Maubourguet is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in south-western France, in the Occitanie region. Maubourguet once belonged to the County of Bigorre; the town is situated at the crossing of two major Auch-Pau and Bordeaux-Tarbes. Maubourguet is situated in the north of the Hautes-Pyrénées department, it is located on the shores of the Ardour river. The town is located 625 km southwest of the French capital, Paris, 115 km southwest of the regional capital, Toulouse and 26.2 km north-west of the prefecture of the department, Tarbes. Maubourguet borders on nine different communes. To the north: Estirac and Sombrun To the east: Auriébat and Lafitole To the south: Vic-en-Bigorre and Larreule To the west: Lahitte-Toupière Maubourguet is located south of the Aquitaine Basin, a vast sedimentary geological region of the south-west of France, close to the Pyrénées, in the valley of the Adour, before its bend towards the Atlantic; the territory of Maubourguet extends over 22.04 km². The highest point of the commune is on the hills overlooking the plain of the Adour.
The minimum altitude is at the level of the Adour. Communes of the Hautes-Pyrénées department INSEE Town website Pays du Val d'Adour website
Cadillon is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
Béarn is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wine in South West France. It is located in the area of intersection of three French departments: Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées and Gers; some vineyards in the area of the Jurançon AOC can produce red Béarn wine, some in the area of the Madiran AOC may produce a rosé Béarn. Wines made in the village of Bellocq carry the appellation Béarn-Bellocq. During the Roman colonisation, a vineyard was planted on the hillsides between Salies-de-Béarn and Bellocq village. Gaston VII de Montcada, Viscount of Béarn, built a fortress in Bellocq; this allowed for the construction of a bastide. The new inhabitants of the bastide contributed to the development of the vineyard. Crossing the vineyard on the Way of St. James, pilgrims making their way to Galicia or returning from their pilgrimage popularised Béarn wine beyond regional borders. Jeanne d'Albret, mother of Henry IV of France, here on her land appreciated Béarn wine. In the 17th Century, Béarnais protestants who exiled to Holland and England directed their wine trade to Northern Europe.
The appellation gained VDQS status in 1951, AOC in 1975. The Béarn-Bellocq AOC was created in 1991; the Béarn AOC takes its name from the former province Béarn. Béarn itself is named after the people of the Bénéharnais; the Béarn wine region is scattered over different areas. Béarn wine can be made in three geographically distinct zones; the appellation area defined for the Madiran AOC can yield Madiran wine, red wine, white Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh, rosé Béarn. The appellation area defined for the Jurançon AOC can yield white Jurançon, red and white Béarn; the third area was defined for the Béarn AOC including a precise geographic area for Béarn-Bellocq. The latter owes its name to Bellocq village, the nerve centre of the eponymous cooperative winery; this wine region occupies the gave terraces and its pre-pyrenean hills, in the Jurançon and Madiran appellation areas. The land is composed of sandy-clay soils that date back to the last Ice Age, which lie on a clay and gravel substrate dating back to the Pliocene Epoch.
The land in Béarn-Bellocq consists of the Gave de Pau terraces and gravelly hills. This soil is permeable, which allows excess water to drain, but it is limited by its mediocre fertility; the land in Jurançon consists of pudding stones and gravelly water tables, all formed by the debris of fallen rocks from the Pyrenees, carried there by the gaves. The land in Madiran consists of limestone bank molasse, nappes of pebbles, boulbènes; these are deteriorated, sedimentary rocks left from the rising Pyrenees. Temperate Oceanic climate with warm, sunny autumns; the proximity of the Pyrenees has an influence on the local climate. Rainfall varies between 1300mm in Salies-de-Béarn to 1000mm in Madiran; this amount of rainfall justifies the choice of high-draining soils. Béarn's appellation areas consist of Béarn-Bellocq, wines that cannot be labelled as Jurançon or Madiran, they cover 259 ha stretching over 74 communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 6 the Hautes-Pyrénées and 3 of the Gers. Pyrénées-Atlantiques: Abos, Arricau-Bordes, Arrosès, Aubertin, Aurions-Idernes, Baigts-de-Béarn, Bellocq, Bérenx, Bétracq, Burosse-Mendousse, Cardesse, Castagnède, Castillon, Conchez-de-Béarn, Corbère-Abères, Cuqueron, Escurès, Gan, Gelos, Haut-de-Bosdarros, L'Hôpital-d'Orion, Jurançon, Lagor, Lahourcade, Lasserre, Lasseubetat, Lespielle-Germenaud-Lannegrasse, Lucq-de-Béarn, Mascaraàs-Haron, Mazères-Lezons, Moncla, Monpezat, Mont-Disse, Narcastet, Ogenne-Camptort, Oraàs, Parbayse, Puyoô, Rontignon, Saint-Faust, Saint-Jean-Poudge, Sainte-Suzanne, Salies-de-Béarn, Salles-Mongiscard, Sauvelade, Séméacq-Blachon, Tadousse-Ussau, Taron-Sadirac-Viellenave, Vialer, Vielleségure Hautes-Pyrénées Castelnau-Rivière-Basse, Lascazères, Saint-Lanne et Soublecause.
