West Bromwich is a large market town and is one of the six amalgamated towns in the borough of Sandwell, West Midlands, England. Part of Staffordshire, it is 6.4 miles northwest of Birmingham. West Bromwich has a population of 78,000 in 2018. West Bromwich was first mentioned as Bromwic in the Domesday Book of 1086, it is believed that it may have been part of the Handsworth parish. A Benedictine priory existed in West Bromwich from the 12th century around which the settlement of Broomwich Heath grew. In 1727, the town became a stop on the coaching road between London and Shrewsbury and its growth began; the prefix'West' serves to distinguish it from the village of Castle Bromwich in the West Midlands but the other side of Birmingham. In the 19th century, coal deposits were discovered, ensuring that the town grew as an industrial centre, with industries such as spring and nail making developing. Well before the end of the 19th century, West Bromwich had established itself as a prominent area to match older neighbouring towns including Dudley and Walsall.
In 1888, West Bromwich became a county borough. It was expanded in 1966, acquiring most of the borough of Tipton and Wednesbury urban district as well as a small section of Coseley urban district, before joining with the neighbouring county borough of Warley in 1974 to form the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell. Charlemont Hall, built during the 1750s, stood on the west side of the present Charlemont Crescent, in the Charlemont and Grove Vale district of the town. Charlemont Hall was described c. 1800 as'a lofty neat-looking house of brick, faced with stone, with iron palisades etc. in front'. An east wing was added in 1855; the last occupant was the widow of Thomas Jones, town clerk of Wednesbury 1897–1921. The house was demolished in 1948, is now covered by a number of smaller detached homes. Much of the surrounding area was developed during the 1960s as the Charlemont Farm housing estate, a mix of private and council housing. West Bromwich suffered in the Cholera epidemic of 1831 which spread northwards into the town.
A temporary board of health was set up and a hospital opened in the former Revivalist chapel in Spon Lane. The natural gradual slope of the land provided drainage within the soil, urbanisation made this difficult and drainage along the streets was described as inadequate; the West Bromwich Town Improvement Commissioners was established in 1854, they tackled the drainage problem in the town. They in the 1880s bought land in Friar Park for a sewerage farm. Under the Reform Act 1832, West Bromwich became part of the new southern division of Staffordshire, under the Reform Act 1867 it was transferred to the parliamentary borough of Wednesbury. Under the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885, the borough of West Bromwich became a parliamentary borough returning one member. In 1885, it was held by the Liberal Party but from 1886 to 1906 it was held by the Conservative Party before being held by the Liberal Party again until 1910 when the Conservative Party regained the area which they held until 1918 under the representation of Viscount Lewisham.
In 1918, it was won by Labour who have held it since, except for between 1931 and 1935 when it held by the National Unionists. By the outbreak of World War I in 1914, many of the older houses built to house workers during the Industrial Revolution were becoming unfit for human habitation Sanitation was inadequate, decay was rife, the homes were becoming a danger to the health and safety of their inhabitants. After the end of the war, the local council started building new homes to rehouse people from the rundown town centre. However, there are still many late 19th century and early 20th century buildings around the centre of West Bromwich; the first Council housing in West Bromwich was built in 1920 on the Tantany Estate to the north of the town centre. Within 20 years, several thousand council houses had been built by West Bromwich County Borough Council; the largest developments were in the north of the town, including the Charlemont Farm Estate around Walsall Road, the Friar Park Estate near the border with Wednesbury.
The town suffered significant air raid damage in World War II, with 58 civilian deaths, most in the raids of 19 November 1940 around Oak Road and Lombard Street to the west of the town centre. There were a few other less severe raids in the war on parts of West Bromwich including Stone Cross and Tantany, with no fatalities; this occurred on the same night as the Birmingham Blitz, which resulted in thousands of casualties, as well as the less severe raids on nearby Dudley and Tipton. The first major postwar council housing development was the Harvills Hawthorn Estate near Hill Top, completed in 1948. Mass immigration from the Commonwealth took place in West Bromwich during the 1950s and 1960s, with most of these hailing from the Indian subcontinent, although a significant number of Afro-Caribbean immigrants settled in West Bromwich; the majority of these immigrants settled in the older parts of the town that were made up of Victorian and Edwardian terraced houses. The local road network was massively improved during the 1960s and 1970s.
