The Aedui, Haedui, or Hedui were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar and Liger, in today's France. Their territory thus included the greater part of the modern departments of Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or and Nièvre; the country of the Aedui is defined by reports of them in ancient writings. The upper Loire formed their western border; the Saône formed their eastern border. The Sequani did not reside in the region of the confluence of the Doubs into the Saône and of the latter into the Rhône, as Caesar says that the Helvetii, following the pass between the Jura Mountains and the Rhône southwards, which belonged to the Sequani, plundered the territory of the Aedui; these circumstances explain an apparent contradiction in Strabo, who in one sentence says that the Aedui lived between the Saône and the Doubs, in the next, that the Sequani lived across the Saône. Both statements are true, the first in the south, the second to the north. Outside of the Roman province and prior to Roman rule, Independent Gaul was occupied by self-governing tribes divided into cantons, each canton was further divided into communes.
The Aedui, like other powerful tribes in the region, had replaced their monarchy with a council of magistrates called grand-judges. The grand-judges were under the authority of the senate; the senate was made up of the descendants of ancient royal families. Free men in the tribes were vassals to the heads of these families in exchange for military and political interests. According to Livy, they took part in the expedition of Bellovesus into Italy in the 6th century BC. Before Julius Caesar's time, they had attached themselves to the Romans and were honoured with the title of brothers and kinsmen of the Roman people; when the Sequani, their hereditary rivals, with the assistance of a Germanic chieftain named Ariovistus and massacred the Aedui at the Battle of Magetobriga, the Aedui sent Diviciacus, the druid, to Rome to appeal to the senate for help, but his mission was unsuccessful. On his arrival in Gaul, Caesar restored their independence. In spite of this, the Aedui joined the Gallic coalition against Caesar, but after the surrender of Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia, were glad to return to their allegiance.
Augustus dismantled their native capital Bibracte on Mont Beuvray and substituted a new town with a half-Roman, half-Gaulish name, Augustodunum. In 21, during the reign of Tiberius, they revolted under Julius Sacrovir, seized Augustodunum, but they were soon put down by Gaius Silius; the Aedui were the first of the Gauls to receive from the emperor Claudius the distinction of jus honorum, thus being the first Gauls permitted to become senators. The oration of Eumenius, in which he pleaded for the restoration of the schools of his native place Augustodunum, shows that the district was neglected; the chief magistrate of the Aedui in Caesar's time was called Vergobretus, elected annually, possessed powers of life and death but was forbidden to go beyond the frontier. Certain clientes, or small communities, were dependent upon the Aedui, it is possible that the Aedui adopted many of the governmental practices of the Romans, such as electing magistrates and other officials or it was a natural development in their political system.
It is thought that other Celtic tribes, such as the Remi and the Baiocasses elected their leaders. List of peoples of Gaul Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Strabo. Geography. A. E. Desjardins, Geographie de la Gaule, ii. T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul
Gallia Belgica was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today France and Luxembourg, along with parts of the Netherlands and Germany. In 50 BC after the conquest by Julius Caesar during his Gallic Wars, it became one of the three newly conquered provinces of Gaul. An official Roman province was created by emperor Augustus in 22 BC; the province was named for the Belgae, as the largest tribal confederation in the area, but included the territories of the Treveri, Leuci, Sequani and others. The southern border of Belgica, formed by the Marne and Seine rivers, was reported by Caesar as the original cultural boundary between the Belgae and the Celtic Gauls, whom he distinguished from one another; the province was re-organised several times, first increased and decreased in size. Diocletian brought the northeastern Civitas Tungrorum into Germania Inferior, joining the Rhineland colonies, the remaining part of Gallia Belgica was divided into Belgica Prima in the eastern area of the Treveri and Leuci, around Luxembourg and the Ardennes, Belgica Secunda between the English channel and the upper River Meuse.
The capital of Belgica Prima, became an important late western Roman capital. In 57 BC, Julius Caesar led the conquest of northern Gaul, specified that the part to the north of the Seine and Marne rivers was inhabited by a people or alliance known as the Belgae; this definition became the basis of the Roman province of Belgica. Caesar said that the Belgae were separated from the Celtic Gauls to their south by "language and laws" but he did not go into detail, except to mention that he learnt from his contacts that the Belgae had some ancestry from east of the Rhine, which he referred to as Germania. Indeed, the Belgian tribes closest to the Rhine. Modern historians interpret Caesar and the archaeological evidence as indicating that the core of the Belgian alliance was in the present-day northernmost corner of France; these were the leaders of the initial military alliance he confronted, they were more economically advanced than many of their more northerly allies such as the Nervii and Germani Cisrhenani.
