South by Southwest
South by Southwest is an annual conglomerate of film, interactive media, music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March in Austin, United States. It began in 1987, has continued to grow in both scope and size every year. In 2017, the conference lasted for 10 days with SXSW interactive lasting for five days, music for seven days and film running concurrently for nine days. SXSW is run by the company SXSW, LLC which organizes conferences, trade shows and other events. In addition to the three main South by Southwest festivals, the company runs other conferences: SXSW EDU, a conference on educational innovation, held in Austin, the me Convention, held in Frankfurt, Germany, in collaboration with Mercedes-Benz. Former conferences run by the SXSW organization were SXSW Eco, an environmental conference held in Austin from 2011 to 2016. SXSW Music is the largest music festival of its kind in the world, with more than 2,000 acts as of 2014. SXSW Music offers artist-provided music and video samples of featured artists at each festival via their official YouTube channel.
The music event has grown from 700 registrants in 1987 to over 28,000 registrants. SXSW Film and SXSW Interactive events have grown every year,bringing over 32,000 registrants to Austin in March 2013. Bands must cover their own expenses for lodging at the event. All performers are offered a cash payment or a wristband package that allows access to all music events. SXSW Film Conference spans five days of conference panels and sessions, welcomes filmmakers of all levels. Programming consists of keynote speakers, workshops, mentor sessions and more, with expert filmmakers and industry leaders. In 2015, the SXSW Film Conference programmed over 250 sessions with 735 speakers. Past speakers include Jon Favreau, Mark Duplass, Ava DuVernay, Ryan Gosling, Nicolas Cage, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Tilda Swinton, Amy Schumer, Sally Field, Joss Whedon, Christine Vachon, RZA, Matthew McConaughey, Danny Boyle, Seth MacFarlane, Catherine Hardwicke, Richard Linklater, David Gordon Green, Harmony Korine, Henry Rollins, Sarah Green and Robert Rodriguez.
Although the film festival highlights independently produced films and emerging directing talent with unique visions, the festival has long served studios as a starting point for their comedies, using enthusiastic fans as a barometer of how they might play in wide release. The SXSW Film Festival runs nine days with the SXSW Film Conference, celebrates raw innovation and emerging talent both behind and in front of the camera. Festival programming categories include: Special Events, Narrative Spotlight, Documentary Spotlight, Narrative Competition, Documentary Competition, Midnighters, 24 Beats Per Second, SXGlobal, Festival Favorites and Short Film Programs; the SXSW Film Awards, which occur on the last day of the Film Conference, honor films selected by the Feature and Short Film Juries. In 2015, the SXSW Film Festival programmed 150 feature films and 106 short films, selected from 7,361 submissions. Past notable world premieres include Furious 7, Chef, 21 Jump Street, The Cabin in the Woods and Insidious, the TV series Girls, Silicon Valley and Penny Dreadful.
SXSW Interactive is focused on emerging technology. The festival includes a trade show, parties, a startup accelerator. In July 1986, the organizers of the New York City music festival New Music Seminar contacted Roland Swenson, a staffer at the alternative weekly The Austin Chronicle, about organizing an extension of that festival into Austin after having announced that they were going to hold a "New Music Seminar Southwest"; the plans did not materialize, so Swenson decided to instead co-organize a local music festival, with the help of two other people at the Chronicle: editor and co-founder Louis Black, publisher Nick Barbaro. Louis Meyers, a booking agent and musician, was brought on board. Black came up with the name. While Southwest by South is an actual point on a compass, South by Southwest is not; the event was first held in March 1987. The organizers considered it a regional event and expected around 150 attendees to show up, but over 700 came, according to Black "it was national immediately."
Meyers left Austin and the festival in the early 1990s, but Black and Swenson remained the festival's key organizers as of 2010. Singer-songwriter Michelle Shocked was the keynote speaker at the 1992 South by Southwest, she caused controversy by delivering a speech, written by her then-husband Bart Bull, criticizing white musicians for stealing music from African American artists. In 1993, SXSW moved into the Austin Convention Center. In 1994, SXSW added a component for film and other media, named the "SXSW Film and Multimedia Conference". Johnny Cash was the keynote speaker; that year, the three brothers of the band Hanson were brought to SXSW by their father in order to perform impromptu auditions for music executives, in the hopes of getting industry attention. Among the people who heard them was A&R executive Christopher Sabec, who became their manager, would soon afterward get them signed to Mercury Records. In 1995, the SXSW Film and Multimedia Conference was split into two separate events, "SXSW Film" and "SXSW Multimedia".
