Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage, route of exposure, age and environment. Toxicologists are experts on poisons and poisoning. Dioscorides, a Greek physician in the court of the Roman emperor Nero, made the first attempt to classify plants according to their toxic and therapeutic effect. Ibn Wahshiyya wrote the Book on Poisons in the 10th century; this was followed up in 1360 by Khagendra Mani Darpana. Mathieu Orfila is considered the modern father of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal treatment in 1813 in his Traité des poisons called Toxicologie générale. In 1850, Jean Stas became the first person to isolate plant poisons from human tissue.
This allowed him to identify the use of nicotine as a poison in the famous Bocarmé murder case, providing the evidence needed to convict the Belgian Count Hippolyte Visart de Bocarmé of killing his brother-in-law. Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim is considered "the father" of toxicology, he is credited with the classic toxicology maxim, "Alle Dinge sind. This is condensed to: "The dose makes the poison" or in Latin "Sola dosis facit venenum"; the goal of toxicity assessment is to identify adverse effects of a substance. Adverse effects depend on two main factors: i) routes of exposure and ii) dose. To explore dose, substances are tested in both chronic models. Different sets of experiments are conducted to determine whether a substance causes cancer and to examine other forms of toxicity. Factors that influence chemical toxicity: Dosage Both large single exposures and continuous small exposures are studied. Route of exposure Ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption Other factors Species Age Sex Health Environment Individual characteristics Toxicity experiments may be conducted in vivo or in vitro, or in silico.
The classic experimental tool of toxicology is testing on non-human animals. Example of model organisms are Galleria mellonella, which can replace small mammals, Zebrafish, which allow for the study of toxicology in a lower order vertebrate in vivo; as of 2014, such animal testing provides information, not available by other means about how substances function in a living organism. The use of non-human animals for toxicology testing is opposed by some organisations for reasons of animal welfare, it has been restricted or banned under some circumstances in certain regions, such as the testing of cosmetics in the European Union. While testing in animal models remains as a method of estimating human effects, there are both ethical and technical concerns with animal testing. Since the late 1950s, the field of toxicology has sought to reduce or eliminate animal testing under the rubric of "Three Rs" - reduce the number of experiments with animals to the minimum necessary. Computer modeling is an example of alternative testing methods.
This work requires expert knowledge in molecular modeling and statistics together with expert judgment in chemistry and toxicology. In 2007 the American NGO National Academy of Sciences published a report called "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy" which opened with a statement: "Change involves a pivotal event that builds on previous history and opens the door to a new era. Pivotal events in science include the discovery of penicillin, the elucidation of the DNA double helix, the development of computers.... Toxicity testing is approaching such a scientific pivot point, it is poised to take advantage of the revolutions in biotechnology. Advances in toxicogenomics, systems biology and computational toxicology could transform toxicity testing from a system based on whole-animal testing to one founded on in vitro methods that evaluate changes in biologic processes using cells, cell lines, or cellular components, preferably of human origin." As of 2014 that vision was still unrealized.
In some cases shifts away from animal studies has been mandated by regulation. Most chemicals display a classic dose response curve – at a low dose, no effect is observed; some show a phenomenon known as sufficient challenge – a small exposure produces animals that "grow more have better general appearance and coat quality, have fewer tumors, live longer than the control animals". A few chemicals have no well-defined safe level of exposure; these are treated with special
Victoria University, Melbourne
Victoria University is an Australian public university based in Melbourne, Australia. It is a dual-sector tertiary institution providing courses in both higher education and Technical and Further Education. 2016 marked VU's centenary as its 25th anniversary as a university. The University has several campuses in Melbourne Central Business District, Melbourne Western Region, in Sydney, comprising six academic colleges, six research institutes, seven research centres and VU's Victoria Polytechnic, it offers courses at partner institutions throughout Asia. The idea for a technical school based in the western suburbs of Melbourne was first proposed in 1910; the Footscray Technical School opened its doors to 220 students and 9 teachers in 1916 after five years of fundraising. Charles Archibald Hoadley was the school's principal from its founding until his death in 1947, his vision was to aid students who had both a sound technical knowledge and an appreciation of the arts, the outdoors and community activities.
