The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Mangaia is the most southerly of the Cook Islands and the second largest, after Rarotonga. Geologists estimate the island is at least 18 million years old, making it the oldest in the Pacific, it rises 4750 m above the ocean floor and has a land area of 51.8 km2. It has a central volcanic plateau and, like many of the southern Cook Islands, it is surrounded by a high ring of cliffs of fossil coral 60 m high, known as the makatea; the highest point is 169 m above sea level, near the centre of the island. Lake Tiriara is a body of fresh water in the south; the population of Mangaia comprises about 700 people. The capital is the village on the west coast, containing about half the population. There are Tamarua in the south and Ivirua in the northeast. After Pangemiro secured the temporal power, the districts and sub-districts were distributed among the Manaune and Ngati-Tane tribes; the distribution on the right was supposed to favor Ngati-Tane, the distribution on the left to favor the Manaune. In actual fact, the Manaune received a greater number of sub-districts than the Ngati-Tane.
In the manuscript of Mamae, the following lists of sub-districts with the awards of district and sub-district chiefs were written under the heading, "Te tu'anga ia A'ua'u, i te tara a te aronga pakari" Traditionally, the Island has been subdivided into six Puna headed by a Pava, which are nearly sectors meeting at the highest point near the center of the island, Rangi-motia. The districts are, as on some other islands of the Lower Cook Islands, further subdivided into 38 traditional sub-districts called Tapere. In the Cook Islands constitution however, the six districts are listed as Tapere; the Districts clockwise, starting in the south, with their Sub-Districts and Chiefs, are: Note: The first three Tapere in Tamarua were awarded to Ngati-Tane, the remaining six to Manaune. The Ngati-Tane gave the Manaune gave two to members of other tribes. Parima, the Pava, had no Tapere. Note: Three sub-districts above went to Ngati-Tane, of which Arokapiti was the leader, three to Manaune, of which Pangemiro was the leader.
Motuanga was Pava and held a sub-district. Note: Mamae states, "Eia tu'anga e ono nei, tei a Pangemiro te'aka'aere; this seems to mean that Pangemiro appointed the sub-district chiefs, but Arokapiti selected the District Chief. Note: The six sub-districts above were shared between Ngati-Tane and the Manaune. In a list given by the District Chiefs of Veitatei and Tavaenga, only Ta'iti and Maro coincide with the above, Te-Ivi-O-Ru, Rangatira, Te-Tua-Roa, Tiroango are given as the names of the other four sub-districts. Note: In another manuscript the word Teia in the third and fifth sub-districts is spelled Te-i'i-a and is followed by the same endings. Pangemiro, the Temporal Lord, lived in Karanga, all the sub-districts went to the Manaune. Though there are only five Tapere, the Manaune say; the story is. It was evidently left to the Manaune to bring the sacrifice to the marae in Keia. Thereupon Tuarau and Tumutoa of Ivirua carved a figure to represent Vairoto, Pangemiro sent it in to the marae; the Manaune were strong enough to carry off this disobedience to the high priest, they commemorated the event by making a wooden effigy of Vairoto a metaphorical sixth Tapere.
Note: Mamae gave no details and omitted the sixth sub-district of Avarari. Local informants stated that Te-Pauru-O-Rongo went to the Ngariki tribe, the Ara-nui-o-Toi went to Ngati-Tane, the remaining four sub-districts went to the Manaune; as Mauri, the sub-district chief of Te-Pauru-O-Rongo, was a son of Pangemiro, it would appear that, though he ruled over the sub-district, the land was for division among the Ngariki tribe. Tuarau and Vairota of the Karanga District and the two sub-districts of Te-uturei and Te-i'i-maru, to which these men belonged, are coupled together under the name of Nga-Toki to commemorate the use they made of their adzes. Mangaia is renowned for its shell neckbands or "eis"; these are made from the shells of the pupu, which emerges only after rain. Gathering and stringing is a time consuming business; the women of the island give the prized strands away as gifts of friendship to visitors from other islands in the group. Mangaia is renowned for its coconuts; the people of the island have long considered them a staple plant of survival.