West Bromwich is at the extreme northern end of the M5 motorway, has had direct access to it since the early 1960s. This gave the town an immediate fast road link to faraway places including Worcester, Gloucester and Exeter. Traffic passing through West Bromwich on the main route from Wolverhampton to Birmingham was diverted along the new dual carriageway, the Northern Loop Road (also known as
Riley was a British motorcar and bicycle manufacturer from 1890. Riley became part of the Nuffield Organisation in 1938 and was merged into the British Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968. Ln July 1969 British Leyland announced the immediate end of Riley production, although 1969 was a difficult year for the UK auto industry and many cars from Riley's inventory may have been first registered in 1970. Today, the Riley trademark is owned by BMW; the business began as the Bonnick Cycle Company of England. In 1890 during the pedal cycle craze that swept Britain at the end of the 19th century William Riley Jr. who had interests in the textile industry purchased the business and in 1896 incorporated a company to own it named The Riley Cycle Company Limited. Cycle gear maker Sturmey Archer was added to the portfolio. Riley's middle son, left school in the same year and soon began to dabble in automobiles, he built his first car at 16, in 1898, because his father did not approve. It featured the first mechanically operated inlet valve.
By 1899, Percy Riley moved from producing motorcycles to his first prototype four-wheeled quadricycle. Little is known about Percy Riley's first "motor-car", it is, well attested that the engine featured mechanically operated cylinder valves at a time when other engines depended on the vacuum effect of the descending piston to suck the inlet valve open. That was demonstrated some years when Benz developed and patented a mechanically operated inlet valve process of their own but were unable to collect royalties on their system from British companies. In 1900, Riley sold a single three-wheeled automobile. Meanwhile, the elder of the Riley brothers, Victor Riley, although supportive of his brother's embryonic motor-car enterprise, devoted his energies to the core bicycle business. Riley's founder William Riley remained resolutely opposed to diverting the resources of his bicycle business into motor cars, in 1902 three of his sons, Victor and younger brother Allan Riley pooled resources, borrowed a necessary balancing amount from their mother and in 1903 established the separate Riley Engine Company in Coventry.
A few years the other two Riley brothers and Cecil, having left school joined their elder brothers in the business. At first, the Riley Engine Company supplied engines for Riley motorcycles and to Singer, a newly emerging motorcycle manufacturer in the area, but the Riley Engine Company soon began to focus on four-wheeled automobiles, their Vee-Twin Tourer prototype, produced in 1905, can be considered the first proper Riley car. The Riley Engine Company expanded the next year. William Riley reversed his former opposition to his sons' preference for motorised vehicles and Riley Cycle halted motorcycle production in 1907 to focus on automobiles. Bicycle production ceased in 1911. In 1912, the Riley Cycle Company changed its name to Riley Limited as William Riley focused it on becoming a wire-spoked wheel supplier for the burgeoning motor industry, the detachable wheel having been invented by Percy and distributed to over 180 motor manufacturers, by 1912 the father's business had dropped automobile manufacture in order to concentrate capacity and resources on the wheels.
Exploitation of this new and expanding lucrative business sector made commercial sense for William Riley, but the abandonment of his motor-bicycle and of his automobile business, the principal customer for his sons' Riley Engine Company enforced a rethink on the engine business. In early 1913, Percy was joined by three of his brothers to focus on manufacturing entire automobiles; the works was located near Percy's Riley Engine Company. The first new model, the 17/30, was introduced at the London Motor Show that year. Soon afterwards, Stanley Riley founded yet another business, the Nero Engine Company, to produce his own 4-cylinder 10 hp car. Riley began manufacturing aeroplane engines and became a key supplier in Britain's buildup for World War I. In 1918, after the war, the Riley companies were restructured. Nero joined Riley as the sole producer of automobiles. Riley Motor Manufacturing under the control of Allan Riley became Midland Motor Bodies, a coachbuilder for Riley. Riley Engine Company continued under Percy as the engine supplier.
At this time, Riley's blue diamond badge, designed by Harry Rush appeared. The motto was "As old as the industry, as modern as the hour." Riley grew through the 1920s and 1930s. The Riley Engine Company produced 4-, 6-, 8-cylinder engines, while Midland built more than a dozen different bodies. Riley models at this time included: Saloons: Adelphi,'Continental', Falcon, Mentone, Monaco, Victor Coupes: Ascot, Lincock Tourers: Alpine, Gamecock Sports: Brooklands, Imp, MPH, Sprite Limousines: Edinburgh, WinchesterIntroduced in 1926 in a humble but innovatively designed fabric bodied saloon, Percy Riley's ground-breaking Riley 9 engine- a small capacity, high revving unit- was ahead of its time in many respects. Having hemispherical combustion chambers and inclined overhead valves, it has been called the most significant engine development of the 1920s. With twin camshafts set high in the cylinder block and valves operated by short pushrods, it provided power and efficiency without the servicing complexity of an OHC layout.