Gers Cannet, Maumusson-Laguian, Viella. Since 1991, the Béarn-Bellocq AOC has been given to wines grown in Bellocq, Lahontan and Salies-de-Béarn. Six red varieties are used: Cabernet Franc N, Cabernet Sauvignon, Fer, Manseng Noir and Courbu Noir. According to Guy Lavignac this region had its own grape varieties for centuries: Bouchy, Manseng Noir and others not included in its appellation. In the 18th Century, the Tannat variety was introduced, it was a hybrid of Côt and Pyrenean grapes. While the region's vineyards were being restored after a Phylloxera breakout, Cabernet Sauvignon was imported from Bordeaux; the Courbu and Manseng Noir grape varieties are today nothing more than relics of the past. So, they continue to be grown in a grape conservation; the conservation grows seven white grape varieties: Raffiat de Moncade, Petit Manseng, Gros Manseng, Sauvignon, Camaralet de Lasseube and Lauzet. These varieties are again old, differ from one another. Raffiat de Moncade is grown outside of Bellocq, where it is grown only in private collections.
The Petit and Gros Manseng varieties were rediscovered in the 1960s and 1970s, today are still planted a lot, all across Gascogne. The Pinenc and Camaralet varieties from the Lasseube commune are grown in small quantities, having been replaced by Sauvignon Blanc. Vines are grown en hautain, a regional method in which they are grown around trees
Aydie is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. Aydie is located 15 km east of Garlin; the northern border of the commune is the departmental border between Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Gers and the eastern border is the border with Hautes-Pyrénées. Access to the commune is by the D292 road from Aubous to Arrosès which passes south through the west of the commune; the D317 branches off the D205 west of the commune and goes east through the commune to the village continues east, changing to the D548 at the border, to join the D48. The commune is farmland with scattered forests in the west; the Sager river forms the eastern border of the commune as it flows north to join the Adour at Saint-Mont. Several streams rise in the west of the commune and flow east to join the Sager including the Boutigué which forms part of the northern border of the commune; the commune name in béarnais is Aidia. Michel Grosclaude said that the name has a common root with Aydius but the origin and meaning of the name remains obscure.
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Census: Census of Béarn Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Establishments: Register of Establishments of Béarn Paul Raymond noted on page 18 of his 1863 dictionary that in 1395 Aydie had 25 fires and Poey had 6 fires with both of them under the bailiwick of Lembeye. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of five inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of the Canton of Garlin; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the appellation d'origine contrôlée zones of Madiran, Pacherenc-du-vic-bilh, Béarn.
The commune has many sites that are registered as historical monuments: The commune has three religious sites that are registered as historical monuments: A Monumental Cross at Mondain A Presbytery called House of little red pots The Parish Church of Saint John the Baptist. The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: A Statue: Virgin and Child An Altar and Altar Cross 6 Altar Candlesticks A Lighting Arm A Painting: Christ on the Cross with Saint John, the Virgin, Madeleine A Retable 6 Statuettes: Angel adoring, Saint Peter, Saint John, Saint Paul, Saint Luke A Tabernacle An Altar with Altar seating An Altar, Altar seating, Retable, Lighting Arm, 6 candlesticks A Monstrance A Pill-box A Chalice with Paten 2 Paintings: Baptism of Christ and Preaching in the Desert A Sideboard A Baptismal font Joseph Peyré, born in 1892 at Aydie and died in 1968 at Cannes, was a French writer, he won the Prix Goncourt in 1935 for his book Lumières. He evoked his native village under the pseudonym of Saint-Jean-des-Vignes.
Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Aydie on Lion1906 Aydie on the 1750 Cassini Map Aydie on the INSEE website INSEE
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Madiran wine is produced around the village of Madiran in Gascony under two Appellations d'Origine Contrôlées: Madiran for red wines and Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh and Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh Sec for white wines. The production area for Madiran wine is spread over three départments – Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées and Pyrénées-Atlantiques – and is a part of the South West France wine region. There are 1,300 hectares of Madiran vineyards. Madiran was created as an AOC in 1948, only red wine can be produced under this appellation; the main grape variety in Madiran AOC is Tannat. Permitted as supplemental to Tannat are Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Fer; some of the appellation's top wines are in fact made from 100% Tannat. The wine is very concentrated, high in tannin and traditionally requires several years aging to be at its best; the style of good Madiran is not unlike that of high-end Cabernet Sauvignon-dominated Bordeaux wines. However some of the younger generation of winemakers have been experimenting with, producing, wines which are softer and more approachable in their youth, mirroring a similar tendency in Bordeaux and elsewhere.
The modern technique of introducing minute amounts of oxygen into the wine, micro-oxygenation or micro-bullage, was developed here by Patrick Ducournau at Château Aydie and is a significant development in modern French winemaking. Some of the leading producers are Alain Brumont, the proprietor of Château Bouscassé and Château Montus, Didier Barre of Domaine Berthoumieu and Alain Bortolussi at Château Viella; the area produces sweet and dry white wine and sparkling wine under the two appellations Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh and Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh Sec, which cover the same area as Madiran AOC. The main grape varieties for the dry wine are Courbu and Petit Manseng, which together must make up at least 60%, neither of which may exceed 80%. Accessory grape varieties are Arrufiac, Gros Manseng and Sauvignon blanc, with Sauvignon blanc being limited to a maximum of 10%; the proportions of grape varieties allowed have been modified in recent years, with the most recent changes being implemented in 2005.
A certain proportion of Arrufiac was prescribed, Sémillon was allowed. Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh Sec, which are dry white wines, must be made from grapes with a minimum potential alcohol level of 11%, contain no more than 3 grams per liter of residual sugar. Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh, without the "Sec" designation, is reserved for semi-sweet and sweet wines and must be made from manually harvested grapes with a minimum potential alcohol level of 12%, contain a minimum of 35 grams per liter of residual sugar. High-end sweet Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh wines are made from dried grapes