Alan is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
Bagnères-de-Luchon referred to as Luchon, is a French commune and spa town in the Haute-Garonne department in the Occitanie region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Luchonnaises; the commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Bagnères-de-Luchon is located on the Spanish border some 50 km south-west of Saint-Gaudens and 40 km south of Montréjeau at the end of a branch line of the Southern railway at the foot of the central Pyrenees. To the south the Luchonnais Mountains form a natural barrier and there is no crossing point into Spain. Access to the commune is by the D125 road from Salles-et-Pratviel in the north which passes through the town and continues south through the commune to its termination in the mountains; the D618A branches off the D125 south of the town and goes east to Saint-Mamet continuing through the Val d'Aran and the Col du Portillon to the Spanish border.
The D618 goes west from the town to Saint-Aventin. The D46 goes north-east to Sode; the D125C goes north by north-west to Moustajon. The town is located in a valley at the confluence of the L'One river from the west and the Pique river from the south. Numerous streams flow into these rivers including the Ruisseau de Sahage into L'One, the Ruisseau de Bagnartigue, the Ruisseau de Jean, the Lys, the Ruisseau des Barguieres, the Ruisseau de Laus d'Esbas, the Ruisseau de Garante, the Ruisseau de Sajust, the Ruisseau de Layrous, the Ruisseau de Roumingau, the Ruisseau du Port de Venasque all flowing into the Pique; the Ruisseau de Bouneu forms much of the western border of the commune as it flows north to join the Lys. There are several high mountain lakes in the south of the commune which feed the Pique including the Boums de Port and the Etang de la Freche; the Gare de Luchon railway station is the SNCF terminal station for the Montréjeau to Gourdan-Polignan and Luchon line that connects to Toulouse via Montréjeau.
On weekends, a night train connects Bagneres-de-Luchon directly to Paris. The Montréjeau to Bagnères-de-Luchon train line was suspended in 2014; the connection is now made by bus. A Gondola lift since 1993 has connected Bagneres-de-Luchon to Superbagnères, it replaced the Chemin de fer de Luchon à Superbagnères rack railway which operated from 1912 to 1966. There is a small public aerodrome in the commune just east of the town where the Aeroclub de Luchon is based; the commune is located on a slope. Winter temperatures range from −10 to 10 degrees Celsius and summer temperatures range from 10 to 35 degrees Celsius; the northerly wind brings more anticyclonic conditions and south-west or north-west winds are often a harbinger of a disturbance. Sometimes the north and south winds are reversed causing storms on the valley which are sometimes strong with hail due to the moist air in the south and dry air in the north; the name Bagneres-de-Luchon comes in the other part from a local god. After some confusion the Académie Julien Sacaze confirmed that Lixon is the correct Roman name for Luchon and not Ilixon.
The town has existed for more than 2,000 years. The presence of a population has been attested since Neolithic times at least in the Saint-Mamet Cave; the presence of Stone circles attests to an ancient occupation. In 76 BC Pompey, returning from a policing expedition in Spain, stopped in the area and founded the new city of Lugdunum Convenarum where he brought together the scattered Convènes tribe: this was the future Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges. One of his soldiers who suffered from a skin disease immersed himself in the thermal waters of Luchon and its "Onésiens" baths where he discovered their thermal properties. After 21 days he came out healed. In 25 BC Tiberius Claude developed thermal baths; the baths had a modest motto: "Balneum Lixonense post Neapolitense primum", still today the motto of the town. Julius Caesar spoke of the region his "Commentaries"; the invasions of the Goths and Visigoths passed through the region as well as the incursions of the Moors. People took refuge in the high valleys of Oueil.
Traces of these invasions remain in some local legends. Charlemagne and Gaston Phoebus gave the area a special status of a border March with a certain amount of autonomy between France and Spain; the area was untouched by the Hundred Years' War, as well as by the suppression of Catharism and the Protestant Reformation. People remained loyal to a'modified' Catholicism, which it took the bishops of Saint-Béat centuries to rein in, they extorted payment for funeral Masses in the form of well-watered meals, they were loyal to the interests of their house of origin, rather than to Rome. In 987 the village of "Banières" and its thermal baths around its church was described as quite successful. At Toussaint there was a major fair which did not have, the fame of that of Saint-Béat, which benefited more from trade with Spain. Around 1200 the hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem installed a commandery at Frontés, between Montauban and Juzet-de-Luchon; the goal was to control the passage to the mountain, a secondary road on the Camino de Santiago, to organize hospices for pilgrims and merchants who risked their lives in winter.
