Nashik district known as Nasik district, is a district in Maharashtra, India. The city of Nashik is the administrative headquarters of the district. Nashik is well known for the production of wine. Nashik is known as Mini Maharashtra, because the climate and soil conditions of Surgana, Igatpuri resembles with Konkan. Niphad, Dindori, Baglan blocks are like Western Maharashtra and Yeola, Chandwad blocks are like Vidarbha Region. Nashik, Manmad, Igatpuri are some of the big cities situated in the Nashik District. Nashik district is the third largest district in Maharashtra in terms of Population of 6,109,052 and area occupying an area of 15,582 square kilometres in the north Maharashrta region, it is bounded by Dhule district to the north, Jalgaon district to the east, Aurangabad district to the southeast, Ahmadnagar district to the south, Thane district to the southwest and Navsari districts of Gujarat to the west, The Dangs district to the northwest. The Western Ghats or Sahyadri range stretches from north to south across the western portion of the district.
With the exception of the westernmost few villages, the western portion is hilly, intersected by ravines, only the simplest kind of cultivation is possible. The western slope of the Ghats is drained by several rivers, including the Daman Ganga River, which drains westwards to the Arabian Sea; the larger eastern portion of the district, which lies on the Deccan Plateau, is open and well cultivated. The Satmala-Chandwad Range, which runs east and west, forms the chief divide of the plateau region. Peninsular India's largest river Godavari originates in the district in the Trimbakeshwar Range and continues eastwards through the district; the Satmala-Chandwad Range forms a watershed, such that, the rivers emerging to its south drain into the Godavari. These include the Darna both of which are tributaries of the Godavari. To the north of the Satmala-Chandwad Range, the Girna River and its tributary, the Mosam, flow eastward through fertile valleys into the Tapti River; the Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple is located in Trimbak, one of the twelve Jyotirlingas, where the Hindu genealogy registers at Trimbakeshwar, Maharashtra are kept.
The origin of the sacred Godavari river is near Trimbak. Nashik it was known as Gulshanabad and it is important mythologically and culturally city. Known for the temples on the banks of the Godavari and it has been one of the holy sites of the Hindu and Muslim religion. In the 18th century, the present-day Nashik district was part of the Maratha Confederacy, within the territory controlled directly by the Maratha Peshwa; the district contains several old hill forts, the scenes of many engagements during the Anglo-Maratha Wars. The district became British territory in 1818 on the overthrow of the Peshwa; the present-day district was divided between Kandesh and Ahmadnagar districts of Bombay Presidency, a province of British India. Nashik district was created in 1869; the population in 1901 was 816,504, showing a decrease of 3% in the decade 1891-1901. The principal crops were millet, pulse, oil-seeds and sugar cane. There were some vineyards, much garden cultivation. Yeola was an important centre for weaving cotton goods.
There were flour-mills at Malegaon, railway workshops at Manmad and Igatpuri, cantonments at Deolali and Malegaon. At Sharanpur was a Christian village, with an orphanage of the Church Missionary Society, founded in 1854. In 1861 the main northeast line of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway was completed across the district, in 1878 a chord line was completed between Manmad, on the northeast line in Nashik district, Daund, on the southeast line in Pune district. From India's independence in 1947 up to 1960, Nashik district was part of Bombay State, which split into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat; the entire Nashik district is underlain by the basaltic lava flows. These flows are horizontally disposed over a wide stretch and give rise to table land type of topography known a plateau; these flows occur in layered sequences and represented by massive unit at the bottom and vesicular unit at the top of the flow. The shallow alluvial formation of recent age occurs as narrow stretch along the banks of Godavari Rivers.