In 1999, SXSW Multimed
Tasseomancy is a Canadian experimental band from Toronto formed by twin sisters Sari and Romy Lightman. Born in c. 1985 and raised in Toronto, the Lightman twins moved to Halifax to attend university. There the sisters began performing under the moniker Ghost Bees that they described as "experimental acoustic folk"; the duo released their debut EP Tasseomancy on April 2008, via Youth Club Records as Ghost Bees. The pair toured around North America in support of the record; as the Ghost Bees project developed, new sounds and influences not heard on the original EP began to be incorporated, prompting the change to Tasseomancy in 2010. Sari Lighman explained that "we wanted to have a link to our previous band and not dismiss it entirely. It’s a progression and we wanted to keep something from it"; the sound moved away from acoustic folk to a more experimental and art pop oriented direction, included flute and steel pan instruments. They released the 7" single Health Hands b/w The Darkness of Things on the Diamond Rings' boutique label Hype Lighter in 2010.
They began performing in friend Katie Stelmanis' electronic outfit Austra as touring backing singers in the same year. The duo recorded their debut full-length Ulalume under the new name that year, produced by fellow Toronto-based musicians Taylor Kirk and Simon Trottier of the band Timber Timbre; the title of the album was taken from an Edgar Allan Poe poem. It was released on Out of this Spark/Turf Records in August 2011; when performing live, the duo were supported by Maya Postepski. They began performing in friend Katie Stelmanis' electronic outfit Austra as touring backing singers in the same year; the band released a five track Tasseotape cassette in 2013. In 2015 the duo released a second album, Palm Wine Revisited, on Toronto DIY label Healing Power Records, toured the US with Braids, they were joined by Evan Cartwright. In November 2016 they released the 11 track album Do Easy, on label Bella Union in Europe, run by Simon Raymonde of the Cocteau Twins. Do Easy's music videos were directed by video artist Charles Linden Ercoli as well as the self directed Missoula video.
They toured Japan, North America and Europe in 2017 and are working on a new album. The cover of the Tasseomancy EP featured a photograph of the sisters' great-great grandmother Clara Chernos, a Russian Jewish tea-leaf reader who moved to Canada in the 19th century during the Russian pogroms; when renaming the band in 2010, the sisters opted for the title of their debut EP, noting "We’re into tea and tea-making, our great great grandmother was a tea leaf reader and she passed it on to the rest of our family". Ulalume Palm Wine Revisited Do Easy "Healthy Hands" "Braid. Wind Is Coming" Tasseomancy https://www.theguardian.com/music/2016/nov/27/tasseomancy-do-easy-canadian-goths Official website Soundcheck #1: Ghost Bees
A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment. According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. By the beginning of 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made US$1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year. Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Management that restricts copying the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players, they are always compressed using a lossy codec, which reduces file size and bandwidth requirements. These music resources have been created as a response to expanding technology and needs of customers that wanted easy, quick access to music, their business models respond to the "download revolution" by making legal services attractive for users.
Legal music downloads have faced a number of challenges from artists, record labels and the Recording Industry Association of America. In July 2007, the Universal Music Group decided not to renew their long-term contracts with iTunes; this decision was based upon the issue of pricing of songs, as Universal wanted to be able to charge more or less depending on the artist, a shift away from iTunes' standard—at the time—99 cents per song pricing. Many industry leaders feel that this is only the first of many show-downs between Apple Inc. and the various record labels. According to research by the website TorrentFreak, 38% of Swedish artists support file share downloading and claim that it helps artists in early career stages; the Swedish rock group Lamont has profited from file sharing. The Recording Industry Association of America oversees about 85% of published music production and manufacturing in the United States, they work to protect musicians while supporting the First Amendment rights. Their stated goal is to support artists' creativity and help them not be cheated out of money by illegal downloading.