Apart from the southern Remi, all the Belgic tribes allied against the Romans, angry at the Roman decision to garrison legions in their territory during the winter. At the beginning of the conflict, Caesar reported the allies' combined strength at 288,000, led by the Suessione king, Galba. Due to the Belgic coalition's size and reputation for uncommon bravery, Caesar avoided meeting the combined forces of the tribes in battle. Instead, he used cavalry to skirmish with smaller contingents of tribesmen. Only when Caesar managed to isolate one of the tribes did he risk conventional battle; the tribes fell in a piecemeal fashion and Caesar claimed to offer lenient terms to the defeated, including Roman protection from the threat of surrounding tribes. Most tribes agreed to the conditions. A series of uprisings followed the 57 BC conquest; the largest revolt was led by the Bellovaci after the defeat of Vercingetorix. During this rebellion, it was the Belgae, they harassed the Roman legions, led by Caesar, with cavalry detachments and archers.
The rebellion was put down. The revolting party was slaughtered. Following a census of the region in 27 BC, Augustus ordered a restructuring of the provinces in Gaul. Therefore, in 22 BC, Marcus Agrippa split Gaul into three regions Agrippa made the divisions on what he perceived to be distinctions in language and community - Gallia Belgica was meant to be a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples; the capital of this territory was Reims, according to the geographer Strabo, though the capital moved to modern day Trier. The date of this move is uncertain. Modern historians however view the term'Gaul' and its subdivisions as a "product of faulty ethnography" and see the split of Gallia Comata into three provinces as an attempt to construct a more efficient government, as opposed to a cultural division. Successive Roman emperors struck a balance between Romanizing the people of Gallia Belgica and allowing pre-existing culture to survive; the Romans divided the province into four "civitates" corresponding to ancient tribal boundaries.
The capital cities of these districts included modern Cassel, Bavay, Thérouanne, Arras, St. Quentin, Reims, Amiens, Triers and Metz; these civitates were in turn were divided into smaller units, pagi, a term that became the French word "pays". Roman government was run by Concilia in Trier. Additionally, local notables from Gallia Belgica were required to participate in a festival in Lugdunum which celebrated or worshiped the emperor’s genius; the gradual adoption of Romanized names by local elites and the Romanization of laws under local authority demonstrate the effectiveness of this concilium Galliarum. With that said, the concept and community of Gallia Belgica did not predate the Roman pro
The Bituriges were a tribe of Celtic Gaul with its capital at Bourges, whose territory corresponds to the former province of Berry. Their name meant "kings of the world" or "kings/masters of hitting/forging/smithing". Early in the 1st century BCE, they had been one of the main Gallic tribes in terms of druids and their political influence, but they soon declined in power as the druids were an important target for Julius Caesar in his conquest of Gaul. What is more, the fact that Avaricum was the only Celtic city that Vercingetorix did not burn, contrary to his scorched earth strategy, upon the approach of Caesar's legions is another proof of the political importance of the Bituriges; the town was to be buried by the Roman legions. Besides Avaricum or Mediolanum on the road from Paris and Orléans to Arvernum, Argentomagus, Déols or Levroux on the road from Toulouse to Paris were other oppidums of the Bituriges; this is one of several tribes which seem to have split, with the Bituriges Cubi lived near Bourges/Berry and the Bituriges Vivisci near Burdigala.
