The New Woman was a feminist ideal that emerged in the late nineteenth century and had a profound influence on feminism well into the twentieth century. The term "New Woman" was coined by writer Charles Reade in his novel "A Woman Hater" published serially in Blackwood's Magazine and in three volumes in 1877. Of particular interest in the context are Chapters XIV and XV in volume two, which made the case for the equal treatment of women and arguably sparked off the whole Women's Movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century. In 1894, Irish writer Sarah Grand used the term "new woman" in an influential article, to refer to independent women seeking radical change, in response the English writer'Ouida' used the term as the title of a follow-up article; the term was further popularized by British-American writer Henry James, who used it to describe the growth in the number of feminist, independent career women in Europe and the United States. Independence was not a matter of the mind: it involved physical changes in activity and dress, as activities such as bicycling expanded women's ability to engage with a broader more active world.
The New Woman pushed the limits set by a male-dominated society as modeled in the plays of Norwegian Henrik Ibsen. Writer Henry James was among the authors who popularized the term "New Woman", a figure, represented in the heroines of his novels—among them the title character of the novella Daisy Miller, Isabel Archer in Portrait of a Lady. According to historian Ruth Bordin, the term New Woman was intended by to characterize American expatriates living in Europe: women of affluence and sensitivity, who despite or because of their wealth exhibited an independent spirit and were accustomed to acting on their own; the term New Woman always referred to women who exercised control over their own lives be it personal, social, or economic. The "New Woman" was a nickname given to Ella Hepworth Dixon, the English author of the novel The Story of a Modern Woman. Although the New Woman was becoming a more active participant in life as a member of society and the workforce, she was most depicted exerting her autonomy in the domestic and private spheres in literature and other artistic representations.
The 19th-century suffragette movement to gain women's democratic rights was the most significant influence on the New Woman. Education and employment opportunities for women were increasing as western countries became more urban and industrialized; the "pink-collar" workforce gave women a foothold in institutional sphere. In 1870, women in the professions comprised only 6.4 percent of the United States' non-agricultural workforce. More women were winning the right to attend college; some were obtaining a professional education and becoming lawyers, doctors and professors at prestigious all-female colleges such as the Seven Sisters schools: Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Smith and Wellesley. The New Woman in the United States was participating in post-secondary education in larger numbers by the turn of the 20th century. Alice Freeman Palmer became Wellesley's first woman president in 1881, while Mount Holyoke had elected female leadership since its founding in 1837. Autonomy was a radical goal for women at the end of the 19th century.
It was a truism that women were always and economically dependent on their husband, male relatives, or social and charitable institutions. The emergence of education and career opportunities for women in the late 19th century, as well as new legal rights to property, meant that they stepped into a new position of freedom and choice when it came to marital and sexual partners; the New Woman placed great importance on her sexual autonomy, but, difficult to put into practice as society still voiced loud disapproval of any sign of female licentiousness. For women in the Victorian era, any sexual activity outside of marriage was judged to be immoral. Divorce law changes during the late 19th century gave rise to a New Woman who could survive a divorce with her economic independence intact, an increasing number of divorced women remarried. Maintaining social respectability while exercising legal rights still judged to be immoral by many was a challenge for the New Woman: Mary Heaton Vorse put her compromise this way: "I am trying for nothing so hard in my own personal life as how not to be respectable when married."
It was clear in the novels of Henry James that however free his heroines felt to exercise their intellectual and sexual autonomy, they paid a price for their choices. Some admirers of the New Woman trend found freedom to engage in lesbian relationships through their networking in women's groups, it has been said that for some of them, "loving other women became a way to escape what they saw as the probabilities of male domination inherent in a heterosexual relationship". For others, it may have been the case that economic independence meant that they were not answerable to a guardian for their sexual or other relationship choices, they exercised that new freedom; the New Woman was a result of the growing respectability of postsecondary education and employment for women who belonged to the privileged upper classes of society. University education itself was still a badge of affluence for men at the turn of the 20th century, fewer than 10 percent of people in the United States had a postsecondary education during the era.