The soils are the weathering products of Basalt and have various shades from gray to black and pink colour. Nashik District is a noted for the mountains and hills occupying the north and north-east of its territory; these hill ranges are eastward spurs of the Western Ghats and form prominent landmarks in the district, some noted for the shrines they harbor while others for the trekking adventures which can be undertaken while ascending the peaks. Broadly categorized, the hills can be segregated into 3 noteworthy ranges: Selbari Range which may be inclusive of the Dholbari range, alternately called Selbari-Dholbari range. Satmala Range called the Satmala-Ajanta range. Trimbakeshwar Range constituting the Trimbak-Anjaneri hills. Extremes: max 42.4 °C on May 12, 1960, at Nasik. The lowest at Nasik, was 0.6 °C on January 7, 1945. According to the 2011 census Nashik district has a population of 6,109,052 equal to the nation of El Salvador or the US state of Missouri; this gives it a ranking of 11th in India.
The district has a population density of 393 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 22.33%. Nashik has a sex ratio of 931 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 80.96%. The district is 75.64% urban as of 2007. Marathi is the main language spoken. Various dialects are spoken in smaller parts of northern district that include A
Aurangabad is a city in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state in India. The city is a tourism hub, surrounded by many historical monuments, including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as well as Bibi Ka Maqbara and Panchakki. Khadki was the original name of the village, made a capital city by Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam, Shah of Ahmadnagar. Within a decade, Khadki grew into a imposing city. Malik Ambar died in 1626, he was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan. With the capture of Daulatabad by the imperial troops in 1633, the Nizam Shahi dominions, including Fatehnagar, came under the possession of the Moghals. In 1653 when Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed the viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad. Aurangabad is sometimes referred to as Khujista Bunyad by the Chroniclers of Aurangzeb's reign. In 1724, Asif Jah, a Turkic general and Nizam al-Mulk of the Mughals in the Deccan region, decided to secede from the crumbling Mughal Empire, with the intention of founding his own dynasty in the Deccan and decided to make Aurangabad his capital.
His son and successor, Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II transferred his capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad in 1763. In 1795, the city came under the Maratha rule, following the Maratha victory in the Battle of Kharda, along with an indemnity of 30 million rupees paid by Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, Nizam of Hyderabad to the Marathas. However, Maratha rule lasted only eight years before the city came under the rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad, under the protection of the British East India Company, following the British victory in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. During the period of the British Raj, the city was known as Aurungábád. After independence there have been demands to rename the city to Sambhaji Nagar; this demand further raised due to recent renaming of Faizabad to Allahabad to Prayagraj. Aurangabad was a part of the Princely State of Hyderabad during the British Raj, until its annexation into the Indian Union after the Indian Independence in 1947, thereafter a part of Hyderabad state of India until 1956.
In 1956 it became a part of newly formed bilingual Bombay state and in 1960 it became a part of Maharashtra state. The co-ordinates for Aurangabad are N 19° 53' 47" – E 75° 23' 54"; the city is surrounded by hills on all directions. Climate Classification: Aurangabad features a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification. Temperature: Annual mean temperatures in Aurangabad range from 17 to 33 °C, with the most comfortable time to visit in the winter – October to February; the highest maximum temperature recorded was 46 °C on 25 May 1905. The lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C on 2 February 1911. In the cold season, the district is sometimes affected by cold waves in association with the eastward passage of western disturbances across north India, when the minimum temperature may drop down to about 2 °C to 4 °C. Rainfall: Most of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season from June to September. Thunderstorms occur between November to April. Average annual rainfall is 710 mm; the city is cloudy during the monsoon season and the cloud cover may remain together for days.
The daily maximum temperature in the city drops to around 22 °C due to the cloud cover and heavy rains. The entire area is covered by the Deccan Traps lava flows of Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene age; the lava flows are overlain by thin alluvial deposits along the Sukhana river. The basaltic lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap is the only major geological formation occurring in Aurangabad; the lava flows are horizontal and each flow has two distinct units. The upper layers consist of vesiculara and amygdaloidal zeolitic basalt while the bottom layer consists of massive basalt; the lava flows are individually different in their ability to receive as well as hold water in storage and to transmit it. The difference in the productivity of groundwater in various flows arises as a result of their inherent physical properties such as porosity and permeability; the groundwater occurs under water table conditions and is controlled by the extent of its secondary porosity i.e. thickness of weathered rocks and spacing of joints and fractures.