They remain an important crop today, providing food, coconut milk, fiber. Mangaia was first settled around AD 1000. Before settlement by missionaries, Mangaia was ruled by fierce warriors in a constant struggle over land and crops; the first recorded European to arrive at Mangaia was Captain James Cook on 29 March 1777. Long ago, during a trip to London, Numangatini, or "King" John of Mangaia, received from Queen Victoria herself a Union Jack; the flag still exists, albeit in two pieces. Birds described from subfossil remains that became extinct as a consequence of human settlement of the island and the introduction of exotic mammals include the Mangaia rail and the Mangaia crake. Mangaians have a sex positive culture, where "casual sex with different partners, frequent intercourse with multiple orgasms, are perceived as sexually n
Makatea, or Mangaia-te-vai-tamae, is a raised coral atoll in the northwestern part of the Tuamotus, a part of the French overseas collectivity of French Polynesia. It is located 79 kilometres southwest from Rangiroa to the west of the Palliser group, in French Polynesia. Makatea is surrounded by spectacular cliffs; this island is 7.5 kilometres long, with a maximum width of 7 kilometres in the south. It is 24 square kilometres in area. Makatea is one of the only four islands of the Tuamotu Archipelago that do not take the form of a typical atoll. Mākatea is the only Paumotuan island with potable water, its native name derived from the drinking water being brought out of its dark caves by the local people. "Mā," pure, clear. The other name of the Island was Mangaia-te-vai-tamāe, meaning "Mangaia of the purified water." The island was called "Sagitario" in 1606 by Pedro Fernandes de Queirós who led a Spanish expedition to Terra Australis from Peru. Over a century it was named "Aurora" by Dutch mariner Jakob Roggeveen in 1722.
The Polynesians called it "Papa Tea". There is a ghost town, an adjacent abandoned port, Temao, on the northwest coast of Makatea; these are from the times of phosphate mining. Makatea is one of three important Pacific raised coral islands that had large phosphate deposits, the other two being Nauru and Banaba; the Pacific Phosphate Company Ltd, founded by John T. Arundel and involved in mining at Nauru and Banaba, formed the Compagnie des Phosphates de l'Océanie with a Tahitian syndicate to mine phosphate on Makatea. In September 1909, Ocean Queen, a ship owned by the PPC, was wrecked on the reef at Makatea. Phosphate mining drew hundreds of people to Makatea in the years before the French Centre d'Experimentation du Pacifique started nuclear experiments. For over two decades or longer, Makatea was a active little island because of the ships arriving to load phosphate and to bring supplies and food to the many workers and their families that lived there. After the end of the phosphate exploitation, Makatea was totally left on its own with only a few families left to guard the island.
The mining produced hundreds if not thousands of hand-dug holes across the upper plateau of Makatea. Each cylindrical hole is 15 metres to 23 metres in depth. An unsuspecting visitor could fall into a hole and die while walking in the thick undergrowth that hides these holes; the once active village where the miners lived had a school, first-aid medical centre, all the things needed to make life comfortable. All that remains today has been destroyed by nature; the school and other places have been grown over by vines and jungle. In February 1956 the United States submarine Caiman en route from Tahiti to Nuka Hiva in the Marquesas encountered the MV Nasarada, under Capt Oto Orbeck, in distress several miles from Makatea at about 05:00hrs; the vessel had six pigs on board. Unable to repair the engine, USS Caiman towed the Nasarada to Pearl Harbor, subsequently requested permission to enter the harbor at Makata. Permission was denied by the French; the submarine proceeded on to the Marquesas. Makatea Island forms a commune associée of Rangiroa commune with 93 inhabitants.
