling the Hungarian language to keep up with scientific progress and become an official language of the nation in 1844. For his linguistic and literary works he is regarded as one of the cultural founders of the Hungarian Reform Era along with Dávid Baróti Szabó, Ferenc Verseghy, György Bessenyei, Mátyás Rát and János Kis. Ferenc Kazinczy was born in Érsemjén, Kingdom of Hungary, his father, József Kazinczy de Kazincz came from an old noble family and worked as a magistrate at Abaúj County. His mother was Zsuzsanna Bossányi de Nagybossány. Ferenc had four sisters; until the age of eight he was brought up by his maternal grandfather, Ferenc Bossányi, the notary of Bihar County and parliamentary ambassador, where he did not hear any foreign word during his first seven years.
He wrote his first letters in December 1764 to his parents. In 1766 his aunt got sick, therefore they moved to Debrecen for three months for the healing treatment. Kazinczy studied during that time at the College of Debrecen. After the death of his aunt he returned to his parents where he learnt Latin and German from a student of the College of Késmárk, his well educated and enlightened father, experiencing rare susceptibility, was delighted with his son, so he taught him and communicated with him in Latin and German. Kazinczy continued his language studies in Késmárk in 1768 in a preparatory class, his father, József Kazinczy wanted Ferenc to become a soldier, but Ferenc's resistance and the development of his other literary talents diverged him from his intent, he wanted to see his son as a writer. However the father, as a pietistic educator, understood under the profession of a writer a religious one, therefore ordered his fourteen-year-old son to translate Christian Fürchtegott Gellert's dissertations on religion from Latin to Hungarian.
Otherwise, the father provided his son advanced education: Ferenc was educated in foreign languages, could practice fine art and music, for seeing the world, he brought him to county assemblies and for the lunch of the emperor, Joseph II when the ruler visited Sárospatak. In 1774 the father urged his son to continue his translations, but Ferenc preferred to spend time reading György Bessenyei's Ágis tragédiája, Ignác Mészáros's Kártigám and other belles-lettres works, he broadened his knowledge with the idylls of Salomon Gessner and the poems of Vergilius, Anacreon. He did not neglect his theological studies, at home they debated over theological topics during lunch and dinner. After his father's death in 1774, he continued to pursue the translation of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert's De religione until his teacher of theology dismissed him to do it because he found Gellert's works too difficult to interpret. Ferenc turned from theological to more secular and national topics and prepared a short geographical description of the country.
István Losonczi Hányoki's Three Small Mirrors served as an example for his work. It was a childish compilation with the title Geography of Hungary... which he described as "suddenly scribbled" and was published in Kassa, Hungary at his mother's expense in 1775. On September 11, 1769, he became a student at the College of Sárospatak where he taught himself Ancient Greek, he studied law during his first years. In 1773 he started to learn rhetoric. In the same year December he greeted General Count Miklós Beleznay as a member of the thanksgiving delegation of the college in Bugyi on a special reception for donating money toward the construction of the college. Kazinczy saw Pest for the first time; until 1775 he attended the theology courses at the college and from a French soldier who came to Sárospatak learnt French. He translated György Bessenyei's short story written in German, Die Amerikaner, to Hungarian and published it in 1776 in Kassa with the title Az amerikai Podoc és Kazimir keresztyén vallásra való megtérése.
He recommended his translation to his mother. This work informed him about the principle of religious tolerance. In his translation Kazinczy used the word világosság the first time in the history of the Hungarian language. Bessenyei welcomed it and his response was inspirational for Kazinczy. Kazinczy understood Bessenyei's response as a liberating letter for the profession of an author, he was happy finding the contact with one of the most prominent authors in Hungarian literature of that time. But Kazinczy did not become a follower of Bessenyei, because Bessenyei as a culture politician and philosopher did not mature his works so much so that he could create a literary school. Ferenc's uncle was a member of the delegation of Zemplén County in Vienna at the royal court and he took the young Kazinczy along; this travel made a huge impact on him. It was the first time that Kazinczy saw the emperor's city, whose magnificent collections his pictures enthralled him. At that time Kazinczy followed the thoughts of Salomon Gessner, Christoph Martin Wieland and Dávid Baróti Szabó.