The weathered vesicular trap and underlying weathered jointed and fractured massive trap constitutes the main water yielding zones. The soil is formed from igneous rocks and are black, medium black and calcareous types having different depths and profiles. Hinduism is the majority religion in Aurangabad city at 51.07% with 600,183 followers. Islam is the second most popular religion in the city with 361,817 people following it. Buddhism is followed by 178,307 people, Christianity is followed by 10,060 people, Jainism by 19,073, Sikhism by 3,427. Around 0.04% stated'other Religion', about 0.15% stated'No Particular Religion'. As one of the largest cities in India, as a result of its many colleges and universities, Aurangabad is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing. In 2010, Aurangabad was in news for placing single largest order for Mercedes Benz cars in a single transaction in India — 150 Mercedes Benz cars worth ₹65 crore. Without a local Mercedes-Benz showroom and encountering an indifferent Mercedes-Benz dealer in the nearest city, a group of successful citizens pooled their orders and negotiated a record agreement with the firm.
Soon after that, bulk purchase order of 101 BMW cars was placed. Electronics giant Videocon has its manufacturing facility in Aurangabad where it manufactures a range of home appliances; the city was a major silk and cotton te
Bibi Ka Maqbara
The Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb located in Aurangabad, India. It was commissioned in 1660 by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in the memory of his first wife Dilras Banu Begum, it bears a striking resemblance to the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's mother, Mumtaz Mahal. Aurangzeb was not much interested in architecture, he had commissioned the elegant, Pearl Mosque at Delhi. Bibi Ka Maqbara was the largest structure; the comparison to the Taj Mahal has obscured its own considerable charm. Due to the strong resemblance, it is called the Dakkhani Taj; the Bibi Ka Maqbara is the principal monument of its historic city. An inscription found on the main entrance door mentions that this mausoleum was designed and erected by Ata-ullah, an architect and Hanspat Rai, an engineer respectively. Ata-ullah was the son of the principal designer of the Taj Mahal. Dilras Banu Begum was born a princess of the prominent Safavid dynasty of Iran and was the daughter of Mirza Badi-uz-Zaman Safavi, the Viceroy of Gujarat, she married Prince Muhi-ud-din on 8 May 1637 in Agra.
Dilras was his first chief consort, as well as his favourite. She bore her husband five children: Zeb-un-Nissa, Zinat-un-Nissa, Zubdat-un-Nissa, Muhammad Azam Shah and Sultan Muhammad Akbar. After giving birth to her fifth child, Muhammad Akbar, Dilras Banu Begum suffered from puerperal fever, due to complications caused by the delivery and died a month after the birth of her son on 8 October 1657. Upon her death, Aurangzeb's pain was extreme and their eldest son, Azam Shah, was so grieved that he had a nervous breakdown, it became Dilras' eldest daughter, Princess Zeb-un-Nissa's responsibility to take charge of her newborn brother. Zeb-un-Nissa doted on her brother a lot, at the same time, Aurangzeb indulged his motherless son and the prince soon became his best-loved son. In 1660, Aurangzeb commissioned a mausoleum at Aurangabad to act as Dilras' final resting place, known as Bibi Ka Maqbara. Here, Dilras was buried under the posthumous title of'Rabia-ud-Daurani'. In the following years, her tomb was repaired by her son Azam Shah under Aurangzeb's orders.