Central European Time
Central European Time, used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00; the same standard time, UTC+01:00, is known as Middle European Time and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time, Paris Time or Rome Time. The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones; as of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time. A number of African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time, although Algeria and Tunisia use the term Central European Time. Central European Time is used in Albania, Austria, Belgium and Herzegovina, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Kosovo, Luxembourg, North Macedonia, Monaco, Netherlands, Poland, San Marino, Slovakia, Spain and Switzerland. 1884 Serbia starts using CET. 1890 The areas of current Croatia and Hungary start using CET. 1891 The areas of current Czech Republic start using CET. 1 April 1893 The German Empire unified its time zones to use CET.
Italy, Malta use CET. The areas of current Austria start using CET. 1894 Switzerland switches from UTC+00:30 to CET Liechtenstein introduces CET. Denmark adopts CET. 1895 Norway adopts CET. 1900 Sweden adopts CET. 1904 Luxembourg introduces CET, but leaves 1918. 1914 Albania adopts CET. 1914–1918 During World War I CET was implemented in all German-occupied territories. 1920 Lithuania adopts CET. 1922 Poland adopts CET. 1940 Under German occupation:The Netherlands was switched from UTC+00:20 to CET. Belgium was switched from UTC+00:00. Luxembourg was switched from UTC+00:00. France, which had adopted Paris time on 14 March 1891 and Greenwich Mean Time on 9 March 1911, was switched to CET. Spain switched to CET. After World War II Monaco and Gibraltar implemented CET. Portugal used CET in the years 1966–1976 and 1992–1996. United KingdomThe time around the world is based on Universal Coordinated Time, synonymous with Greenwich Mean Time. From late March to late October, clocks in the United Kingdom are put forward by one hour for British Summer Time.
Since 1997, most of the European Union aligned with the British standards for BST. In 1968 there was a three-year experiment called British Standard Time, when the UK and Ireland experimentally employed British Summer Time all year round. Central European Time is sometimes referred to as continental time in the UK. Several African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it called West Africa Time, although Algeria and Tunisia use the term Central European Time, despite being located in North Africa. Between 2005 and 2008, Tunisia observed daylight saving time. Libya used CET during the years 1951–1959, 1982–1989, 1996–1997 and 2012–2013. For other countries see West Africa Time. Legal and economic, as well as physical or geographical criteria are used in the drawing of time zones so official time zones adhere to meridian lines; the CET time zone, were it drawn by purely geographical terms, would consist of the area between meridians 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E. As a result, there are European locales that despite lying in an area with a "physical" UTC+01:00 time use another time zone.
Conversely, there are European areas that have gone for UTC+01:00 though their "physical" time zone is UTC, UTC−01:00, or UTC+02:00. On the other hand, the people in Spain still have all work and meal hours one hour than France and Germany if they have the same time zone. Following is a list of such "incongruences": Historically Gibraltar maintained UTC+01:00 all year until the opening of the land frontier with Spain in 1982 when it followed its neighbour and introduced CEST; these areas are located between 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E The westernmost part of Greece, including the cities of Patras and the island of Corfu The westernmost parts of the Bulgarian provinces of Vidin and Kyustendil The westernmost part of Romania, including most of the area of the counties of Caraș-Severin, Timiș, Bihor, as well as the westernmost tips of the counties of Mehedinți and Satu Mare The westernmost tip of Ukraine, near the border with Hungary and Slovakia, at the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast comprising the city of Uzhhorod and its environs..
