Freestyle skiing is a skiing discipline comprising aerials, cross, half-pipe and slopestyle as part of the Winter Olympics. It can consist of a skier performing aerial flips and spins, can include skiers sliding rails and boxes on their skis, it is commonly referred to as freeskiing, jibbing, as well as many other names around the world. Ski acrobatics have been practiced since the 1930s. Aerial skiing was popularized in the 1950s by Olympic gold medalist Stein Eriksen. Early US competitions were held in the mid-1960s; the International Ski Federation recognized freestyle skiing as a sport in 1979 and brought in new regulations regarding certification of athletes and jump techniques in an effort to curb the dangerous elements of the competitions. The first FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup was staged in 1980 and the first FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships took place in 1986 in Tignes, France. Freestyle skiing was a demonstration event at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. Mogul skiing was added as an official medal event at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, the aerials event was added for the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer.
In 2011, the International Olympic Committee approved both halfpipe and slopestyle freeskiing events to be added to the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. Aerialists ski off 2-4 meter jumps. Once in the air, aerialists perform multiple flips and twists before landing on a 34 to 39-degree inclined landing hill about 30 meters in length; the top male aerialists can perform triple back flips with up to four or five twists. Aerial skiing is a judged sport, competitors receive a score based on jump takeoff, jump form and landing. A degree of difficulty is factored in for a total score. Skiers are judged on a cumulative score of LIMA two jumps; these scores do not carry over to the next round. Aerialists train for their jumping maneuvers during the summer months by skiing on specially constructed water ramps and landing in a large swimming pool. An example of this is the Utah Olympic Park training facility. A water ramp consists of a wooden ramp covered with a special plastic mat that when lubricated with sprinklers allows an athlete to ski down the ramp towards a jump.
The skier skis off the wooden jump and lands safely in a large swimming pool. A burst of air is sent up from the bottom of the pool just before landing to break up the surface tension of the water, thus softening the impact of the landing. Skiers sometimes reinforce the skis that they use for water-ramping with 6mm of fiberglass or cut holes in the front and back in order to soften the impact when landing properly on their skis. Summer training includes training on trampolines, diving boards, other acrobatic or gymnastic training apparatus. Moguls are a series of bumps on a trail formed when skiers push the snow into mounds or piles as they execute short-radius turns. Moguls can be formed deliberately, by piling mounds of snow. Ski ballet renamed acroski, was a competitive discipline in the formative years of freestyle skiing and was similar to ice dancing. Competitors executed to music; the routines consisted of spins and flips on a prepared flat course. The routines were scored by judges who assessed the choreography, technical difficulty, mastery of skills demonstrated by the competitors.
Early innovators in the sport were Jan Bucher, Park Smalley, Hermann Reitberger. The International Ski Federation ceased all formal competition of this event after 2000. Ski cross is based on the snowboarding boardercross. Despite it being a timed racing event, it is considered part of freestyle skiing because it incorporates terrain features traditionally found in freestyle. Half-pipe skiing is the sport of riding snow skis on a half-pipe. Competitors ski to the end of the pipe by doing flips and tricks, it became an Olympic event for the first time at the 2014 Olympic Games in Russia. In slopestyle, athletes ski or snowboard down a course including a variety of obstacles including rails and other terrain park features. Points are scored for amplitude and quality of tricks. Twin-tip skis are used and are useful if the skier lands backwards. Slopestyle tricks fall into four categories: spins, grinds and flips. Slopestyle became an Olympic event, in both skiing and snowboarding forms, at the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi, Russia.
Twin-tip skis are used in events such as halfpipe. Mogul skis are sometimes in aerials. Specially designed racing skis are used in ski cross. Ski bindings took a major design change to include plate bindings mounted to the bottom of the skiers boot to allow for multi-directional release. Freestyle skiing at the Winter Olympics Furrer, Art. S. Freestyle Ski Team Taylor Publis
Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing, which use skis with free-heel bindings. Whether for recreation or sport, it is practised at ski resorts, which provide such services as ski lifts, artificial snow making, snow grooming and ski patrol. "Off-piste" skiers—those skiing outside ski area boundaries—may employ snowmobiles, helicopters or snowcats to deliver them to the top of a slope. Back-country skiers may use specialized equipment with a free-heel mode for hiking up slopes and a locked-heel mode for descents. Alpine skiing has been an event at the Winter Olympic Games since 1936; as of 1994, there were estimated to be 55 million people worldwide. The estimated number of skiers, who practised alpine, cross-country skiing, related snow sports, amounted to 30 million in Europe, 20 million in North America, 14 million in Japan; as of 1996, there were 4,500 ski areas, operating 26,000 ski lifts and enjoying skier visits.