The Recording Industry Association of America launched its first lawsuits on 8 September 2003, against individuals who illegally downloaded music files from the Kazaa FastTrack network. Two years after it began, the campaign survived at least one major legal challenge; the RIAA said it filed 750 suits in February 2006 against individuals downloading music files without paying for them in hopes of putting an end to Internet music piracy. The RIAA hopes their campaign will force people to respect the copyrights of music labels and minimize the number of illegal downloads; the Official Charts Company began to incorporate downloads in the UK Singles Chart on 17 April 2005, at which time Radio 1 stopped broadcasting the separate download chart, although the chart is still compiled. This was on condition that the song must have a physical media release at the same time. Music downloads have been measured by the Official Charts Company since 2004 and included in the main UK Singles Chart from 2005.
The most downloaded song in the UK is "Happy" by Pharrell Williams with over 1.8 million downloads. In November 2005, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States was held by Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl", which sold over one million downloads, making it the first song to achieve platinum download status; as of July 2012, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States on the iTunes Store is held by The Black Eyed Peas's "I Gotta Feeling", which has sold over 8 million downloads. Soon after his death in 2009, Michael Jackson became the first artist to sell over one million songs downloaded via the Internet in one week. However, Adele marks the most downloads sold by a single song in a week, with "Hello" selling 1.12 million copies in November 2015. Eminem's seventh studio album, became the first album to sell one million digital copies. Beyoncé's self-titled fifth studio album became the fastest-selling album within 24 hours in iTunes history after its release in December 2013.
Within 24 hours of availability, the album sold 430,000 digital copies. Adele's third studio album 25 became the fastest-selling album in a week iTunes history after it was released on 20 November 2015, it sold 1.64 million digital copies in its first week. In 2006, the Recording Industry Association of Japan began issuing certifications for digitally released music in Japan, compiling data from the early 2000s onwards; the best-selling song is Fukushima-based vocal group Greeeen's song "Kiseki", certified for being downloaded four million times between 2008 and 2015, followed by R&B singer Thelma Aoyama's "Soba ni Iru ne" featuring rapper SoulJa, certified for three million downloads between 2008 and 2014. Greeeen's song "Ai Uta" ranks as the third highest certified song, with 2.5 million downloads tracked between 2007 and 2009. Two more songs have sold more than two million paid downloads: Ayaka's "Mikazuki" and Kobukuro's "Tsubomi"; the most successful ringtone in Japan is Moldovan-Romanian band O-Zone's "Dragostea din tei", known locally as "Koi no Maiahi", certified as having four million units sold.
In Japan, only two albums have received digital certifications by the RIAJ. The first was Songs for Japan, a charity compilation album raising profits for the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, certified gold for 100,000 downloa
Art pop is a loosely defined style of pop music influenced by pop art's integration of high and low culture, which emphasizes the manipulation of signs and gesture over personal expression. Art pop artists may be inspired by postmodern approaches or art theories as well as other forms of art, such as fashion, fine art and avant-garde literature, they may deviate from traditional pop audiences and rock music conventions, instead exploring ideas such as pop's status as commercial art, notions of artifice and the self, questions of historical authenticity. Starting in the mid 1960s, British and American pop musicians such as Brian Wilson, Phil Spector, the Beatles began incorporating the ideas of the pop art movement into their recordings. English art pop musicians drew from their art school studies, while in America the style drew on the influence of pop artist Andy Warhol and affiliated band the Velvet Underground, intersected with folk music's singer-songwriter movement; the style would experience its "golden age" in the 1970s among glam rock artists such as David Bowie and Roxy Music, who embraced theatricality and throwaway pop culture.
Art pop's traditions would be continued in the late 1970s and 1980s through styles such as post-punk and synthpop as well as the British New Romantic scene, developing further with artists who rejected conventional rock instrumentation and structure in favor of dance styles and the synthesizer. The 2010s saw new art pop trends develop, such as hip hop artists drawing on visual art and vaporwave artists exploring the sensibilities of contemporary capitalism and the Internet. Art pop draws on postmodernism's breakdown of the high/low cultural boundary, with art pop artists trouble issues of sociological interpretation and historical authenticity, instead exploring concepts of artifice and commerce; the style emphasizes the manipulation of signs over personal expression, drawing on an aesthetic of the everyday and the disposable, in distinction to the Romantic and autonomous tradition embodied by art rock or progressive rock. Sociomusicologist Simon Frith has distinguished the appropriation of art into pop music as having a particular concern with style and the ironic use of historical eras and genres.