The main village is called Moumu. The islanders live off culture of copra, some fishing and the trade of coconut crabs. Makatea is the only home to endemic birds, the Polynesian imperial pigeon, Ducula aurorae aurorae, the Makatea fruit dove, a range of endodontid land snails; the symbolism of the 2:1:2 horizontal triband is as follows: The top stripe is light blue and represents the sky, the white middle stripe represents the name White Rock and the bottom stripe is deep blue symbolizing the sea that surrounds the island. The red star singles out Makatea within the Tuamotu Archipelago, with its 16 blue-starred flag, is a'rocky' allusion to the symbolism of the middle stripe, uniting sky and sea and completing a red-white-blue reference to the French flag. Mayor Julien Maï of Makatea and vexillographer Colin Randall of Australia designed the flag. French Polynesia Nauru Banaba Oceandots Map of Makatea Avifauna of Makatea Atoll list Classification of the French Polynesian atolls by Salvat
The Cook Islands is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 islands; the Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone covers 1,800,000 square kilometres of ocean. New Zealand is responsible for the Cook Islands' defence and foreign affairs, but they are exercised in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent times, the Cook Islands have adopted an independent foreign policy. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, not given to other New Zealand citizens; the Cook Islands has been an active member of the Pacific Community since 1980. The Cook Islands' main population centres are on the island of Rarotonga, where there is an international airport. There is a larger population of Cook Islanders in New Zealand itself. With about 100,000 visitors travelling to the islands in the 2010–11 financial year, tourism is the country's main industry, the leading element of the economy, ahead of offshore banking and marine and fruit exports.
In March 2019 it was reported that the Cook Islands had plans to change its name and remove the reference to Captain James Cook in favour of "a title that reflects its'Polynesian nature'". The Cook Islands were first settled in the 6th century by Polynesian people who migrated from Tahiti, an island 1,154 kilometres to the northeast. Spanish ships visited the islands in the 16th century; the first written record came in 1595 when the island of Pukapuka was sighted by Spanish sailor Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, who gave it the name San Bernardo. Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, a Portuguese captain working for the Spanish crown, made the first recorded European landing in the islands when he set foot on Rakahanga in 1606, calling the island Gente Hermosa. British navigator Captain James Cook arrived in 1773 and again in 1777 giving the island of Manuae the name Hervey Island; the Hervey Islands came to be applied to the entire southern group. The name "Cook Islands", in honour of Cook, first appeared on a Russian naval chart published in the 1820s.
In 1813 John Williams, a missionary on the Endeavour made the first recorded sighting of Rarotonga. The first recorded landing on Rarotonga by Europeans was in 1814 by the Cumberland; the islands saw no more Europeans until English missionaries arrived in 1821. Christianity took hold in the culture and many islanders are Christians today; the islands were a popular stop in the 19th century for whaling ships from the United States and Australia. They visited, from at least 1826, to obtain water and firewood, their favourite islands were Rarotonga, Aitutaki and Penrhyn. The Cook Islands became a British protectorate in 1888 because of community fears that France might occupy the islands as it had Tahiti. On 6 September 1900, the islanders's leaders presented a petition asking that the islands be annexed as British territory. On 8 and 9 October 1900, seven instruments of cession of Rarotonga and other islands were signed by their chiefs and people. A British Proclamation was issued, stating that the cessions were accepted and the islands declared parts of Her Britannic Majesty's dominions.
However, it did not include Aitutaki. Though the inhabitants regarded themselves as British subjects, the Crown's title was unclear until the island was formally annexed by a Proclamation dated 9 October 1900. In 1901 the islands were included within the boundaries of the Colony of New Zealand by Order in Council under the Colonial Boundaries Act, 1895 of the United Kingdom; the boundary change became effective on 11 June 1901, the Cook Islands have had a formal relationship with New Zealand since that time. When the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect on 1 January 1949, Cook Islanders who were British subjects automatically gained New Zealand citizenship; the islands remained a New Zealand dependent territory until the New Zealand Government decided to grant them self-governing status. Albert Henry of the Cook Islands Party was elected as the first Premier. Henry led the nation until 1978, when he resigned, he was succeeded by Tom Davis of the Democratic Party.
In March 2019 it was reported that the Cook Islands had plans to change its name and remove the reference to Captain James Cook in favour of "a title that reflects its'Polynesian nature'". The Cook Islands are in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, between French Polynesia and American Samoa. There are 15 major islands spread over 2,200,000 km2 of ocean, divided into two distinct groups: the Southern Cook Islands and the Northern Cook Islands of coral atolls; the islands were formed by volcanic activity. The climate is moderate to tropical; the Cook Islands consist of two reefs. The table is ordered from north to south. Population figures from the 2016 census; the Cook Islands is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system in an associated state relationship with New Zealand. Executive power is exercised with the Chief Minister as head of government. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of the Cook Islands. There is a pluriform multi-party system; the Judiciary is inde