The predominant region for downhill skiing was Europe, followed by Japan and the US. The ancient origins of skiing can be traced back to prehistoric times in Russia, Finland and Norway where varying sizes and shapes of wooden planks were preserved in peat bogs. Skis were first invented to cross marshes in the winter when they froze over. In the 1760s, skiing was recorded as being used in military training; the Norwegian army held skill competitions involving skiing down slopes, around trees and obstacles while shooting. The birth of modern alpine skiing is dated to the 1850s. Skiing was an integral part of transportation in colder countries for thousands of years. In the late 19th century skiing converted from a method of transportation to a competitive and recreational sport. Norwegian legend Sondre Norheim first began the trend of skis with curved sides, bindings with stiff heel bands made of willow, the slalom turn style. Sondre Norheim was the champion of the first downhill skiing competition held in Oslo, Norway in 1868.
Two to three decades the sport spread to the rest of Europe and the U. S; the first slalom ski competition occurred in Mürren, Switzerland in 1922. A skier following the fall line will reach the maximum possible speed for that slope. A skier with skis pointed perpendicular to the fall line, across the hill instead of down it, will accelerate more slowly; the speed of descent down any given hill can be controlled by changing the angle of motion in relation to the fall line, skiing across the hill rather than down it. Downhill skiing technique focuses on the use of turns to smoothly turn the skis from one direction to another. Additionally, the skier can use the same techniques to turn the ski away from the direction of movement, generating skidding forces between the skis and snow which further control the speed of the descent. Good technique results in a flowing motion from one descent angle to another one, adjusting the angle as needed to match changes in the steepness of the run; this looks more like a single series of S's than turns followed by straight sections.
The oldest and still common form of alpine ski turn is the stem, turning the front of the skis sideways from the body so they form an angle against the direction of travel. In doing so, the ski pushes snow forward and to the side, the snow pushes the skier back and to the opposite side; the force backwards directly counteracts gravity, slows the skier. The force to the sides, if unbalanced, will cause the skier to turn. Carving is based on the shape of the ski itself; the contact between the arc of the ski edges and the snow causes the ski to tend to move along that arc, slowing the skier and changing their direction of motion. The snowplow turn is the simplest form of turning and is learned by beginners. To perform the snowplow turn one must be in the snowplow position while going down the ski slope. While doing this they apply more pressure to the inside of the opposite foot of which the direction they would like to turn; this type of turn allows the skier to keep a controlled speed and introduces the idea of turning across the fall line.
Modern alpine skis are shaped to enable carve turning, have evolved since the 1980's, with variants such as powder skis, freestyle skis, all-mountain skis, kid's skis and more. Powder skis are used when there is a large amount of fresh snow, as the shape of a powder ski is wide allowing the ski to float on top of the snow compared to a normal downhill ski which would most sink into the snow. Freestyle skis are used by skiers; these skis are meant to help a skier who skis jumps and other features placed throughout the terrain park. Freestyle skis are fully symmetric, meaning they are the same dimensions from the tip of the ski to the backside of the ski. All-mountain skis are the most common type of ski, tend to be used as a typical alpine ski. All-mountain skis are built to do a little bit of everything. Slalom race skis referred to as race skis are short, narrow skis, which tend to be stiffer because they are meant for those who want to go fast as well as make quick sharp turns; the binding is a device used to connect the skier's boot to the ski.
The purpose of the binding is to allow the skier to stay connected to the ski, but if the skier falls the binding can safely release them from the ski to prevent injury. There are two types of bindings: the heel and toe system and the plate system binding
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Australia at the 2010 Winter Olympics
Australia participated at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. A team of forty athletes was selected to compete in eleven sports; the Chef de Mission was Ian Chesterman. Australia achieved its best results, winning two gold medals. To date Australia has won a total of five gold medals, one silver medal and three bronze medals in Winter Olympic competition. Men's team – aerials and mogulsMen's team – ski crossWomen's team – aerials and mogulsWomen's team – ski cross HalfpipeParallel giant slalomSnowboard cross Australia at the 2010 Winter Paralympics
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice. It was the first winter sport included in the Olympics, in 1908; the four Olympic disciplines are men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dance. Non-Olympic disciplines include synchronized skating, Theater on Ice, four skating. From juvenile through senior-level competition, skaters perform two programs which, depending on the discipline, may include spins, moves in the field, throw jumps, death spirals, other elements or moves; the blade has a groove on the bottom creating two distinct edges: outside. Judges prefer that skaters glide on one edge of the blade and not on both at the same time, referred to as a flat edge. During a spin, skaters use the "sweet spot" of the blade, formally called a rocker, the roundest portion of the blade, just behind the pick and near the middle of the blade. Skates used in single and pair skating have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front of the blade.
Toe picks are used for the take-off on jumps. Ice dance blades have smaller toe picks. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level at local, regional and international competitions; the International Skating Union competitions. These include the Winter Olympics, the World Championships, the World Junior Championships, the European Championships, the Four Continents Championships, the Grand Prix series, the ISU Challenger Series; the sport is associated with show business. Major competitions conclude with exhibition galas, in which the top skaters from each discipline perform non-competitive programs. Many skaters, both during and after their competitive careers skate in ice shows, which run during the competitive season and the off-season; the term "professional" in skating refers not to skill competitive status. Figure skaters competing at the highest levels of international competition are not "professional" skaters, they are sometimes referred to as amateurs.