Bibi Ka Maqbara was the largest structure that Aurangzeb had to his credit and bears a striking resemblance to the Taj Mahal, the mausoleum of Dilras' mother-in-law, Empress Mumtaz Mahal, who herself died in childbirth. Aurangzeb, himself, is buried a few kilometers away from her mausoleum in Khuldabad. Bibi Ka Maqbara is believed to have been built between 1668 and 1669 C. E. According to the "Tarikh Namah" of Ghulam Mustafa, the cost of construction of the mausoleum was Rs. 668,203-7 – Aurangzeb allocated only Rs. 700,000 for its construction. An inscription found on the main entrance door mentions that this mausoleum was designed and erected by Ata-ullah, an architect and Hanspat Rai, an engineer respectively; the marble for this mausoleum was brought from mines near Jaipur. According to Tavernier, around three hundred carts laden with marble, drawn by at least 12 oxen, were seen by him during his journey from Surat to Golconda; the mausoleum was intended to rival the Taj Mahal, but the decline in architecture and proportions of the structure had resulted in a poor copy of the latter.
The mausoleum is laid out in a Charbagh formal garden. It stands at the centre of a huge enclosure measuring 458 m. N-S X 275 m. E-W. Baradaris or pillared pavilions are located at the centre of north and western part of the enclosure wall; the high enclosure wall is crenellated with pointed arched recesses and bastions at regular intervals. The recesses are divided by pilasters, crowned with small minarets; the mausoleum is built on a high square platform with four minarets at its corners, approached by a flight of steps from the three sides. A mosque is found to the west of the main structure, a addition by the Nizam of Hyderabad, resulting in closure of the west entrance. Entry to the mausoleum is through a main entrance gate on its south, which has foliage designs on brass plate on wood covering from the exterior. After passing through the entrance a small tank is provided and a low profile screen wall leads to the main structure; the screened pathway has a series of fountains at its centre. The mausoleum is encased with marble up to the dado level.
Above the dado level, it is constructed of basaltic trap up to the base of the dome. A fine plaster covers the basaltic trap and given a fine polished finish and adorned with fine stucco decorations; the mortal remains of Rabia Daurani are placed below the ground level surrounded by an octagonal jali pierced marble screen with exquisite designs, which can be approached by a descending flight of steps. The roof of this chamber that corresponds to the ground level of the mausoleum is pierced by an octagonal opening and given a low barricaded marble screen; this makes the tomb viewable from the ground level through this octagonal opening. The mausoleum is crowned by a dome pierced with trellis works and accompanying panels decorated with flower designs; the structure is in the form of a hexagon, its angles ornamented with minarets. Bibi Ka Maqbara has featured in a number of films. A part of the song Jab Tak from the movie M. S. Dhoni: The Untold Story was shot in Bibi Ka Maqbara and surrounding hills in Aurangabad, India.
Asher, Catherine Blanshard. Architecture
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Indian road network
India has a road network of over 5,903,293 kilometres as of 31 January 2019, the second largest road network in the world. At 1.70 km of roads per square kilometre of land, the quantitative density of India's road network is higher than that of Japan and the United States to, far higher than that of China, Brazil or Russia. Adjusted for its large population, India has 4.63 km of roads per 1000 people. However, qualitatively India's roads are a mix of modern highways and narrow, unpaved roads, are being improved; as on 31 March 2016, 62.5% of Indian roads were paved. India in its past did not allocate enough resources to maintain its road network; this has changed since 1995, with major efforts underway to modernize the country's road infrastructure. The length of national highways in India has increased from 70,934 km in 2010-11 to 101,011 km in 2015-16; as of May 2017, India had completed and placed in use over 28,900 kilometres of built 4 or 6-lane highways connecting many of its major manufacturing centres and cultural centres.
According to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, as of March 2016, India had about 1,01,011 kilometers of national highways and expressways, plus another 1,76,166 kilometers of state highways. Major projects are being implemented under the National Highways Development Project, a government initiative. Private builders and highway operators are implementing major projects - for example, the Yamuna Expressway between Delhi and Agra was completed ahead of schedule and within budget, while the KMP Expressway started in 2006 is far behind schedule, over budget and incomplete. According to 2009 estimates by Goldman Sachs, India will need to invest US$1.7 trillion on infrastructure projects before 2020 to meet its economic needs, a part of which would be in upgrading India's road network. The investment in national highways increased from ₹14,095.87 crore in 2005-06 to ₹98,988.06 crore in 2015-16. During the same period the total investment in national highways was ₹476,589.37 crore. The Government of India is attempting to promote foreign investment in road projects.