The women entering universities belonged to the white middle class. Consequentially, the working class, people o
Emma Lampert Cooper
Emma Lampert Cooper was a painter from Rochester, New York, described as "a painter of exceptional ability". She studied in New York. Cooper taught art and was an art director, she met her husband, Colin Campbell Cooper in the Netherlands and the two traveled and exhibited their works together. Emma Esther Lampert was born in New York on February 24, 1855, to Henry and Jenette Lampert; that year her father – born in Hanover, Germany – was a tanner and two other German tanners and a servant were living in the house with the family. Emma had an older sister name Mary, younger sisters Carrie and Adella, a younger brother named Henry; the family lived in Rochester, New York and her father was a leather wholesaler by 1870. Her father registered for the draft for the American Civil War in June 1863, he died June 10, 1880. She graduated from Wells College in Aurora, New York, in 1875. Cooper was a founding member of the Eastern Association of Wells College alumni. In 1877, the Rochester Art Club was formed, Cooper was its first vice president, marking the beginning of a long relationship with the Club.
She held the positions of vice president and president and was a member until 1895. From 1870 to 1886 Cooper had a studio in the historic Powers Building in New York. Within Rochester, she had a "notable influence" on the city's art community, she returned to New York City to study at the Art Students League and Cooper Union, she studied under William Merritt Chase. Cooper studied in Paris at the Académie Delécluse for 18 months in the mid-1880s and under Hein Kever in the Netherlands in 1891. From 1891 to 1893 Cooper taught painting and was the art director at the Foster School in Clifton Springs, New York, open between 1876 and 1885. From 1893 through 1897, Cooper taught at the Mechanics Institute, now the Rochester Institute of Technology. In 1897, while working and living in Dordrecht, she met painter Colin Campbell Cooper, they married on June 1897 in Rochester, New York. The couple traveled abroad between 1898 and 1902, living in the Laren artist colony in the Netherlands for one year, they lived in New York City, traveled extensively, to Europe and her hometown, Rochester.
They were in India in 1913, reputedly both having been commissioned by a patroness from the United States to make paintings. The works from that trip were exhibited in Rochester, New York in 1915; because of her work in the United States and abroad, she was considered knowledgeable of the international art community. Her subjects were still lifes and landscapes from her travels, she traveled to Paris. In 1887 she exhibited Hillside at Picardy at the Paris Salon. For her painting Breadwinner, Cooper was given an award at the Chicago's World's Fair in 1893 and the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta in 1895. Cooper was awarded a gold medal at the 1902 American Art Society exhibition in Philadelphia, she exhibited oil and watercolor paintings at the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904 and won a bronze medal for a Weaving Homespun and another bronze medal, her works were exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Cooper's paintings were exhibited with her husband' in shows in Rochester, New York and Philadelphia, Buffalo between 1902 and 1910.
In 1915 she showed paintings of India alongside works by Alice Schille, Adelaide Deming and Helen Watson Phelps in New York. Cooper became an artist during the 19th century when there was a significant number of women who became successful, educated artists, a rarity before that time, except for a few like Angelica Kauffman and Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun; the emerging women artists created works with a different perspective than men, challenged the limited concepts of femininity and created a genre of floral-female landscape paintings, in which "the artist placed one woman or more in a flower garden setting and manipulated composition, color and form to make the women look as much like flowers as possible." These artists were among the educated, sophisticated "New Women" beginning in the late 19th century, whose influence was ignored by art scholars. Cooper was one of the well-educated artists who became a successful landscape painter and academic figure who began as a children's book illustrator and painter of miniatures and flower paintings.
Realizing the difficulty in making the transition to a successful painter of landscape and figure paintings, Cooper warned other women artists of the difficulty in creating a successful career in such works. She, was able to overcome the obstacles and become a successful landscape artist. Cooper was a member of the Women's International Art Club in London, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the Women's Art Association of Canada. In New York, she was a member of Woman's Art Club, National Arts Club, the New York Watercolor Club, she was a charter member of the Philadelphia Water Color Club. Cooper's paintings are held in private and public collections, including the Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester; the couple was among the first class passengers on the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia en route from New York to Gibraltar in April 1912, when it picked up the survivors of the RMS Titanic. They aided in the rescue of survivors and shared their room and took care of survivor Irene Harris, the wife of theatre manager Henry B.
Harris, who had perished in t
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Mary Stevenson Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker. She was born in Allegheny City, but lived much of her adult life in France, where she first befriended Edgar Degas and exhibited among the Impressionists. Cassatt created images of the social and private lives of women, with particular emphasis on the intimate bonds between mothers and children, she was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Berthe Morisot. Cassatt was born in Allegheny City, now part of Pittsburgh, she was born into an upper-middle-class family: Her father, Robert Simpson Cassat, was a successful stockbroker and land speculator. He was descended from French Huguenot Jacques Cossart, who came to New Amsterdam in 1662, her mother, Katherine Kelso Johnston, came from a banking family. Katherine Cassatt and well-read, had a profound influence on her daughter. To that effect, Cassatt's lifelong friend Louisine Havemeyer wrote in her memoirs: "Anyone who had the privilege of knowing Mary Cassatt's mother would know at once that it was from her and her alone that inherited her ability."