Central to particular purveyors of the style were notions of the self as a work of construction and artifice, as well as a preoccupation with the invention of terms, imagery and affect. The Independent's Nick Coleman wrote: "Art-pop is about attitude and style, it is, if you like, a way of making pure formalism acceptable in a pop context. Cultural theorist Mark Fisher wrote that the development of art pop evolved out of the triangulation of pop and fashion. Frith states that it was "more or less" directly inspired by Pop art. According to critic Stephen Holden, art pop refers to any pop style which deliberately aspires to the formal values of classical music and poetry, though these works are marketed by commercial interests rather than respected cultural institutions. Writers for The Independent and the Financial Times have noted the attempts of art pop music to distance its audiences from the public at large; the boundaries between art and pop music became blurred throughout the second half of the 20th century.
In the 1960s, pop musicians such as John Lennon, Syd Barrett, Pete Townshend, Brian Eno, Bryan Ferry began to take inspiration from their previous art school studies. Frith states that in Britain, art school represented "a traditional escape route for the bright working class kids, a breeding ground for young bands like the Beatles and beyond". In North America, art pop was influenced by Bob Dylan and the Beat Generation, became more literary through folk music's singer-songwriter movement. Before progressive/art rock became the most commercially successful British sound of the early 1970s, the 1960s psychedelic movement brought together art and commercialism, broaching the question of what it meant to be an "artist" in a mass medium. Progressive musicians thought that artistic status depended on personal autonomy, so the strategy of "progressive" rock groups was to present themselves as performers and composers "above" normal pop practice. Another chief influence on the development of art pop was the Pop art movement.
The term "pop art", first coined to describe the aesthetic value of mass-produced goods, was directly applicable to the contemporary phenomenon of rock and roll. According to Frith: " turned out to signal the end of Romanticism, to be an art without artists. Progressive rock was the bohemians' last bet... In this context the key Pop art theorist was not Hamilton or any of the other British artists who, for all their interest in the mass market, remained its academic admirers only, but Andy Warhol. For Warhol the significant issue wasn't the relative merits of'high' and'low' art but the relationship between all art and'commerce'." Warhol's Factory house band the Velvet Underground was an American group who emulated Warhol's art/pop synthesis, echoing his emphasis on simplicity, pioneering a modernist avant-garde approach to art rock that ignored the conventional hierarchies of artistic representation. Holden traces art pop's origins to the mid 1960s, when producers such as Phil Spector and musicians such as Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys began incorporating pseudo-symphonic textures to their pop recordings, as well as the Beatles' first recordings with a string quartet.
In the words of author Matthew Bannister and Spector were both known as "eremitic studio obsessives... habitually absented themselves from their own work", like Warhol
Spin is an American music magazine founded in 1985 by publisher Bob Guccione, Jr. The magazine stopped running in print in 2012 and runs as a webzine, owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group division of Valence Media. Spin was established in 1985. In its early years, the magazine was known for its broad music coverage with an emphasis on college rock, indie rock, the ongoing emergence of hip-hop; the magazine was bold, if sometimes haphazard. It pointedly provided a national alternative to Rolling Stone's more establishment-oriented style. Spin prominently placed newer artists such as R. E. M. Prince, Run-D. M. C. Eurythmics, Beastie Boys, Talking Heads on its covers and did lengthy features on established figures such as Bob Dylan, Keith Richards, Miles Davis, Lou Reed, Tom Waits, John Lee Hooker—Bart Bull's article on Hooker won the magazine its first major award. On a cultural level, the magazine devoted significant coverage to punk, alternative country, electronica and world music, experimental rock, jazz of the most adventurous sort, burgeoning underground music scenes, a variety of fringe styles.