They joined Bellovesus' migrations towards Italy, together with the Aedui, Arverni, Aulerci and Senones. A passage from Livy, "summa imperii penes Biturges", meaning "all the power in the hands of the Bituriges", has become the motto of the city of Bourges. List of peoples of Gaul Saint-Benoît-du-Sault
The Baiocasses were a Celtic tribe in ancient Gaul. They were a tribal division of the civitas of the Lexovii, in the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis; the Baiocasses were located east of west of the Belgic Veliocasses. The Latin name for their territory was the Pagus Baiocensis, corresponding to the area in Normandy now known as le Bessin; this is the location of the modern city of Bayeux. Their principal city was known during the late Roman Imperial era as Civitas Baiocassium, from which Bayeux derives. Earlier it had been called Augustodurum, named as were several new Gallo-Roman towns for the emperor Augustus and compounded with the Gaulish word duron, "gate" and hence "enclosed place, forum. By Merovingian times, the city was called Baiocas. In the time of William the Conqueror the name was being written as Bayeaux. Julius Caesar does not mention the Baiocasses in his commentaries on the Gallic Wars of the 50s BC, but they are listed in the Notitia dignitatum and are the same people Pliny calls Bodiocasses.
The Celtic word badios or bodios, "yellow, blond," forms several personal names found in Gaulish inscriptions. The meaning of the element -casses is less certain. Most of the coins show a Celtic-style male head with elaborated hair on the obverse, on the reverse a horse with a chariot rider above or behind, below either a lyre or small boar. A number of these are in existence; the 4th-century Bordelaise poet Ausonius teases a friend as a Baiocassis who claimed to be of druidic heritage and descended from priests of Belenus. Smith, William, ed. 1854. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. London: Walton and Maberly Hazlit, William. 1851. The Classical Gazetteer. Online version at AncientLibrary.com Gaul List of peoples of Gaul List of Celtic tribes
Gallia Aquitania known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire. It lies in present-day southwest France, it was bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, Hispania Tarraconensis. Fourteen Celtic tribes and twenty Aquitanian tribes occupied the northern parts of the Pyrenees and, from the country of the Cemmenus to the ocean, bounded by two rivers: the Garumna and the Liger; the major tribes are listed at the end of this section. There were more than twenty tribes of Aquitani; the name Gallia Comata was used to designate the three provinces of Farther Gaul, viz. Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Belgica, Aquitania meaning ‘long-haired Gaul’, as opposed to Gallia Bracata ‘trousered Gaul’, a term derived from bracae for Gallia Narbonensis. Most of the Atlantic coast of the Aquitani was thin-soiled. Along this coast was the gulf held by the Tarbelli. Large quantities of gold could be mined with a minimum of refinement; the interior and mountainous country in this region had better soil.
The Petrocorii and the Bituriges Cubi had fine ironworks. According to Strabo, the Aquitani were a wealthy people. Luerius, the King of the Arverni and the father of Bituitus who warred against Maximus Aemilianus and Dometius, is said to have been so exceptionally rich and extravagant that he once rode on a carriage through a plain, scattering gold and silver coins here and there; the Romans called the tribal groups pagi. These were organized into larger super-tribal groups; these administrative groupings were taken over by the Romans in their system of local control. Aquitania was inhabited by the following tribes: Agesinales, Anagnutes, Ausci, Basabocates, Bercorates, Bipedimui, Cambolectri, Cocossati, Cubi, Elui|, Gabales, Lemovices, Monesi, Onobrisates, Osquidiales, Petrogoti, Ruteni, Santoni, Sediboniates, Sibyllates, Succasses, Tolosanes, Vassei, Vellavii, Veneti, Vornates. Gaul as a nation was not a natural unit. In order to protect the route to Spain, Rome helped Massalia against bordering tribes.
Following this intervention, the Romans conquered what they called Provincia, or the ‘Province’ in 121 BC. Provincia extended from the Mediterranean to Lake Geneva, was known as Narbonensis with its capital at Narbo; some of the region falls into modern Provence, still recalling the Roman name. The main struggle against the Romans came against Julius Caesar under Vercingetorix at Battle of Gergovia and at the Battle of Alesia; the Gaulish commander was captured at the siege of Alesia and the war ended. Caesar seized the remainder of Gaul, justifying his conquest by playing on Roman memories of savage attacks over the Alps by Celts and Germans. Italy was now to be defended from the Rhine. Caesar named Aquitania the triangle shaped territory between the Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Garonne river, he fought and completely subdued them in 56 BC after Publius Crassus's military exploits assisted by Celtic allies. New rebellions ensued anyway up to 28-27 BC, with Agrippa gaining a great victory over the Gauls of Aquitania in 38 BC.