The ancestral name had been Cossart. A distant cousin of artist Robert Henri, Cassatt was one of seven children, of whom two died in infancy. One brother, Alexander Johnston Cassatt became president of the Pennsylvania Railroad; the family moved eastward, first to Lancaster, Pennsylvania to the Philadelphia area, where she started her schooling at the age of six. Cassatt grew up in an environment. While abroad she learned German and French and had her first lessons in drawing and music, it is that her first exposure to French artists Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Eugène Delacroix, Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet was at the Paris World's Fair of 1855. In the exhibition were Edgar Degas and Camille Pissarro, both of whom were her colleagues and mentors. Though her family objected to her becoming a professional artist, Cassatt began studying painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia at the early age of 15. Part of her parents' concern may have been Cassatt's exposure to feminist ideas and the bohemian behavior of some of the male students.
As such and her network of friends were lifelong advocates of equal rights for the sexes. Although about 20 percent of the students were female, most viewed art as a valuable skill, she continued her studies from 1861 through the duration of the American Civil War. Among her fellow students was Thomas Eakins the controversial director of the Academy. Impatient with the slow pace of instruction and the patronizing attitude of the male students and teachers, she decided to study the old masters on her own, she said, "There was no teaching" at the Academy. Female students could not use live models, until somewhat and the principal training was drawing from casts. Cassatt decided to end her studies: At that time, no degree was granted. After overcoming her father's objections, she moved to Paris in 1866, with her mother and family friends acting as chaperones. Since women could not yet attend the École des Beaux-Arts, Cassatt applied to study with masters from the school and was accepted to study with Jean-Léon Gérôme, a regarded teacher known for his hyper-realistic technique and his depiction of exotic subjects.
Cassatt augmented her artistic training with daily copying in the Louvre, obtaining the required permit, necessary to control the "copyists," low-paid women, who daily filled the museum to paint copies for sale. The museum served as a social place for Frenchmen and American female students, like Cassatt, were not allowed to attend cafes where the avant-garde socialized. In this manner, fellow artist and friend Elizabeth Jane Gardner met and married famed academic painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Toward the end of 1866, she joined a painting class taught by a noted genre artist. In 1868, Cassatt studied with artist Thomas Couture, whose subjects were romantic and urban. On trips to the countryside, the students drew from life the peasants going about their daily activities. In 1868 one of her paintings, A Mandoline Player, was accepted for the first time by the selection jury for the Paris Salon. With Elizabeth Jane Gardner, whose work was accepted by the jury that year, Cassatt was one of two American women to first exhibit in the Salon.
A Mandoline Player is in the Romantic style of Corot and Couture, is one of only two paintings from the first decade of her career, documented today. The French art scene was in a process of change, as radical artists such as Courbet and Manet tried to break away from accepted Academic tradition and the Impressionists were in their formative years. Cassatt's friend Eliza Haldeman wrote home that artists "are leaving the Academy style and each seeking a new way just now everything is Chaos." Cassatt, on the other hand, continued to work in the traditional manner, submitting works to the Salon for over ten years, with increasing frustration. Returning to the United States in the late summer of 1870—as the Franco-Prussian War was starting—Cassatt lived with her family in Altoona, her father continued to resist her chosen vocation, paid for her basic needs, but not her art supplies. Cassatt placed two
The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income upon their earnings from wage labour. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production; as with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and many socialists, is that the working class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labour power and skills. In that sense it includes both white and blue-collar workers and mental workers of all types, excluding only individuals who derive their income from business ownership and the labour of others.
When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labour when compensated with an hourly wage. For certain types of science, as well as less scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example, the working class is loosely defined as those without college degrees. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups: unskilled labourers, artisans and factory workers. A common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels; when this approach is used, the working class can be contrasted with a so-called middle class on the basis of differential terms of access to economic resources, cultural interests, other goods and services. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, rather than sustenance; some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers. In feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the labouring class, a group made up of different professions and occupations. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the same social unit, a third estate of people who were neither aristocrats nor church officials. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies; the social position of these labouring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested by peasants, for example during the German Peasants' War. In the late 18th century, under the influence of the Enlightenment, European society was in a state of change, this change could not be reconciled with the idea of a changeless god-created social order. Wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics.