Artists such as the Ramones, Patti Smith, Blondie, X, Black Flag, the former members of the Sex Pistols, The Clash, the early punk and New Wave movements were featured in Spin's editorial mix. Spin's extensive coverage of hip-hop music and culture that of contributing editor John Leland, was notable at the time. Editorial contributions by musical and cultural figures included Lydia Lunch, Henry Rollins, David Lee Roth and Dwight Yoakam; the magazine reported on cities such as Austin, Texas, or Glasgow, Scotland, as cultural incubators in the independent music scene. A 1990 article on the contemporary country blues scene brought R. L. Burnside to national attention for the first time. Coverage of American cartoonists, Japanese manga, monster trucks, the AIDS crisis, outsider artists, Twin Peaks, other non-mainstream cultural phenomena distinguished the magazine's dynamic early years. In late 1987, publisher Bob Guccione Jr.'s father, Bob Guccione Sr. abruptly shut the magazine down despite the fact that the two-year-old magazine was considered a success, with a newsstand circulation of 150,000.
Guccione Jr. was able to rally much of his staff, partner with former MTV president and David H. Horowitz, locate additional new investors and offices and after missing a month's publication, returned with a combined November–December issue. During this time, it was published by Camouflage Associates. In 1997, Guccione sold Spin to Miller Publishing. In 1994, two journalists working for the magazine were killed by a landmine while reporting on the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A third, William T. Vollmann, was injured. In February 2006, Miller Publishing sold the magazine to a San Francisco-based company called the McEvoy Group LLC, the owner of Chronicle Books; that company formed Spin Media LLC as a holding company. The new owners replaced editor-in-chief Sia Michel with a former editor at Blender; the first issue to be published under his brief command was the July 2006 issue—sent to the printer in May 2006—which featured Beyoncé on the cover. Pemberton and Spin parted ways the next month, in June 2006.
The following editor, Doug Brod, was executive editor during Michel's tenure. For Spin's 20th anniversary, it published a book chronicling the prior two decades in music; the book has essays on grunge and emo, among other genres of music, as well as pieces on musical acts including Marilyn Manson, Tupac Shakur, R. E. M. Nirvana, Nine Inch Nails, Limp Bizkit, the Smashing Pumpkins. In February 2012, Spin relaunched the magazine in a larger, bi-monthly format and expanded its online presence, which covered reviews, extended editorials and features on up-and-coming talent. In July 2012, Spin was sold to Buzzmedia, which renamed itself SpinMedia; the September/October 2012 issue of Spin was the magazine's last print edition. In December 2016, Eldridge Industries acquired SpinMedia via the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group for an undisclosed amount. In 1995, Spin produced its first book, entitled Spin Alternative Record Guide, it compiled writings by 64 music critics on recording artists and bands relevant to the alternative music movement, with each artist's entry featuring their discography and albums reviewed and rated a score between one and ten.
According to Pitchfork Media's Matthew Perpetua, the book featured "the best and brightest writers of the 80s and 90s, many of whom started off in zines but have since become major figures in music criticism," including Rob Sheffield, Byron Coley, Ann Powers, Simon Reynolds, Alex Ross. Although the book was not a sales success, "it inspired a disproportionate number of young readers to pursue music criticism." After the book was published, its entry on 1960s folk artist John Fahey, written by Byron Coley, helped renew interest in Fahey's music, leading to interest from record labels and the alternative music scene. Contributors to Spin have included: SPIN began compiling year-end lists in 1990. Note: The 2000 album of the year was awarded to "your hard drive", acknowledging the impact that filesharing had on the music listening experience in 2000. Kid A was listed as the highest ranking given to an actual album. 1994 roadside attack on Spin magazine journalists Anon.. "Bibliography". In Ray, Michael.
Alternative, Hip-Hop and More: Music from the 1980s to Today. Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 1615309101. Mazmanian, Adam. "Library Journal". In White, William. Buyer's Guide. Bowker. Johnston, Maura. "Never Mind The Anglophilia, Here's The Queens Brothers". Idolator. Retrieved Jul
Vice is a Canadian-American print magazine focused on arts and news topics. Founded in 1994 in Montreal, Canada, the magazine's founders launched Vice Media, which consists of divisions including the magazine as well as a website, broadcast news unit, a film production company, a record label, a publishing imprint; as of February 2018, the magazine's editor-in-chief is Ellis Jones. Founded by Suroosh Alvi, Gavin McInnes and Shane Smith, the magazine was launched in 1994 as the Voice of Montreal with government funding, the intention of the founders was to provide work and a community service; when the editors sought to dissolve their commitments with the original publisher Alix Laurent, they bought him out and changed the name to Vice in 1996. Richard Szalwinski, a Canadian software millionaire, acquired the magazine and relocated the operation to New York City in the late 1990s. Following the relocation, the magazine developed a reputation for provocative and politically incorrect content. Under Szalwinski's ownership, a few retail stores were opened in New York City and customers could purchase fashion items that were advertised in the magazine.