It was the smallest region of all three mentioned above, following that a land extension stretching to the Loire River was added by Augustus, with the council of the gaulish aristocracy. This reorganization took place after the census conducted in 27 BC, based on Agrippa's observations of language and community according to some sources. At this point, Aquitania along with Narbonensis and Belgica now made up Gallia and became an imperial province. Aquitania lay under the command of a former Praetor, hosted no legions. More so than Caesar, Strabo insists that the primeval Aquitani differ from the other Gauls not just in language and laws but in body make-up too, deeming them more close to the Iberians; the administrative boundaries set up by Augustus comprising both proper Celtic tribes and primeval Aquitani remained unaltered until Diocletian's new administrative reorganization. The Arverni warred against the Romans with as many as two to four hundred thousand men. Two hundred thousand fought against Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus and against Domitius Ahenobarbus.
The Arverni not only had extended their empire as far as Narbo and the boundaries of Massiliotis, but they were masters of the tribes as far as the Pyrenees, as far as the ocean and the Rhenus. Early Roman Gaul came to an end late in the 3rd century. External pressures exacerbated internal weaknesses, neglect of the Rhine frontier resulted in barbarian invasions and civil war. For a while Gaul, including Spain and Britain, was governed by a separate line of emperors. However, there had still been no move to gain independence. In an attempt to save the Emp
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Cahors is the capital of the Lot department in south-western France. Its site is dramatic, being contained on three sides within a U-shaped bend in the River Lot known as the presqu'île. Cahors is known as the centre of AOC'black' wine, made since the Middle Ages and exported via Bordeaux, long before that region had developed its own viniculture industry. Cahors has had a rich history since Celtic times; the original name of the town was Divona or Divona Cadurcorum, "Divona of the Cadurci," Divona was a fountain, now called "la fontaine des Chartreux", worshiped by the Cadurci, a Celtic people of Gaul before the Roman conquest in the 50s BC. The Cadurci were among the last Celtic tribes to resist the Roman invasion. Cahors derives from Cadurcorum. However, romanization was rapid and profound: Cahors became a large Roman city, with many monuments whose remnants can be seen today, it has declined economically since the Middle Ages, lost its university in the 18th century. Today it is a popular tourist centre with people coming to enjoy its mediaeval quarter and the 14th-century fortified Valentré bridge.
It is the seat of the Diocese of Cahors. It was infamous at that time for having bankers that charged interest on their loans; the church in these times said. Because of this Cahors became synonymous with this sin, was mentioned in Dante's Inferno alongside Sodom as wicked. Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or d'Euse, was born in Cahors in the son of a shoemaker. In the 2007 Tour de France, Cahors was the start of stage 18; the town is situated 115 km north of Toulouse, on the RN20 / A20, connecting the city, via Limoges to Paris and Orleans. The town's height above sea level is between 332 metres; the area of the town is 64.72 square kilometres, with population density high for France at 309 inhabitants per square kilometre. The Valentré Bridge, the symbol of the town. Building began in 1308 and was completed in 1378; the legend associated with this bridge is one of the most realized of all Devil's Bridge legends, with a developed plot, complex characters, a surprising dénouement. When the bridge was restored in 1879, the architect Paul Gout made reference to this by placing a small sculpture of the devil at the summit of one of the towers.
Cathédrale Saint-Étienne, a national monument. Saint-Barthélémy Church. Maison Henri IV or Hôtel de Roaldès. Daurade quarter with: Maison Hérétié Maison Dolive Maison du Bourreau The barbican that once defended the Barre Gate. Tour des pendus. Palais Duèze. Tower of Pope John XXII. Collège Pélegry. Cloister Arc de Diane, a relic of ancient Roman baths. Roman Amphitheatre – remains of an oval amphitheatre were revealed when the underground car park was excavated at the Place Gambetta, just west of, beneath, Boulevard Gambetta in the city centre; the stone walls can be seen in the car park first level, below the statue of Leon Gambetta, opened to the public in April 2009. The area around Cahors produces wine robust and tannic red wine. Wine from the Cahors appellation must be made from at least 70% Malbec grape, with a maximum of 30% Merlot or Tannat grape varieties; the Cahors Blues Festival has taken place annually, in July, since 1982. Pope John XXII Jules Combarieu, musicologist Communes of the Lot department INSEE commune file Official website Cahors Cathedral at Structurae