He believed in educating students "for life as well as for living", wanting students to view education as opening the doors of opportunity. Under Hoadley's leadership, the school expanded and began offering trade certificate courses, diplomas in architecture and contracting, as well as evening classes. War and the Depression saw a dip in student numbers. However, by 1943, there were 2500 students enrolled in courses taught at the Footscray Park and Footscray Nicholson campuses; the following decades saw cultural shifts. In 1958, the school changed its name to the Footscray Technical College. Ten years it changed its name again, this time, to the Footscray Institute of Technology. Women first enrolled in day diploma courses in 1960, changes to the federal government's immigration policy resulted in many more European and Asian students entering the school; the secondary school component was separated from the rest of the institute in 1972. By the mid-1970s, the expanded curriculum included degree courses and was well beyond the technical focus of the original Footscray Technical School.
Further changes occurred in the 1980s, with the technical and trade education section separating from FIT to form the Footscray and Newport Colleges of TAFE. In 1990, FIT merged with the Western Institute, founded three years earlier to provide TAFE and higher education courses to the outlying suburbs in western Melbourne. In 1990, it was established as a university by the Victoria State Parliament as Victoria University of Technology; the University further amalgamation with the Western Melbourne Institute of TAFE in 1998. In 2005, the Victoria University of Technology Act of 1990 was amended to rename the University as Victoria University, reflecting the development of its teaching and research; the institutions that combined to form VU include: Footscray Technical School, renamed Footscray Technical College and Footscray Institute of Technology Newport Technical College, renamed Newport College of TAFE Melbourne School of Hairdressing School of Painting and Sign Crafts Melbourne Technical College of Hairdressing Melbourne College of Decoration Footscray College of TAFE Flagstaff College of TAFE Western Institute Gellibrand College of TAFE, renamed Western Metropolitan College of TAFE Western Melbourne Institute of TAFE Victoria University of Technology Victoria Polytechnic Victoria University has campuses located throughout Melbourne's western region and the city centre.
One campus is located in central Sydney. VU courses are delivered by partner institutes throughout Asia, including in China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Two of the largest partners are Sunway University College in Malaysia and Liaoning University in China. Footscray Park Campus on Ballarat Road, Footscray is the University's main campus and administrative centre, it offers higher education courses in engineering and sport-related disciplines. It occupies a 7-hectare site overlooking the Maribyrnong River. A A$68.5 million sport and learning precinct, including sport and exercise science research labs, was completed in early 2011. The campus has a 25-metre swimming pool and a childcare centre. St Albans Campus on McKecknie Street, St Albans, is the University's health and education hub, with a focus on psychology, nursing and paramedic and biomedical sciences, it is set on 32 hectares of native grasslands and sugar gums. The new St Albans Health and Fitness Centre was opened in 2013. Footscray Nicholson Campus is on the corner of Nicholson and Buckley Streets.
It delivers VCE and short courses. Its new learning commons was opened in 2012 offering a broad range of educational and student services. Situated in two buildings at 300 Flinders Street and 301 Flinders Lane in central Melbourne; the Flinders Lane building focuses on osteopathy and English language training, is the University's administrative centre for international student recruitment and support. The 19-storey Flinders Street building overlooks Melbourne's historic Flinders Street station, the Yarra River and the Southbank precinct; the University's postgraduate business courses and many of its courses in graphic design, visual art and multimedia are taught at this campus. The Flinders Street building contains convention facilities; the City King Campus is located in a high-rise building close to Southern Cross station. It provides health and beauty courses, includes a hair and beauty salon, open to the public; the City Queen Campus occupies two heritage buildings at 283 and
Frankston Hospital is a 454 bed public hospital located in the Melbourne suburb of Frankston in Victoria, Australia. It opened as the Frankston Community Hospital in 1941, it is largest provider of general and speciality health care for Melbourne's Mornington Peninsula, is the region's chief provider of acute secondary and tertiary medical and surgical services. The hospital has specialisations in mental health and pediatrics, it has one of the busiest emergency departments in Victoria with 49 beds and around 63,000 presentations a year. The department was upgraded in 2015 at a cost of A$81 million, it is one of two hospitals in the Peninsula Health network, the second being Rosebud Hospital, which together support the network's smaller specialist campuses for community health, dentistry and psychiatric rehabilitation and