In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern labouring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class. Starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class; some historians have noted that a key change in these Soviet-style societies has been a massive a new type of proletarianization effected by the administratively achieved forced displacement of peasants and rural workers. Since four major industrial states have turned towards semi-market-based governance, one state has turned inwards into an increasing cycle of poverty and brutalization. Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes. Since 1960, large-scale proletarianization and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes.
Additionally, countries such as India have been undergoing social change, expanding the size of the urban working class. Karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production, he argued. He asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, nurse children, but do not own land, or factories. A sub-section of the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat, are the poor and unemployed, such as day labourers and homeless people. Marx considered them to be devoid of class consciousness. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationshi
John Ruskin was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects as varied as geology, myth, literature, education and political economy, his writing styles and literary forms were varied. He penned essays and treatises and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and a fairy tale, he made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, birds and architectural structures and ornamentation. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art gave way in time to plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. In all of his writing, he emphasised the connections between nature and society, he was hugely influential in the latter half of the 19th century and up to the First World War. After a period of relative decline, his reputation has improved since the 1960s with the publication of numerous academic studies of his work. Today, his ideas and concerns are recognised as having anticipated interest in environmentalism and craft.
Ruskin first came to widespread attention with the first volume of Modern Painters, an extended essay in defence of the work of J. M. W. Turner in which he argued that the principal role of the artist is "truth to nature." From the 1850s, he championed the Pre-Raphaelites. His work focused on social and political issues. Unto This Last marked the shift in emphasis. In 1869, Ruskin became the first Slade Professor of Fine Art at the University of Oxford, where he established the Ruskin School of Drawing. In 1871, he began his monthly "letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain", published under the title Fors Clavigera. In the course of this complex and personal work, he developed the principles underlying his ideal society; as a result, he founded the Guild of an organisation that endures today. Ruskin was the only child of first cousins, his father, John James Ruskin, was a sherry and wine importer, founding partner and de facto business manager of Ruskin and Domecq. John James was born and brought up in Edinburgh, Scotland, to a mother from Glenluce and a father from Hertfordshire.
His wife, Margaret Cock, was the daughter of a publican in Croydon. She had joined the Ruskin household when she became companion to Catherine. John James had hoped to practice law, was articled as a clerk in London, his father, John Thomas Ruskin, described as a grocer, was an incompetent businessman. To save the family from bankruptcy, John James, whose prudence and success were in stark contrast to his father, took on all debts, settling the last of them in 1832. John James and Margaret were engaged in 1809, but opposition to the union from John Thomas, the problem of his debts, delayed the couple's wedding, they married, without celebration, in 1818. John James died on 3 March 1864 and is buried in the churchyard of St John the Evangelist, Croydon. Ruskin was born on 8 February 1819 at 54 Hunter Street, Brunswick Square, south of St Pancras railway station, his childhood was shaped by the contrasting influences of his father and mother, both of whom were fiercely ambitious for him. John James Ruskin helped to develop his son's Romanticism.
They shared a passion for the works of Byron and Walter Scott. They visited Scott's home, Abbotsford, in 1838. Margaret Ruskin, an Evangelical Christian, more cautious and restrained than her husband, taught young John to read the Bible from beginning to end, to start all over again, committing large portions to memory, its language and parables had a profound and lasting effect on his writing. Ruskin's childhood was spent from 1823 at 28 Herne Hill, near the village of Camberwell in South London, he had few friends of his own age, but it was not the friendless and toyless experience he claimed it was in his autobiography, Praeterita. He was educated at home by his parents and private tutors, from 1834 to 1835 he attended the school in Peckham run by the progressive Evangelical, Thomas Dale. Ruskin heard Dale lecture in 1836 at King's College, where Dale was the first Professor of English Literature. Ruskin went on to enroll and complete his studies at King's College, where he prepared for Oxford under Dale's tutelage.