It soon attracted the attention of builders of ` specials' intended for sporting purposes. One such was engineer/driver J. G. Pa
A leaf spring is a simple form of spring used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Called a laminated or carriage spring, sometimes referred to as a semi-elliptical spring or cart spring, it is one of the oldest forms of springing, appearing on carriages in England after 1750 and from there migrating to France and Germany. A leaf spring takes the form of a slender arc-shaped length of spring steel of rectangular cross-section. In the most common configuration, the center of the arc provides location for the axle, while loops formed at either end provide for attaching to the vehicle chassis. For heavy vehicles, a leaf spring can be made from several leaves stacked on top of each other in several layers with progressively shorter leaves. Leaf springs can serve locating and to some extent damping as well as springing functions. While the interleaf friction provides a damping action, it is not well controlled and results in stiction in the motion of the suspension. For this reason, some manufacturers have used mono-leaf springs.
A leaf spring can either be attached directly to the frame at both ends or attached directly at one end the front, with the other end attached through a shackle, a short swinging arm. The shackle takes up the tendency of the leaf spring to elongate when compressed and thus makes for softer springiness; some springs called a spoon end, to carry a swiveling member. The leaf spring has seen a modern development in cars; the new Volvo XC90 has a transverse leaf spring in high tech composite materials, a solution, similar to the latest Chevrolet Corvette. This means a straight leaf spring, secured to the chassis, the ends of the spring bolted to the wheel suspension, to allow the spring to work independently on each wheel; this means the suspension is smaller and lighter than a traditional setup. There are a variety of leaf springs employing the word "elliptical". "Elliptical" or "full elliptical" leaf springs referred to two circular arcs linked at their tips. This was joined to the frame at the top center of the upper arc, the bottom center was joined to the "live" suspension components, such as a solid front axle.
Additional suspension components, such as trailing arms, would be needed for this design, but not for "semi-elliptical" leaf springs as used in the Hotchkiss drive. That employed the lower arc, hence its name. "Quarter-elliptic" springs had the thickest part of the stack of leaves stuck into the rear end of the side pieces of a short ladder frame, with the free end attached to the differential, as in the Austin Seven of the 1920s. As an example of non-elliptic leaf springs, the Ford Model T had multiple leaf springs over its differential that were curved in the shape of a yoke; as a substitute for dampers, some manufacturers laid non-metallic sheets in between the metal leaves, such as wood. Leaf springs were common on automobiles, right up to the 1970s in Europe and Japan and late 1970s in America when the move to front-wheel drive, more sophisticated suspension designs saw automobile manufacturers use coil springs instead. Today leaf springs are still used in heavy commercial vehicles such as vans and trucks, SUVs, railway carriages.
For heavy vehicles, they have the advantage of spreading the load more over the vehicle's chassis, whereas coil springs transfer it to a single point. Unlike coil springs, leaf springs locate the rear axle, eliminating the need for trailing arms and a Panhard rod, thereby saving cost and weight in a simple live axle rear suspension. A further advantage of a leaf spring over a helical spring is that the end of the leaf spring may be guided along a definite path. A more modern implementation is the parabolic leaf spring; this design is characterized by fewer leaves whose thickness varies from centre to ends following a parabolic curve. In this design, inter-leaf friction is unwanted, therefore there is only contact between the springs at the ends and at the centre where the axle is connected. Spacers prevent contact at other points. Aside from a weight saving, the main advantage of parabolic springs is their greater flexibility, which translates into vehicle ride quality that approaches that of coil springs.
There is a trade-off in the form of reduced load carrying capability, however. The characteristic of parabolic springs is better riding comfort and not as "stiff" as conventional "multi-leaf springs", it is used on buses for better comfort. A further development by the British GKN company and by Chevrolet with the Corvette among others, is the move to composite plastic leaf springs. Due to missing inter-leaf friction and internal dampening effects, this type of spring requires more powerful dampers or shock absorbers; when used in automobile suspension the leaf both supports an axle and locates/ locates the axle. This can lead to handling issues, as the flexible nature of the spring makes precise control of the unsprung mass of the axle difficult; some suspension designs use a Watts link and radius arms to locate the axle and do not have this drawback. Such designs can use softer springs; the various Austin-Healey 3000's and Fiat 128's rear suspension are examples. The leaf spring acts as a linkage for holding the axle in position and thus separate linkages are not necessary.