palliative care in Frankston, Mornington, Mount Eliza and Rosebud. Frankston Hospital provides general and speciality health care services in the following areas: Allied HealthNutrition and Dietetic Services Occupational Therapy Physiotherapy Integrating Care Speech Pathology ServicesCancer ServicesBreast Cancer Support Service Oncology Day Unit Radiotherapy ServicesCardiac ServicesCardiac Angiography Cardiology Department Chronic Heart Failure Program Coronary Care UnitEmergency MedicineFrankston Emergency Department Medical Assessment and Planning Unit Response and Discharge UnitHome-based ServicesHospital in the Home Midwifery Home Care Service Peninsula Post Acute Care Intensive Care UnitMedical ServicesDermatology Diabetes & Endocrinology Gastroenterology General Medicine Haematology Infectious Diseases Medical Wards Neurology Renal Medicine and Haemodialysis Respiratory Services Rheumatology Stroke UnitNeuropsychology and Psychiatric ServiceOutpatient ServicePalliative Care ServicesPeninsula Amputee ProgramSocial Work ServicesSurgical ServicesAnaesthetics Day Surgery Unit General Surgery Operating Theatres Short Stay Unit Surgical WardsWomen's, Children's and Adolescent HealthChildren's and Adolescent Health Midwifery Inpatient Services Peninsula Health Maternity Services Special Care Nursery Women's Services Official website
Royal Melbourne Hospital
The Royal Melbourne Hospital, located in Parkville, Victoria, an inner suburb of Melbourne, is one of Australia’s leading public hospitals. It is a major teaching hospital for tertiary health care with a reputation in clinical research; the hospital is managed as part of Melbourne Health which comprises the Royal Melbourne Hospital, North West Dialysis Service and North Western Mental Health. The Melbourne Health Chief Executive is Christine Kilpatrick; the emergency department is at 300 Grattan Street, Parkville. Established in 1848 as the Melbourne Hospital, it was one of Melbourne's leading hospitals. Located on the corner of Swanston and Lonsdale Streets, Melbourne in 1935 the hospital was renamed the Royal Melbourne Hospital and, in 1944, it moved to Grattan Street, Parkville by provision of lands in the Royal Melbourne Hospital Act; the Royal Women's Hospital was located in Carlton, Melbourne. The hospital moved in late 2008 to a new building, the new Royal Women's Hospital, co-located on the Royal Melbourne Hospital site in Parkville.
During World War II, the Parkville hospital, under construction, was occupied by the US Army 4th General Hospital between 1942 and 1944. While the hospital was under construction a temporary tent hospital was set up by the US Army in Royal Park just north of the hospital. Upon completion of the Parkville hospital the patients were moved progressively into the new accommodation which catered for 2,900 beds; the Royal Melbourne Hospital continued to operate from their old premises on the corner of Lonsdale and Swanston Streets until the 4th General Hospital moved to Finschhaven in New Guinea in 1944. The Parkville buildings were reconditioned and the Royal Melbourne Hospital moved into their "new" premises in December 1944; the Royal Melbourne Hospital provides acute tertiary referral services at its main site on Grattan Street between Flemington Road and Royal Parade and ancillary services such as aged care, ambulatory care and residential and community services through its Royal Park site. It has one of the largest Emergency Departments in Victoria and is, with the Alfred Hospital, one of Victoria's two major trauma referral centres.
The emergency facilities include: 2 trauma bays, 7 resuscitation cubicles, 25 general cubical beds and 17 short-stay beds. There is a helipad on top of the hospital so that urgent cases that need to be airlifted from regional areas can be transferred to the Royal Melbourne. Most medical and surgical specialties are available at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, it is one of few public hospitals in the Australasia that performs robotic surgery. In addition, the Victoria Infectious Diseases Service is based in the hospital, as is the John Cade Psychiatry Ward and the headquarters of the North Western Mental Health service. General Medicine: Ward 5 South-West and 5 South-East Respiratory Medicine: Ward 5 South-West Gastroenterology: Ward 3 South Cardiology/Coronary Care Unit: CCU 2B Endocrinology: 6 South-West Rheumatology Dermatology Renal Medicine: 6 West and 6 South-West Neurology: 4 South Acute Stroke Service: 4 South Haematology and Oncology: 5 North VIDS/Infectious Diseases: 9 North Intensive Care Unit: ICU 6B General Surgery: 3 South West, 3 South, 9 West Colorectal Surgery: 3 South West, 3 South, 9 West Hepato-biliary and Pancreatic Surgery: 3 South West Transplant Surgery Trauma: 7 South East, 7 South West Cardiothoracic Surgery: 2 West Urology: 9 West Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: 7 South East Vascular Surgery: 9 West Plastic Surgery: 7 South East Orthopaedics: 7 South West Neurosurgery: 4 South Ophthalmology: 9 West Department of Psychiatry: 1 North Psychiatric Ward: John Cade Building North Western Mental Health Inner West Mental Health Service Radiology Pathology Emergency departmentIn addition, the Royal Melbourne Hospital has an Enhanced Crisis Assessment & Treatment Team & Triage Service team on call 24 hours a day to assess patients in the Emergency Department.