Western Lithuania, including the cities of Klaipėda, Tauragė, Telšiai Western Latvia, including the cities of Liepāja and Ventspils The westernmost parts of the Estonian islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, including the capital of the Saare County, Kuressaare The southwestern coast of Finland, including the city of Turku. The Russian exclave of Kaliningr
European early modern humans
European early modern humans in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe. The term "early modern" is taken to include fossils of the Bohunician, Aurignacian, Gravettian and Magdalenian, extending throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, covering the period of 48,000 to 15,000 years ago referred to as the Cro-Magnon; the earliest sites in Europe dated 48,000 years ago are Riparo Mochi, Geissenklösterle, Isturitz The upper limit of 15,000 marks the transition to the European Mesolithic, depending on the region given in the range of 12,000 to 10,000 years ago. Use of "Cro-Magnon" is to times after the beginning of the Aurignacian proper, c. 37 to 35 ka. Genetically, EEMH form an isolated population between 37 and 14 ka, with significant Mesolithic admixture from the Near East and Caucasus beginning around 14 ka; the description as "modern" is used as contrasting with the "archaic" Neanderthals who lived within Europe from 400,000 to 37,000 years ago.
The term EEMH is equivalent to Cro-Magnon Man, or Cro-Magnons, a term derived from the Cro-Magnon rock shelter in southwestern France, where the first EEMH were found in 1868. Louis Lartet proposed Homo sapiens fossilis as the systematic name for "Cro-Magnon Man". W. K. Gregory proposed the subspecies name Homo sapiens cro-magnonensis. In literature published since the late 1990s, the term EEMH is preferred over the common name Cro-Magnon, which has no formal taxonomic status, as it refers neither to a species or subspecies nor to an archaeological phase or culture. Another known remains of EEMH can be dated to before 40,000 years ago with some certainty: those from Grotta del Cavallo in Italy, from Kents Cavern in England, have been radiocarbon dated to 45–41 ka. A number of other early fossils are dated close to or just after 40ka, including fossils found in Romania and Russia; the Siberian Ust'-Ishim man, dated to 45 ka, was not geographically found in Europe, indeed is not part of the "Western Eurasian" genetic lineage, but intermediate between the Western Eurasian and East Asian lineages.
The EEMH lineage in the European Mesolithic is known as "West European Hunter-Gatherer". These mesolithic hunter-gatherers emerge after the end of the LGM ca. 15 ka and are described as more gracile than the Upper Paleolithic Cro-Magnons. The WHG lineage survives in contemporary Europeans, albeit only as a minor contribution overwhelmed by the Neolithic and Bronze Age migrations. While anatomically modern humans may have been present in West Asia since before 250 ka, modern non-Africans descend from the main successful out of Africa expansion at around 65 ka; this movement was an offshoot of the rapid expansion within East Africa associated with mtDNA haplogroup L3. EEMH are associated with mtDNA haplogroup N widespread in Central Asia, with Y-chromosomal haplogroup IJK. AMH are estimated to have interbred with Neanderthals during about 65 to 47 ka, most in West Asia, it is this basal West Eurasian lineage. Neanderthals became extinct shortly after this time being outcompeted or killed by the advancing EEMH.
Admixture with Neanderthals appears to cease entirely after 45 ka, in spite of several millennia of continued co-existence of AMH and Neanderthals in Europe. There are two main hypotheses as to the route taken by the earliest AMH entering Europe, following the Danubian corridor or the Mediterranean coast along the Balkans. Support for either hypothesis relies on accurate dating of the earliest known fossils in the region. High-precision dating of the earliest Proto-Aurignacian sites in Europe, Riparo Mochi, Geissenklösterle, Isturitz, have yielded dates of close to 42 ka, indicating that EEMH spread throughout Western Europe rapidly. EEMH sites in Europe earlier than 37 ka are termed Proto-Aurignacian; the Aurignacian proper, the stage associated with the original Cro-Magnon find, appears to have developed within Europe. It lasts from 37 ka until about 28 ka; the Gravettian is the European culture preceding the LGM, about 28 to 22 ka, but the early Gravettian overlaps with the Aurignacian, from as early as 33 ka.