However, due to the end of the dot-com bubble, the three founders regained ownership of the Vice brand, followed by the closure of the stores. The British edition of Vice was launched in 2002 and Andy Capper was its first editor. Capper explained in an interview shortly after the UK debut that the publication's remit was to cover "the things we're meant to be ashamed of", articles were published on topics such as bukkake and bodily functions. By the end of 2007, 13 foreign editions of Vice magazine were published, the Vice independent record label was functional, the online video channel VBS.com had 184,000 unique viewers from the U. S. during the month of August. The media company was still based in New York City, but the magazine began featuring articles on topics that were considered more serious, such as armed conflict in Iraq, than previous content. Alvi explained to The New York Times in November 2007: "The world is much bigger than the Lower East Side and the East Village."McInnes left the publication in 2008, citing "creative differences" as the primary issue.
In an email communication dated 23 January, McInnes explained: "I no longer have anything to do with Vice or VBS or DOs & DON'Ts or any of that. It's a long story but we've all agreed to leave it at'creative differences,' so please don't ask me about it."At the commencement of 2012, an article in Forbes magazine referred to the Vice company as "Vice Media", but the precise time when this title development occurred is not public knowledge. Vice acquired the fashion magazine i-D in December 2012 and, by February 2013, Vice produced 24 global editions of the magazine, with a global circulation of 1,147,000. By this stage, Alex Miller had replaced Capper as the editor-in-chief of the UK edition. Furthermore, Vice consisted of 800 worldwide employees, including 100 in London, around 3,500 freelancers produced content for the company. Shane Smith – Co-Founder Suroosh Alvi – Co-Founder Ellis Jones – Editor-in-Chief Vice magazine includes the work of journalists, fiction writers, graphic artists and cartoonists, photographers.
Both Vice's online and magazine content has shifted from dealing with independent arts and pop cultural matters to covering more serious news topics. Due to the large array of contributors and the fact that writers will only submit a small number of articles with the publication, Vice's content varies and its political and cultural stance is unclear or contradictory. Articles on the site feature a range of subjects things not covered as by mainstream media; the magazine's editors have championed the immersionist school of journalism, passed to other properties of Vice Media such as the documentary television show Balls Deep on the Viceland Channel. This style of journalism is regarded as something of a DIY antithesis to the methods practiced by mainstream news outlets, has published an entire issue of articles written in accordance with this ethos. Entire issues of the magazine have been dedicated to the concerns of Iraqi people, Native Americans, Russian people, people with mental disorders, people with mental disabilities.
Vice publishes an annual guide for students in the United Kingdom. In 2007, a Vice announcement was published on the Internet: After umpteen years of putting out what amounted to a reference book every month, we started to get bored with it. Besides, too many other magazines have started doing their own lame take on themes. So we're going to do some issues, starting now, that have. In a March 2008 interview with The Guardian, Smith was asked about the magazine's political allegiances and he stated, "We're not trying to say anything politically in a paradigmatic left/right way... We don't do. Are my politics Democrat or Republican? I think, and it doesn't matter anyway. Money runs America, he has stated: I grew up being a socialist and I have problems with it because I grew up in Canada I've spent a lot of time in Scandinavia, where I believe countries legislate out creativity. They cut off the tall trees. Everyone's a C-minus. I came to America from Canada because Canada is stultifyingly boring and hypocritical.
Thanks, Canada. Vice founded its website as Viceland.com in 1996, as Vice.com was owned. In 2007, it started VBS.tv as a domain, which prioritized videos over print, had a number of shows for free such as The Vice Guide to Travel. In 2011, Viceland.com and VBS.tv were combined into Vice.com
The Montreal Gazette titled The Gazette, is the only English-language daily newspaper published in Montreal, Canada, after three other daily English newspapers shut down at various times during the second half of the 20th century. It is one of the French-speaking province's last two English-language dailies. Founded in 1778 by Fleury Mesplet, The Gazette is Quebec's oldest daily newspaper and Canada's oldest daily newspaper still in publication; the oldest newspaper overall is the English-language Quebec Chronicle-Telegraph, established in 1764 and is published weekly. Fleury Mesplet founded a French-language weekly newspaper called La Gazette du commerce et littéraire, pour la ville et district de Montréal on June 3, 1778, it was the first French-language newspaper in Canada. The paper did not accept advertising aside for the various books Mesplet published; the articles were meant to promote discussion, focused on literature and philosophy, as well as various anecdotal articles and letters.