The clinical school at Royal Melbourne Hospital is one of the clinical schools of the University of Melbourne School of Medicine. In postgraduate training, Royal Melbourne Hospital produced the top candidate in the Royal Australasian Physician College fellowship exam in the year 2002, 2003 and 2013. In March 2006, it achieved a 100% passing rate for the Fellowship written exam, it is one of Australia's top performing hospitals in these exams. It produces excellent surgical candidates; the hospital offers enormous numbers of postgraduate educational activities, including weekly professorial case discussion meeting, grand round, daily morning registrars teaching round, intern training sessions, advanced life support forums, many other individual department-based educational sessions. The new residents' quarter is located on the 8th floor, equipped with Foxtel payTV, wireless network, new computers, 10 bedrooms and stunning panoramic view of the city of Melbourne; the Royal Melbourne Nursing Education Department provides continuing professional education opportunities for nurses that enhance practice and meet clinical service needs.
It offers innovative programs for undergraduates, graduate nurses and postgraduate students as well as short courses, staff development and mandatory resuscitation training. It offers some online training modules; the innovative programs focus on retention of nurses. The Royal Melbourne Hospital promotes an environment that encourages staff development and workforce retention through the implementation of initiatives, which focus on workplace learning and clinica
Thomas Austin was an English settler in Australia, noted for the introduction of rabbits into Australia in 1859. Thomas Austin was born at Baltonsborough, England, the youngest son of John Austin and Nancy, née Lucas. In 1831 he arrived with other members of his family in Van Diemen's Land. After farming near Ouse and his brother James crossed Bass Strait in 1837 and settled as pioneer pastoralists in the Western District of the Port Phillip District. In 1845 he married Elizabeth Phillips Harding in Melbourne and they had 11 children. Thomas Austin took up land near Winchelsea starting in 1837, created a run of 29,000 acres known as Barwon Park; the property was used for horse training. In 1871 work was completed on the bluestone mansion that Austin had designed and built on his property; this is open to the public. He died six months after the mansion was completed but his widow continued to live there and, as a philanthropist, helped to found the Austin Hospital in Heidelberg and the Austin Homes for Women in Geelong.
As a member of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Thomas Austin helped to introduce many species from England. In 1861 he wrote that he had introduced hares and thrushes, that he was breeding English wild rabbits and partridges, he introduced 24 breeding rabbits on his estate in southern Australia, near Melbourne, in October 1859 as game for shooting parties. While his efforts were praised at the time, he has borne the brunt of blame for introducing this pest to Australia. Rabbits in Australia Australian Dictionary of Biography – Thomas Austin Australian Dictionary of Biography – Elizabeth Austin Australian Heritage article on Thomas Austin & rabbits
Epworth HealthCare is a provider of acute medical and rehabilitation services in Melbourne, Australia. The group has four divisions: Epworth Richmond, Epworth Eastern, Epworth Cliveden, Epworth Freemasons and Epworth Geelong Epworth Rehabilitation, with rehabilitation sites at Richmond, Camberwell and Geelong, Victoria. With over 1,200 beds and more than 4,000 staff, Epworth HealthCare is Victoria's largest not-for-profit private hospital group. Epworth Hospital opened in March 1920, as a 25-bed community hospital initiated by the Annual Methodist Conference; the first matron was Ethel Gray, a Melbourne-trained nurse who had returned from serving as a matron in hospitals in France and England during World War I. A donation of £6,000 by Sir Aaron Danks led to the purchase of the mansion "Yallcowinna", situated in one and half acres of gardens in Richmond. Renovations to convert the mansion into a hospital cost £3,324, part of, donated by Dr. Georgina Sweet and her father in memory of Dr. Margaret Sweet who "gave her life during the 1919 influenza epidemic".