He got Sándor Báróczi's translation of Jean-François Marmontel's Contes Moraux from the librarian of Sárospatak, which became
Klemens von Metternich
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, KOGF was an Austrian diplomat, at the center of European affairs for four decades as the Austrian Empire's foreign minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal Revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation. Born into the House of Metternich in 1773 as the son of a diplomat, Metternich received a good education at the universities of Strasbourg and Mainz. Metternich rose through key diplomatic posts, including ambassadorial roles in the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Prussia, Napoleonic France. One of his first assignments as Foreign Minister was to engineer a détente with France that included the marriage of Napoleon to the Austrian archduchess Marie Louise. Soon after, he engineered Austria's entry into the War of the Sixth Coalition on the Allied side, signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau that sent Napoleon into exile and led the Austrian delegation at the Congress of Vienna that divided post-Napoleonic Europe amongst the major powers.
For his service to the Austrian Empire, he was given the title of Prince in October 1813. Under his guidance, the "Metternich system" of international congresses continued for another decade as Austria aligned itself with Russia and to a lesser extent Prussia; this marked the high point of Austria's diplomatic importance and thereafter Metternich slipped into the periphery of international diplomacy. At home, Metternich held the post of Chancellor of State from 1821 until 1848 under both Francis I and his son Ferdinand I. After a brief exile in London and Brussels that lasted until 1851, he returned to the Viennese court, this time to offer only advice to Ferdinand's successor, Franz Josef. Having outlived his generation of politicians, Metternich died at the age of 86 in 1859. A traditional conservative, Metternich was keen to maintain the balance of power, in particular by resisting Russian territorial ambitions in Central Europe and lands belonging to the Ottoman Empire, he disliked liberalism and strove to prevent the breakup of the Austrian Empire, for example, by crushing nationalist revolts in Austrian north Italy.
At home, he pursued a similar policy, using censorship and a wide-ranging spy network to suppress unrest. Metternich has been both praised and criticized for the policies he pursued, his supporters pointed out that he presided over the "Age of Metternich", when international diplomacy helped prevent major wars in Europe. His qualities as a diplomat were commended, some noting that his achievements were considerable in light of the weakness of his negotiating position. Meanwhile, his detractors argued that he could have done much to secure Austria's future, he was deemed as a stumbling block to reforms in Austria. Klemens Metternich was born into the House of Metternich on 15 May 1773 to Franz George Karl Count Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, a diplomat who had passed from the service of the Archbishopric of Trier to that of the Imperial court, his wife Countess Maria Beatrice Aloisia von Kageneck, he was named in honour of Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, the archbishop-elector of Trier and the past employer of his father.
He had one older sister. At the time of his birth the family possessed a ruined keep at Beilstein, a castle at Winneberg, an estate west of Koblenz, another in Königswart, won during the 17th century. At this time Metternich's father, described as "a boring babbler and chronic liar" by a contemporary, was the Austrian ambassador to the courts of the three Rhenish electors. Metternich's education was handled by his mother influenced by their proximity to France; as a child he went on official visits with his father and, under the direction of Protestant tutor John Frederick Simon, was tutored in academic subjects and horsemanship.<In the summer of 1788 Metternich began studying law at the University of Strasbourg, matriculating on 12 November. While a student he was for some time accommodated by Prince Maximilian of Zweibrücken, the future King of Bavaria. At this time he was described by Simon as "happy and lovable", though contemporaries would recount how he had been a liar and a braggart. Metternich left Strasbourg in September 1790 to attend Leopold II's October coronation in Frankfurt, where he performed the honorific role of Ceremonial Marshall to the Catholic Bench of the College of the Counts of Westphalia.
There, under the wing of his father, he met with the future Francis II and looked at ease among the attendant nobility. Between the end of 1790 and summer of 1792 Metternich studied law at the University of Mainz, receiving a more conservative education than at Strasbourg, a city the return to, now unsafe. In the summers he worked with his father, appointed plenipotentiary and effective ruler of the Austrian Netherlands. In March 1792 Francis succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor and was crowned in July, affording Metternich a reprisal of his earlier role of Ceremonial Marshall. In the meantime France had declared war on Austria, beginning the War of the First Coalition and making Metternich's further study in Mainz impossible. Now in the employment of his father, he was sent on a special mission to the front. Here he led the interrogation of the French Minister of War the Marquis de Beurnonville and several accompanying National Convention commissioners. Metternich observed the siege and fall of Valenciennes looking back on these as substantial lessons about warfare.