Foreign participation in Indian road network construction has attracted 45 international contractors and 40 design/engineering consultants, with Malaysia, South Korea, United Kingdom and United States being the largest players. The first evidence of road development in the Indian subcontinent can be traced back to 2800 BC from the ancient cities of Harrapa and Mohenjodaro of the Indus Valley Civilization. Ruling emperors and monarchs of ancient India had constructed roads to connect the cities. Archaeological excavations give us fresh information about road connectivity in ancient India; the Grand Trunk Road was built by the Mauryan Empire and expanded over many different dynasties until being revived by Emperor Sher Shah Suri in 1540-45 connecting Sonargaon near Dhaka in Bangladesh with Peshawar in modern-day Pakistan linking several cities from in India. It was further expanded by the Mughal Empire. In the 1830s the East India Company started a programme of metalled road construction, for both commercial and administrative purposes.
The Grand trunk road, from Calcutta, through Delhi to Peshawar was rebuilt at a cost of £1000 / mile, roads from Bombay to Pune Camp, Bombay to Agra, Bombay to Madras, were constructed, a Public Works Department, the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee founded, to train and employ local surveyors and overseers, to perform the work, maintain the roads. The programme resulted in an estimated 2,500 km of metalled roads being constructed by the 1850sIn December 1934 the Indian Road Congress was formed, on the recommendations of the Indian Road Development Committee of the Government of India, they proposed a twenty-year plan, in 1943, to increase the road network from 350,000 km, to 532,700 km by 1963, to achieve a road density of 16 km, per 100 km2 of land. The construction was to be paid in part through the duty imposed, since 1939, on petrol sales, became known as the Nagpur Plan; the construction target was achieved in the late 1950s. In 1956 a Highways Act was passed, a second twenty-year plan proposed for the period 1961-1981, with the ambition of doubling road density to 32 km, per 100 km2.
This second plan became known as the Bombay Road Plan. India inherited a poor road network infrastructure at the time of its independence in 1947. Beyond that, between 1947 and 1988, India witnessed no new major projects, the roads were poorly maintained. Predominantly all roads were single lane, most were unpaved. India had no expressways, less than 200 kilometers of 4-lane highways. In 1988, an autonomous entity called the National Highways Authority of India was established in India by an Act of Parliament, came into existence on 15 June 1989; the Act empowered this entity to develop and manage India's road network through National Highways. However though the Authority was created in 1988, not much happened till India introduced widespread economic liberalization in the early 1990s. Since 1995, the authority has privatized road network development in India. One of the most ambitious projects to improve roads in India was under the National Highways Development Project started in the year 1998 by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
The flagship project of the NHDP is the Golden Quadrilateral, a total of 5,846 km long 4/6 laned highways connecting the four major cities of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Total cost of the project is Rs.300 billion, funded by the government’s special petroleum product ta
The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
Khuldabad known as Khultabad is a city and a Taluka of Aurangabad district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was known as "Rauzaa" as meaning garden of paradise, it is known as the Valley of Saints, or the Abode of Eternity, because in the 14th century, several Sufi saints chose to reside here. The Bhadra Maroti and Dargah of Zar Zari Zar Baksh, Shaikh Burhan ud-din Gharib Chisti and Shaikh Zain-ud-din Shirazi, along with the tomb of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and his trusted General Asif Jah I, the first Nizam of Hyderabad, are located in this town, it is a spiritual city of Islamic saints. The place has famous Bhadra Maruti Temple. People come from Aurangabad and nearby places by walk for offering puja on Hanuman Jayanti and on Saturdays in Marathi calendar month "Shravan". Nearby is the Valley of the Saints, purported to contain the graves of 1500 Sufi saints. Khuldabad is located at 20.05°N 75.18°E / 20.05. It is an excellent health mart enjoying a pleasant and temperate climate, with an altitude of about 500 feet above the plains and 2,732 feet above the level of the sea.