The influence of the Methodist traditions can be found in the name Epworth, as this was the name of the village where John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Church, was born. There proved to be such a need for the hospital that within five months patients were being turned away and the nurses were being housed in tents while renovations were undertaken to increase the number of beds. Building works have continued apace throughout Epworth's development, are continuing with further development of new wards and medical centres throughout the Group. In 1980, Epworth was incorporated under an Act of the Victorian Parliament, The Epworth Foundation Act as amended; this Act was modified in 1997 to create the Epworth Foundation as the principal entity under the Act. In 1998 Epworth acquired Bethesda Hospital from The Salvation Army. Bethesda, meaning "place of healing" was opened in 1906 for the care of the sick and needy in Richmond and Collingwood. In 1910 Bethesda was registered as the first non-public Nurse training School in Australia.
With the opening of the Epworth Centre, built across the boundaries of the two older hospitals, full integration into a single entity was achieved for the Richmond campus. This meant Epworth Richmond had become the largest not for profit private hospital on one site anywhere in Australia. Early in 2002 Epworth acquired Box Hill Gardens Medical Centre and Day Surgery Unit, now staffed and managed by Epworth HealthCare. In September 2003 the Group acquired Brighton Rehabilitation Centre, now known as Epworth Rehabilitation Brighton, expanding the current number of rehabilitation beds and services available for patients and establishing a musculoskeletal research centre. Epworth opened the Tattersall's Cancer Centre in partnership with Peter MacCallum, to become Australia's most advanced radiotherapy centre. In 2004 Epworth became the first hospital in Australia to acquire a state-of-the-art robotic surgical system. A Gastrointestinal Oncology Centre was established in 2005. Epworth Eastern in Box Hill was completed and opened by the federal minister for health, Tony Abbott on 2 August 2005.
Epworth was awarded the 2005 Australian Private Hospitals Award for Excellence. The entire Epworth group was recognised in this award for clinical excellence; the Epworth Breast Service opened in 2005, with a multidisciplinary team offering a patient centred service specialising in breast disease. In July the new Acquired Brain Injury Unit opened as part of Epworth Rehabilitation. Epworth Freemasons became part of the Group in May 2006, bringing Epworth's overall bed capacity to more than 1,150. Epworth Rehabilitation expanded to include a site at Camberwell with the purchase of Cedar Court in August. Epworth Richmond has over 700 beds and is equipped with quality facilities and latest technologies including a 39-bed Intensive Care Unit, 32 operating theatres, Australia's first da Vinci robotic system, day surgery facilities, catheter laboratories, community care and Hospital in the Home. With over 42,000 admissions, more than 6000 staff members and 1200 accredited visiting specialists, Epworth Richmond is a leading healthcare provider in Australia.
The Epworth Richmond Emergency Department is the only private emergency department in Victoria, accredited to accept time-critical patients. Annually, the Emergency Department treats more than 28,000 patients. Epworth Eastern, situated in Box Hill is the largest not-for-profit private hospital in Melbourne's Eastern Corridor. Opened in 2005, this state of the art hospital has 223 beds, an 8-bed Intensive Care Unit, a 6-bed Coronary Care Unit and private rooms, its principal focus is on cardiac, vascular and general surgery, oncology and endoscopy services. Epworth Eastern maintains state of the art equipment, including one of Epworth's two Da Vinci robotic surgical systems, digital operating suites, a computerised medication administration system, operates in a wireless environment. Epworth Eastern features a day medical unit offering oncology, scalp cooling and infusions. Epworth Eastern provides a Mandarin speaking concierge service. Epworth Freemasons operates on two sites in East Melbourne -- Victoria Parade.
Its facilities include a Day Procedure Centre and a Critical Care Unit. A key speciality is women's and related health services including maternity, women's health and breast clinics and gynaecological surgery and in-vitro fertilisation. Epworth Freemasons offers comprehensive cancer care, a full range of surgical services. Epworth Rehabilitation operates from six locations – Richmond, Brighton, Camberwell and Dandenong, with a multidisciplinar
Kew is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km east from Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Boroondara. At the 2016 Census, Kew had a population of 24,605. Kew used to be a city in its own right, but in 1994 the cities of Kew and Camberwell were amalgamated to form the City of Boroondara. The suburb borders the Yarra River to the west and north, with Hawthorn to its south and Balwyn to its east. Prior to the establishment of Melbourne, the area was inhabited by the Wurundjeri peoples. In the 1840s European settlers named it the Parish of Boroondara – meaning "a place of shade" in the Woiwurrung language. In 1838 Dight travelled down the Yarra from Heidelberg and decided to locate a water-powered mill on a site adjacent to the falls. John Hodgson established a squatters run at Studley Park, on the eastern bank of the Yarra River, in 1840. Studley House known as Burke Hall, built in 1857, was named after Hodgson's birthplace of Studley and the house is now on the Register of the National Estate.