Benjamin Franklin encouraged Mesplet to found the newspaper to persuade Canadians to join the American Revolution. The newspaper was shut down in 1779 when Mesplet and the editor, Valentin Jautard were arrested for sedition and imprisoned for three years. Mesplet began a second weekly, The Montreal Gazette / La Gazette de Montréal, on August 25, 1785, which had a dual French-English bilingual format similar to that used by the Quebec Gazette, its offices were located in the house of Joseph Lemoyne de Longueuil on rue de la Capitale. French columns were in English columns in the right-hand column; the columns were written in French and translated to English by Valentin Jautard, who served as editor until his death in 1787. The columns were on education and literature, after 1788 on politics. Foreign and local news made up the rest of the paper; the paper took a Voltairian and anti-clerical stance, wanted Quebec to have its own legislative assembly, sought to import the principles of the French revolution to Quebec.
The newspaper introduced advertising and announcements, taking up half of four pages. It is the direct ancestor of the current newspaper; the newspaper did well, Mesplet's operation moved to Notre-Dame Street in 1787. Mesplet continued to operate the newspaper until his death in 1794. Following Mesplet's death, his widow published the newspaper for several issues, but the paper ceased publication soon after. Two rivals, Louis Roy and Edward Edwards fought over the right to publish the newspaper over the course of two years. Edwards won the printing press and newspaper, continued operations until his assets were seized in 1808; the newspaper was the property of James Brown for fourteen years. In 1822, it was sold to businessman Thomas Andrew Turner who converted into an English-only paper in 1822. Under Turner, The Gazette identified with the interests of anglophone business leaders in their fight with the Patriote movement. On April 25, 1849, The Gazette published a special edition in which its editor-in-chief, James Moir Ferres, called the "Anglo-Saxon" residents to arms after Royal Assent of a compensation law for Lower Canada.
This was among the main events leading to the burning of the Parliament Buildings. Ferres was subsequently arrested. In 1968, The Gazette was acquired by the Southam newspaper chain, which owned major dailies across Canada. For many years, The Gazette was caught in a three-way fight for the English newspaper audience in Montreal with the tabloid Montreal Herald and the broadsheet Montreal Star; the Gazette was second in circulation to the Montreal Star, which sold more newspapers in the city and had a significant national reputation in the first half of the 20th century. The Montreal Herald closed after publishing for 146 years; the Montreal Star, part of the FP Publications chain, endured a long strike and ceased publication in 1979, less than a year after the strike was settled. In 1988, a competing English-language daily, the Montreal Daily News, was launched; the Montreal Daily News adopted a tabloid format and introduced a Sunday edition, forcing The Gazette to respond. After the Montreal Daily News closed in 1989, after less than two years in operation, The Gazette kept its Sunday edition going until August 2010.
In 1996, the Southam papers were bought by Conrad Black's Hollinger Inc. In August 2000, Hollinger sold the Southam newspapers, including The Gazette, to Canwest Global Communications Corp. controlled by the Winnipeg-based Asper family. In 2010, a new media group, bought the Gazette and other papers from the financially troubled Canwest. To celebrate its 150th anniversary, The Gazette published a facsimile of one of its earliest issues. Much effort was made to use a type of paper that imitated 18th century paper, with fake chainlines and laidlines to make the paper look old. Today, The Gazette's audience is Quebec's English-speaking community; the Gazette is one of the four dailies published in Montreal, the other three being French-language newspapers. In recent years, The Gazette has stepped up efforts to reach bilingual francophone professionals and adjusted its coverage accordingly; the current editor-in-chief is Lucinda Chodan and the associate managing editors are James Bassil and Jeff Blond.
On April 30, 2013, Postmedia Network announced that it would be eliminating the role of pub