About four miles distant from the town are the world-famous caves of Ellora, the State guest-house and the travellers' bungalow, the latter of, maintained by the Zilla Parishad facilitate the stay of the tourists. As of 2001 India census, Khuldabad had a population of 12,794. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Khuldabad has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, female literacy is 56%. In Khuldabad, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age; the place has not only religious importance due to the location of tombs of some Sufi saints, but has historical importance. It is here that the last of the Mughals lies interred. Aurangzeb, was described in official writings by the posthumous title of Khuld-makan. Here are buried Azam Shah, Aurangzeb’s son, Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, the founder of the Hyderabad dynasty, his second son Nasir Jang, Nizare Shah, king of Ahemadnagar, Tana Shah, last of the Golkonda kings and a host of minor celebrities.
The place contains from about 1400 plain sepulchre. Khuldabad was once an prosperous town; the gardens which surround many of these tombs are overgrown with bushes. Khuldabad is surrounded by a high fortified wall built by Aurangzeb, it has seven gates viz. Nagarkhana, Langda, Kumbi Ali, Hamdadi and a wicket called Azam Shahi; the gateway in the direction of Aurangabad is approached by a paved ascent which continue inside the town for about 200 to 300 feet. The wall has collapsed at many places and may collapse before long; the sepulchre of Aurangzeb lies midway between the north and the south gates. It is within the enclosure containing the dargah of Burhan ud din. A steep paved ascent some 30 yards in length leads from the road side to the entrance of the building. After passing through a domed-porch and gateway, erected in about 1760, a large quadrangle is entered, on three side of which am open-fronted buildings. While one of these is used for conducting a school, others are set apart for the use of travellers.
In the centre of the south side is a mosque in the west. A facsimile of the hall of the mosque is just below, a flight of steps descending to it from the verge of the platform. Right opposite the north end of the mosque is a small open gateway leading into an inner courtyard. Aurangzeb's tomb is in the south-east angle of this courtyard. Facing it is a long low building similar to the one in the outer quadrangle, in the north end is a small room containing the pall and decorations of the tomb; the grave lies to the right of the entrance and is remarkably simple, in keeping with Aurangzeb's own wishes. The grave lies in the middle of a stone platform, raised about half a foot from the floor. Aurangzeb funded his resting place by knitting caps and copying the Qu’ran, during the last years of his life, works which he sold anonymously in the market place. Unlike the other great Mughal rulers, Aurangzeb’s tomb is not marked with a large mausoleum instead he was interred in an open air grave in accordance with his Islamic principles.
The gateway and domed porch were added in 1760. The floor is of marble, A neat railing of perforated marble is on three sides, the wall of Burhan-ud-din's dargah forms the fourth side, it was erected by the Nizam at the request of Lord Curzon Viceroy of India in the year 1911. On ceremonial occasions Aurangzeb's grave is draped with richly embroidered cloth but ordinarily it is covered by a white sheet. Close by on the right, are the tombs of Azam Shah, his wife and daughter. A small marble enclosure, to the cast of Aurangzeb's tomb, contains the remains of Azam Shah and his wife. Azam was Aurangzeb's second son. Close by is another grave, said to be that of daughter of a Muhammedan saint; the marble screen contains each 6 feet in height. The sides and corners are surmounted by small minarets of marble. Marble is employed to pave the interior too and Azam Shah's grave has a small marble headstone ornamented with carved floral designs. Midway between these tombs and that of Aurangzeb, is the mausoleum of Sayyed Zain ud din, a Muhammedan saint revered by the Muslims.
On the east side it contains a number of verses inscribed from the Quran and the date of the saint’s death, 771 H.. Sheikh Zain-ud-din came to Delhi by way of Mecca, he accompanied him to Daulatabad. He held the office of the Kazi at Daulatabad and in