During the LGM proper, beginning about 22 ka, there are two main refugia, the Solutrean in Southwestern Europe, the Epi-Gravettian in Italy and Southeastern Europe. With advancing deglaciation, after about 17 ka, finds associated with the Magdalenian, are transitional to the mesolithic hunter-gatherer populations; the European Mesolithic is taken to begin after about 14 ka. Cro-Magnons were anatomically modern, straight limbed and tall compared to the contemporaneous Neanderthals, they are thought to have stood on average 1.66 to 1.71 m tall. They differ from modern-day humans in having a more robust physique and a larger cranial capacity; the Cro-Magnons had low skulls, with wide faces, robust mandibles, blunted chins, narrow noses, moderate to no prognathism. A distinctive trait was the rectangular eye orbits, similar to those of modern Ainu people, their vocal apparatus was like that of present-day humans and they could speak. Their brain capacity was about 1,600 cc, larger than the average for modern Europeans.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis places the early European population as sister group to the East Asian groups of the Upper Paleolithic, dating the divergence to some 50,000 years ago. Analysis of ancient DNA of EEMH and Mesolithic fossils suggests that alleles related to the light skin characteristic of mode
French Wars of Religion
The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history. Much of the conflict took place during the long regency of Queen Catherine de' Medici, widow of Henry II of France, for her minor sons, it involved a dynastic power struggle between powerful noble families in the line for succession to the French throne: the wealthy and fervently Roman Catholic ducal House of Guise and their ally Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France versus the less wealthy House of Condé, princes of the blood in the line of succession to the throne who were sympathetic to Calvinism. Foreign allies provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Habsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d'Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, her son, Henry of Navarre.
Moderates associated with the French Valois monarchy and its advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid open bloodshed. This group put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henri II and his father Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. A most notable moderate, at least was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. Catherine, however hardened her stance and, at the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, sided with the Guises; this pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom. At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, heir to the French throne, converted to Catholicism and was crowned Henry IV of France, he issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted Huguenots substantial rights and freedoms though this did not end Catholic hostility towards them or towards him, personally.
The wars of religion threatened the authority of the monarchy fragile under the rule of Catherine's three sons and the last Valois kings: Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III. This changed under the reign of their Bourbon successor Henry IV; the edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau by Louis XIV of France. Henry IV's wise governance and selection of able administrators did leave a legacy of a strong centralized government and economic prosperity that has gained him the reputation as France's best and most beloved monarch, earning him the designation "Good King Henry". Along with French Wars of Religion and Huguenot Wars, the wars have been variously described as the "Eight Wars of Religion", or the "Wars of Religion"; the exact number of wars and their respective dates are subject to continued debate by historians: some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, while the ensuing resurgence of rebellious activity leads some to believe the Peace of Alès in 1629 is the actual conclusion.
However, the agreed upon beginning of the wars is the Massacre of Wassy in 1562, the Edict of Nantes at least ended this series of conflicts. During this time, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles. Humanism, which began much earlier in Italy, arrived in France in the early sixteenth century, coinciding with the beginning of the French Protestant Reformation; the Italian revival of art and classical learning interested Francis I, who established royal professorships in Paris, equipping more people with the knowledge necessary to understand ancient literature. Francis I, had no quarrel with the established religious order and did not support reformation. Indeed, Pope Leo X, through the Concordat of Bologna increased the king's control over the French church, granting him the power of nominating the clergy and levying taxes on church property. In France, unlike in Germany, the nobles supported the policies and the status quo of their time.
The emphasis of Renaissance Humanism on ad fontes, the return to the sources, had spread from the study and reconstruction of secular Greek and Latin texts, with a view to artistic and linguistic renewal, to the reading and translation of the Church Fathers and the New Testament itself, with a view to religious renewal and reform. Humanist scholars, who approached theology from a new critical and comparative perspective, argued that exegesis of Scripture must be based on an accurate understanding of the language and grammar used in writing the Greek scriptures and later, the Hebrew Scriptures, rather than relying on the Vulgate - a Latin translation of the Bible, as in the Medieval period. In 1495 the Venetian Aldus Manutius began using the newly invented printing press to produce small, pocket editions of Greek and vernacular literature, making knowledge in all disciplines available for the first time to a wide public. Printing in mass editions allowed theological and religious ideas to be disseminated at an u