It makes the construction of the suspension strong. Because the positioning of the axle is carried out by the leaf springs, it is disadvantageous to use soft springs i.e. springs with low spring constant. Therefore, this type of suspension does not provide good riding comfort; the inter-leaf friction be
The Austin Sheerline is a large luxury car produced by Austin in the United Kingdom from 1947 to 1954. The Sheerline was designed by Austin during the Second World War, but volume production did not begin until 1947 because of the commitment to war production, it was a luxurious car in the style of the contemporary Rolls-Royce or Bentley but at a much lower price, around two-thirds that of the equivalent Rolls-Royce but still the price of five or six small Austins. There were about 8,000 built but it is now becoming quite rare; the first cars, designated A110, had a 3,460 cc straight-six overhead valve engine but this was soon increased to 3,995 cc with 125 bhp and the designation became A125. Only a Saloon version on a 9-foot-11¼-inch wheelbase chassis was made, but this was joined by a Limousine version in late 1949 on a stretched 11 ft chassis used for a hearse and an ambulance. At 37 hundredweight for the saloon and 2 tons for the limousine this was a heavy car, to maintain performance a low final drive ratio of 4.55:1 with 16-inch tyres was fitted.
Suspension was by half-elliptic leaf springs at the rear. The saloon version had a top speed of 82 mph. Production ceased in 1954 and Austin's luxury offering was limited to the A135 Austin Princess. Robson, Graham; the Cars of BMC. Motor Racing Publications. ISBN 0-947981-14-4. Austin Memories
The Austin Westminster series are large saloon and estate cars that were sold by the British manufacturer Austin from 1954, replacing the A70 Hereford. The Westminster line was produced as the A90, A95, A99, A105, A110 until 1968 when the new Austin 3-Litre took its place. Badge-engineered versions of the Farina Westminsters were produced using the premium Wolseley and Vanden Plas marques. 101,634 Westminsters were built. The Westminster name was used by the Austin Motor Company in the 1930s for a four light version of the 16/6 and the Heavy 12/4; the A90 Six Westminster was introduced at the 1954 London Motor Show at the same time as the small A40/A50 Cambridge saloon range. It used the new BMC C-Series straight-6 engine with single Zenith carburettor which, at 2.6 L, produced 85 hp. The suspension is independent at the front using coil springs and wishbones and leaf spring and anti-roll bar on the live axle at the rear; the four-speed transmission has synchromesh on the top three ratios and from 1955 an overdrive unit could be specified.
The interior, with leather trim on the de luxe version and PVC on the standard model, has a split bench front seat arrangement, although individually adjustable, which if necessary could seat three people abreast. When only two are carried there are, on the de luxe model, fold down centre armrests at the side of each seat; the de luxe model has a central fold down armrest in the rear. The handbrake control is under the dash on the right hand side of the steering column which carries the gear change lever. A heater is optional on the standard version; the Austin Motor Company produced a brochure for an A90 Six Westminster police car which featured a floor gearchange. The British Motor magazine tested a Westminster de luxe saloon in 1955 recording a top speed of 85.7 mph and acceleration from 0–60 mph in 18.9 seconds and a fuel consumption of 20.2 miles per imperial gallon. The test car cost £834 including taxes; the A90 designation had been carried by the 1948–52 Austin Atlantic. 25,532 A90 Six Westminsters were built.
In May 1956, for a brief period only, a derivative of the A90 Six Westminster was announced, a short boot version of the A105 and had the twin SU carburettor/102 hp version of the 2.6-litre C series engine with overdrive as standard. In October 1956 the A105 received the longer wheelbase with overdrive as standard and automatic transmission as an option. Twin fog lights and wheel trims were standard although a radio was still an option. Two tone paint and white wall tyres were introduced for visual effect. Few short boot versions of the A105 were produced and they are now quite rare; the A90 was updated for autumn 1956 as the A95. Along with more power, the A95 was now offered an estate model. Overdrive and an automatic transmission were new as well, something of a novelty in British cars of the time. Both the A95 and A105 were produced together until 1959. 28,065 A95s and 6,770 A105s were built. The Westminster name was dropped from the sales literature for the A95 and the A105 although, the drivers' handbooks still used the name Westminster to title the illustration of the saloon.
The estate version was named Countryman. Most enthusiasts still refer to them as Westminsters. A badge-engineered version of the A95 with different grille and badges and a bench front seat was assembled and sold in Australia as the Morris Marshal from 1957 until 1960. An A105 saloon with overdrive tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1956 had a top speed of 96.3 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 15.4 seconds. A fuel consumption of 22.0 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1109 including taxes; the A105 was the first mass-produced Austin family car to be specially upgraded by coachbuilder Vanden Plas, following the success of the large A135 Austin Princess limousine. This was done after a personal request from Leonard Lord in 1957. Changes included significant new interior fittings, a grey stripe bearing the "Princess" crown on the side of the body; the A99 Westminster appeared in 1959 with new Pininfarina-designed bodywork. Pininfarina had re-styled Austin's compact A40 and mid-sized A55 Cambridge ranges the year before.