Ruskin was influenced by the extensive and privileged travels he enjoyed in his childhood. It augmented his education, he sometimes accompanied his father on visits to business clients at their country houses, exposing him to English landscapes and paintings. Family tours took them to relatives in Perth, Scotland; as early as 1825, the family visited Belgium. Their continental tours became ambitious in scope, so that in 1833 they visited Strasbourg, Milan and Turin, places to which Ruskin returned, he developed his lifelong love of the Alps, in 1835 he first visited Venice, that'Paradise of cities' that provided the subject and symbolism of much of his work. The tours provided Ruskin with the opportunity to record his impressions of nature, he composed elegant if conventional poetry, some of, published in Friendship's Offering. His early notebooks
First-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity and thought that occurred during the 19th and early 20th century throughout the Western world. It focused on legal issues on gaining the right to vote; the term first-wave was coined in March 1968 by Martha Lear writing in The New York Times Magazine, who at the same time used the term "second-wave feminism". At that time, the women's movement was focused on de facto inequalities, which it wished to distinguish from the objectives of the earlier feminists. According to Miriam Schneir, Simone de Beauvoir wrote that the first woman to "take up her pen in defense of her sex" was Christine de Pizan in the 15th century. Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa and Modesta di Pozzo di Forzi worked in the 16th century. Marie le Jars de Gournay, Anne Bradstreet and François Poullain de la Barre's Equality of sexes came out in 1673; the period in which Mary Wollstonecraft wrote was affected by Rousseau and the philosophy of the Enlightenment. The father of the Enlightenment defined an ideal democratic society, based on the equality of men, where women were discriminated against.
The inherent exclusion of women from discussion was addressed by both Wollstonecraft, her contemporaries. Wollstonecraft based her work on the ideas of Rousseau. Although at first it seems to be contradictory, Wollstonecraft's idea was to expand Rousseau's democratic society but based on gender equality. Wollstonecraft published one of the first feminist treatises, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, in which she advocated the social and moral equality of the sexes, extending the work of her 1790 pamphlet, A Vindication of the Rights of Men, her unfinished novel, Maria, or the Wrongs of Woman, earned her considerable criticism as she discussed women's sexual desires. She died young, her widower, the philosopher William Godwin wrote a memoir of her that, contrary to his intentions, destroyed her reputation for generations. Wollstonecraft is regarded as the "fore-mother" of the British feminist movement and her ideas shaped the thinking of the suffragettes, who campaigned for the women's vote.
Early Feminism was directly correlated with the abolitionist movements and as a result many famous feminists and activists began to have their voices heard. Some of these early activists include, Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Blackwell, Jane Addams, Dorothy Day; the first wave of feminism was led by white women in the middle class, it was not until the second wave of feminism that women of color began developing a voice. The term Feminism was created like a political illustrated ideology at that period. Feminism emerged by the speech about the reform and correction of democracy based on equalitarian conditions; the first wave of Australian feminism, which dates back to the late 19th century, was chiefly concerned with suffrage and with women's access to parliaments and other political activities. In 1882, Rose Scott, a women's rights activist, began to hold a weekly salon meetings in her Sydney home left to her by her late mother. Through these meetings, she became well known amongst politicians, philanthropists and poets.
In 1889, she helped to found the Women's Literary Society, which grew into the Womanhood Suffrage League in 1891. Leading politicians hosted by Scott included Bernhard Ringrose Wise, William Holman, William Morris Hughes and Thomas Bavin, who met and discussed the drafting of the bill that became the Early Closing Act of 1899; the first women's movement was led by the Dansk Kvindesamfund, founded in 1871. Line Luplau was one of the most notable woman in this era. Tagea Brandt was part of this movement, in her honor was established the Tagea Brandt Rejselegat or Travel Scholarship for women; the Dansk Kvindesamfund's efforts as a leading group of women for women led to the existence of the revised Danish constitution of 1915, giving women the right to vote and the provision of equal opportunity laws during the 1920s, which influenced the present-day legislative measures to grant women access to education, marital rights and other obligations. Early New Zealand feminists and suffragettes included Maud Pember Reeves, Kate Sheppard and Mary Ann Müller.
In 1893, Elizabeth Yates became Mayor of Onehunga, the first time such a post had been held by a female anywhere in the British Empire. Early university graduates were Ethel Benjamin; the Female Law Practitioners Act was passed in 1896 and Benjamin was admitted as a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court of New Zealand in 1897. Although in the Netherlands during the Age of Enlightenment the idea of the equality of women and men made progress, no practical institutional measures or legislation resulted. In the second half of the nineteenth century many initiatives by feminists sprung up in The Netherlands. Aletta Jacobs requested and obtained as the first woman in the Netherlands the right to study at university in 1871, becoming the first female medical doctor and academic, she became a lifelong campaigner for women's suffrage, equal rights, birth control, international peace, travelling worldwide for, e.g. the International Alliance of Women. Wilhelmina Drucker was a politician, a prolific writer and a peace activist, who fought for the vote and equal rights through political and feminist organisations she founded.
In 1917–1919 her goal of women's suffrage was reached. Cornelia Ramondt-Hirschmann, President of the Dutch Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Selma Meyer, Secretary of the Dutch Women's Internat