In early 1794 he was sent to England, ostensibly on official business helping Visc
The Iliad is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war, the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege; the epic narrative takes up events prophesied for the future, such as Achilles' imminent death and the fall of Troy, although the narrative ends before these events take place. However, as these events are prefigured and alluded to more and more vividly, when it reaches an end the poem has told a more or less complete tale of the Trojan War; the Iliad is paired with something of a sequel, the Odyssey attributed to Homer. Along with the Odyssey, the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature, its written version is dated to around the 8th century BC.
In the modern vulgate, the Iliad contains 15,693 lines. According to Michael N. Nagler, the Iliad is a more complicated epic poem than the Odyssey. Note: Book numbers are in parentheses and come before the synopsis of the book. After an invocation to the Muses, the story launches in medias res towards the end of the Trojan War between the Trojans and the besieging Greeks. Chryses, a Trojan priest of Apollo, offers the Greeks wealth for the return of his daughter Chryseis, held captive of Agamemnon, the Greek leader. Although most of the Greek army is in favour of the offer, Agamemnon refuses. Chryses prays for Apollo's help, Apollo causes a plague to afflict the Greek army. After nine days of plague, the leader of the Myrmidon contingent, calls an assembly to deal with the problem. Under pressure, Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis to her father, but decides to take Achilles' captive, Briseis, as compensation. Achilles furiously will go home. Odysseus takes a ship and returns Chryseis to her father, whereupon Apollo ends the plague.
In the meantime, Agamemnon's messengers take Briseis away. Achilles becomes upset, sits by the seashore, prays to his mother, Thetis. Achilles asks his mother to ask Zeus to bring the Greeks to the breaking point by the Trojans, so Agamemnon will realize how much the Greeks need Achilles. Thetis does so, Zeus agrees. Zeus sends a dream to Agamemnon. Agamemnon heeds the dream but first decides to test the Greek army's morale, by telling them to go home; the plan backfires, only the intervention of Odysseus, inspired by Athena, stops a rout. Odysseus confronts and beats Thersites, a common soldier who voices discontent about fighting Agamemnon's war. After a meal, the Greeks deploy in companies upon the Trojan plain; the poet takes the opportunity to describe the provenance of each Greek contingent. When news of the Greek deployment reaches King Priam, the Trojans respond in a sortie upon the plain. In a list similar to that for the Greeks, the poet describes their allies; the armies approach each other, but before they meet, Paris offers to end the war by fighting a duel with Menelaus, urged by his brother and head of the Trojan army, Hector.
While Helen tells Priam about the Greek commanders from the walls of Troy, both sides swear a truce and promise to abide by the outcome of the duel. Paris is beaten, but Aphrodite rescues him and leads him to bed with Helen before Menelaus can kill him. Pressured by Hera's hatred of Troy, Zeus arranges for the Trojan Pandaros to break the truce by wounding Menelaus with an arrow. Agamemnon rouses the Greeks, battle is joined. In the fighting, Diomedes kills many Trojans, including Pandaros, defeats Aeneas, whom Aphrodite rescues, but Diomedes attacks and wounds the goddess. Apollo warns him against warring with gods. Many heroes and commanders join in, including Hector, the gods supporting each side try to influence the battle. Emboldened by Athena, Diomedes wounds puts him out of action. Hector prevents a rout. Hector enters the city, urges prayers and sacrifices, incites Paris to battle, bids his wife Andromache and son Astyanax farewell on the city walls, rejoins the battle. Hector duels with Ajax, but nightfall interrupts the fight, both sides retire.