The house was built in the Victorian Period Italianate Revival style. Modifications were made to the house in 1875 and 1919; the house was owned by former bookmaker, ALP lobbyist, influential Irish-Catholic and millionaire, John Wren and was donated to Xavier College by the land developer T. M. Burke, it illustrates the importance of a residence in indicating success and status in nineteenth and early twentieth century Melbourne society. The nearby Villa Alba, built before 1863, is open to the public. In 1851, Crown land sales occurred in the area. One of the purchasers, Nicholas Fenwick, subdivided his land and named the region Kew, based on the thought that Kew in England was near Richmond, he notably named its streets after British statesmen. The area became a sought-after suburb for the well-to-do in Melbourne. Access to Kew was via Bridge Road in Richmond, crossing the Hawthorn Bridge to Burwood Road, until the owned Studley Park Bridge opened in 1857, connecting Church Street Richmond with Studley Park.
The commercial precinct known as Kew Junction began to take shape in the 1850s. The first store was opened by Mr. J. J. French in August 1853 and the first post office on 6 October 1856, however, it was not till towards the end of the decade that many shops appeared in High Street; the Kew Hotel opened in 1855, the Prospect Hill Hotel in 1857, the Council Hotel about 1860, the Clifton in 1869 and the Greyhound in 1874. The block of civic buildings comprising the former post office, the former court house and the former police station were built in 1888 as was the National Bank, at the corner of Walpole and High Streets. In 1856 a site was reserved for a mental asylum next to the river. By 1871 Kew Lunatic Asylum, now known as Willsmere Estate, was completed; the Kew Cottages for children were added in 1887. The hospital was built despite objections by residents and the Kew Borough Council and provides an historical example of nimbyism. Kew Cottages and Willsmere Hospital are listed on the Victorian Heritage Register.
Various churches opened in the 1850s, with the first school opened by the Anglican Church in 1856. In 1875 Sacred Heart Primary School was opened. More private schools were opened including Ruyton Girls' School and Xavier College. Other private schools soon followed, including Methodist Ladies' College in 1882, Genazzano FCJ College in 1889, Trinity Grammar School in 1903, Carey Baptist Grammar School in 1923. Preshil, The Margaret Lyttle Memorial School, was opened in the early 1930s. By 1990, Kew had six government campuses and twenty-eight non-government campuses, the highest concentration of education institutions in the Western world. A railway branch line to Kew from Hawthorn Station opened on 19 December 1887 and was closed on 13 May 1957. Kew was proclaimed a town on 8 December 1910, a city on 10 March 1921; the population of the area tripled between 1910 and World War II. Raheen is a historic 19th-century Italianate mansion, located at 92 Studley Park Road, it was built in the 1870s, its name means "little fort" in Irish.
Raheen was once the residence of Daniel Mannix, the former Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne and was bequeathed to the Catholic Church by John Wren. It was purchased in 1980 by the Australian businessman Richard Pratt and his family and is not open to the public. Pratt extensively renovated the house and gardens, including the addition of a new wing, designed by Glen Murcutt. Kew has grown since the early Bridge Road crossing development and is cited as one of the most prestigious suburbs in Melbourne; as a consequence, many of these residences now attract some of the highest residential resale values in Melbourne. Streets in the Sackville Ward, such as Alfred, Wellington and Sackville, have some exceptional examples of Edwardian and contemporary architecture. Kew has convenient access to public transport; the 109, 16 and 72 along with tram route 48 tram routes pass through the suburb and the City/Lilydale/Belgrave train line is accessed at Hawthorn and Glenferrie Stations. Kew Station and the associated railway branch was last served by passenger trains in 1952, with the station site now the headquarters of VicRoads.
There are two Scout groups: 1st Kew and 4th Kew. In the mid-1900s there were up to seven, h