Under the bonnet was the 2.9 L C-Series straight-6 engine with twin SU carburettors from the Austin-Healey 3000. This engine produced 103 hp in Westminster tune. A three-speed all-synchromesh manual gearbox with a Borg-Warner overdrive unit was fitted as standard, or a Borg-Warner automatic transmission as an option. Power-assisted Lockheed brakes with 10.75 in discs on the front wheels were new. An A99 saloon with automatic transmission was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1960 and they recorded a top speed of 98.1 mph, acceleration from 0–60 mph in 17.9 seconds and a fuel consumption of 23.0 miles per imperial gallon. The test car cost £1219 including taxes; the manual car cost £1148. A specially trimmed A99 was sold as the Princess 3-Litre, under the Vanden Plas marque as the Vanden Plas Princess. A Wolseley version, the 6/99, was produced. Production ended in 1961 with the introduction of the larger A110. 15,162 A99s were built. The final major update arrived in 1961 with the A110 Westminster.
This version had an extended wheelbase, which allowed more space in the rear compartment as well as improving the road
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a
British International Motor Show
The British International Motor Show was held between 1903 and 2008 in London at Crystal Palace and Earl's Court before moving to the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham in 1978, where it stayed until May 2004. It returned to London, for July 2006 and July 2008, at the new location of ExCeL; the 2010 and 2012 shows were subsequently cancelled. The event is recognised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles; the London Motor Show relaunched at Battersea Park from 5 to 8 May 2016. The last London Motor Show was held on 17 to 20 May 2018 at ExCeL; the next one will which take place from 16 to 19 May 2019 once again at ExCeL. Britain's first motor show—for horseless carriages—was held in South Kensington in 1896 at the Imperial Institute under the auspices of Lawson's Motor Car Club; the first British Motor Show organised by the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders was held at Crystal Palace, London in 1903, the same year that the speed limit was raised from 14 miles per hour to 20 miles per hour by the Motor Car Act 1903 and two years before the formation of The Automobile Association.
After the 1903 event it moved to Olympia in London, where it was held for the next 32 years before moving to Earl's Court, London from 1937 until 1976, except for the period of World War II during which time there were no shows. From 1978 until 2004, it was held every second year at the National Exhibition Centre, with the 2004 event being held in May, rather than the traditional October, to avoid a clash with the Paris Motor Show; the July 2006 and July 2008 shows returned in ExCeL, prior to the cancellation of the 2010 and 2012 shows, due to the recession. Motorexpo, the World's largest free to visit motor show started in 1996 and is held annually at Canary Wharf in London, Brookfield Place in New York and Brookfield Place/First Canadian Place in Toronto. London Motorfair, an alternative London Motor Show, was held at Earls Court biannually from 1977 to 1999. In December 2014, it was announced by Prince Michael of Kent, the cousin of Queen Elizabeth II, that the London Motor Show will return in May 2016, to Battersea Park.
The 2016 London Motor Show featured the United Kingdom’s land speed record attempt car, known as Bloodhound, designed to reach 1,000 mph. In May 2017, the London Motor Show once again returned to Battersea Park, featuring reveals from MG, David Brown and Liberty Walk amongst others. Prince Michael of Kent was Patron once again, with brand ambassadors Tiff Needell, Ben Collins and Jodie Kidd. In 2018, The London Motor Show was hosted at ExCeL London from 17–20 May and featured a "Built in Britain" display featuring JCB, Bentley, Aston Martin, Rolls Royce and many other British companies. James May and Richard Hammond, former stars of Top Gear and current stars of The Grand Tour, appeared at the event supporting DriveTribe their online motoring social media site; the cars listed are those announced in the late summer lead-up during it. Manufacturers did announce other cars at times to suit them and as that practice grew the public lost interest and the motor show finished its long run in the mid-1970s.
The 2006 British International Motor Show featured concerts by: 19 July, A-Ha 20 July, Van Morrison 21 July, UB40 22 July, Roxy Music 24 July, Simple Minds 26 July, Katherine Jenkins, with the National Symphony Orchestra of London 27 July, Jools Holland, his Rhythm and Blues OrchestraThe 2016 and 2017 London Motor Shows took place in Battersea Park. The 2018 London Motor Show will take place in ExCel. British motor industry The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders – Official website of the organisers The London Motor Show - Official website of the London Motor Show