The Greeks agree to burn their dead, build a wall to protect their ships and camp, while the Trojans quarrel about returning Helen. Paris offers to return the treasure he took and give further wealth as compensation, but not Helen, the offer is refused. A day's truce is agreed for burning the dead, during which the Greeks build their wall and a trench; the next morning, Zeus prohibits the gods from interfering, fighting begins anew. The Trojans prevail and force the Greeks back to their wall, while Hera and Athena are forbidden to help. Night falls, they camp in the field to attack at first light, their watchfires light the plain like stars. Meanwhile, the Greeks are desperate. Agamemnon admits his error, sends an embassy composed of Odysseus, Ajax and two heralds to offer Briseis and extensive gifts to Achilles, who has be
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Count István Széchenyi de Sárvár-Felsővidék was a Hungarian politician, political theorist, writer. Considered one of the greatest statesmen in his nation's history, within Hungary he is still known to many as "the Greatest Hungarian". Széchenyi was born in Vienna to Countess Juliána Festetics de Tolna; the Széchenyis were an influential noble family of Hungary. Traditionally loyal to the House of Habsburg, they were linked with noble families, such as the Liechtenstein, the House of Esterházy and the House of Lobkowicz. István Széchenyi's father was an enlightened aristocrat; the boy spent his childhood both on the family estate of Nagycenk, Hungary. After his private education, the young Széchenyi joined the Austrian army and participated in the Napoleonic Wars, he was seventeen years old. He fought with distinction at the battle of Raab and on 19 July brought about the subsequent junction of the two Austrian armies by conveying a message across the Danube to General Chasteler at the risk of his life.
Memorable was his famous ride, through the enemy's lines on the night of 16–17 October 1813, to convey to Blücher and Bernadotte the wishes of the two emperors that they should participate in the battle of Leipzig on the following day, at a given time and place. In May 1815 he was transferred to Italy, at the battle of Tolentino scattered Murat's bodyguard by a dashing cavalry charge, he left the service as a first lieutenant in 1826, turned his interest towards politics. From September 1815 to 1821, Széchenyi traveled extensively in Europe, visiting France, Italy and the Levant, studying their institutions, he established important personal connections. The rapid modernisation of Britain fascinated him the most, influenced his thinking, he was impressed with the Canal du Midi in France, began to envision ways to improve navigation on the lower Danube and Tisza. The Count became aware of the growing gap between the modern world and his native Hungary. For the rest of his life, he was a determined promoted development.
Széchenyi found early political support from his friend, Baron Miklós Wesselényi, a noble from Transylvania. Széchenyi gained a wider reputation in 1825, by supporting the proposal of the representative of Sopron county, Pál Nagy, to establish the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, his example brought donations of 58,000 florins from three other wealthy nobles, they gained Royal approval for the Academy. He wanted to promote the use of the Hungarian language in this effort; this was an important milestone for the reform movement. In 1827, he organized the Nemzeti Kaszinó, or National Casino, a forum for the patriotic Hungarian nobility; the Casino had an important role in the reform movement by providing an institute for political dialogues. To reach a wider public, Széchenyi decided to publish his ideas, his series of political writings, the Hitel, the Világ, the Stádium, addressed the Hungarian nobility. He condemned their conservatism and encouraged them to give up feudal privileges, act as the driving elite for modernization.
Széchenyi, established the Óbuda Shipyard on the Hungarian Hajógyári Island in 1835, the first industrial scale steamship building company in the Habsburg Empire. Széchenyi envisioned his program for Hungary within the framework of the Habsburg Monarchy, he was convinced that Hungary needed a gradual economic and cultural development. The latter he found dangerous within the multi-ethnic Kingdom of Hungary, where people were divided by ethnicity and religion. Besides his comprehensive political ideas, he concentrated on the development of transportation infrastructure, as he understood its importance for development and communication. Part of this program was the regulation of the flow of waters of the lower Danube to improve navigation, in order to open it to commercial shipping and trade from Buda to the Black Sea, he became the leading figure of the Danube Navigation Committee by the early 1830s, which completed its work in ten years. The river had been dangerous for ships and was not efficient as an international trading route.
Széchenyi was the first to promote steamboats on the Danube, the Tisza, Lake Balaton measures to open up Hungary to trade and development. Recognizing the potential for the project for the region, Széchenyi lobbied in Vienna to gain Austrian financial and political support, he supervised the works for years. During this period, he built up relations in the Balkan area, he wanted to develop Buda and Pest as a major political and cultural center of Hungary. He supported the construction of the first permanent bridge between the two cities, the Chain Bridge. Besides its improving transportation connections, the Chain Bridge was a symbolic structure, foreshadowing the unification of the two cities as Budapest, connected across rather than divided by the river. In 1836 at the age of 45, Széchenyi married Countess Crescence Seilern in Buda, they had three children: Júlia Széchenyi, who died at the age of three months Béla Széchenyi