Professional skaters include those who have lost their ISU eligibility and those who perform only in shows. They may include former Olympic and World champions who have ended their competitive career as well as skaters with little or no international competitive experience. In languages other than English, Korean, Italian and Russian, figure skating is referred to by a name that translates as "artistic skating." The most visible difference in relation to ice hockey skates is that figure skates have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front part of the blade. These are used in jumping and should not be used for stroking or spins. If used during a spin, the toe pick will cause the skater to lose momentum, or move away from the center of the spin. Blades are mounted to the heel of the boot with screws. High-level figure skaters are professionally fitted for their boots and blades at a reputable skate shop. Professionals are employed to sharpen blades to individual requirements. Blades are about 3/16 inch thick.
When viewed from the side, the blade of a figure skate is not flat, but curved forming an arc of a circle with a radius of 180–220 cm. This curvature is referred to as the rocker of the blade; the "sweet spot" is the part of the blade on which all spins are rotated. The blade is "hollow ground"; the inside edge of the blade is on the side closest to the skater. In figure skating, it is always desirable to skate on only one edge of the blade. Skating on both at the same time may result in lower skating skills scores; the effortless power and glide across the ice exhibited by elite figure skaters fundamentally derives from efficient use of the edges to generate speed. Ice dancers' blades are about an inch shorter in the rear than those used by skaters in other disciplines, to accommodate the intricate footwork and close partnering in dance. Dancers' blades have a smaller toe pick as they do not require the large toe pick used for jumping in the other disciplines. Hard plastic skate guards are used when the skater must walk in his or her skates when not on the ice, to protect the blade from dirt or material on the ground that may dull the blade.
Soft blade covers called soakers are used to absorb condensation and protect the blades from rust when the skates are not being worn. In competition, skaters are allowed three minutes to make repairs to their skates. Off-ice training is the term for physical conditioning. Besides regular physical exercise, skaters do walk-throughs of jumps off the ice in order to practice sufficient rotation and height of their jumps, to practice consistency in landing on one foot. There is significant variation in the dimensions of ice rinks. Olympic-sized rinks have dimensions of 30 m × 60 m, NHL-sized rinks are 26 m × 61 m, while European rinks are sometimes 30 m × 64 m; the ISU prefers Olympic-sized rinks for figure skating competitions for major events. According to ISU rule 342, a figure skating rink for an ISU event "if possible, shall measure sixty meters in one direction and thirty meters in the other, but not larger, not less than fifty-six meters in one direct
Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh. The timed runs are combined to calculate the final score; the various types of sleds came several years before the first tracks were built in St. Moritz, where the original bobsleds were adapted upsized luge/skeleton sleds designed by the adventurously wealthy to carry passengers. All three types were adapted from boys' delivery toboggans. Competition followed, to protect the working class and rich visitors in the streets and byways of St Moritz, bobsledding was banned from the public highway. In the winter of 1903/1904 the Badrutt family, owners of the historic Kulm Hotel and the Palace Hotel, allowed Emil Thoma to organise the construction of the first familiarly configured'half-pipe' track in the Kulm Hotel Park, ending in the village of Cresta, it is still in use today. International bobsleigh competitions are governed by the International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation known as FIBT from the French Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing.
National competitions are governed by bodies such as the United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation and Bobsleigh Canada Skeleton. The name is derived from the action some early competitors adopted of bobbing back and forth inside their sleds to increase speed. Although sledding on snow or ice had long been popular in many northern countries, the origins of bobsleighing as a modern sport are recent, its foundation began when hotelier Caspar Badrutt convinced some English regulars to remain through the entire winter at his hotel in the mineral spa town of St. Moritz, Switzerland. Keeping them entertained with food and activities, he established the concept of "winter resorting". Badrutt has done it because he was annoyed his regular English clientele were only staying at his hotel during the summer months, it only took a couple of years for wintering at Badrutt's St Moritz hotel to become fashionable in Victorian Britain. But increased numbers led some guests to search for new diversions. In the early 1870s some adventurous English guests began adapting boys' delivery sleds for recreational purposes.
However, they soon began colliding with pedestrians in the icy lanes and roads of St Moritz. Guests soon began to invent "steering means" for the sleds; this led to the development of the bobsleigh: two cresta's attached together with a board that had a steering mechanism at the front. However, the impetus to steer the sleds permitted longer runs through the town. Longer runs meant higher speeds on curves. Local sentiments varied about these informal competitions but complaints grew so vociferous that Badrutt was forced to take action, his solution was to build a basic natural ice run for his guests near the town. Badrutt had worked hard to popularize wintering in the mountain resort and was worried customers would stop coming due to boredom, he did not want to make enemies in the town from locals injured by bobsleds. He opened the world's first natural ice half-pipe track in the late 1870s. Formal competitions started down the natural ice Cresta Run in 1884, built in an annual partnership between guests and local people.
The run, still in operation as of 2014, has served as a host track for skeleton at two Winter Olympics. As one of the few natural weather tracks in the world, it does not use artificial refrigeration, it is not known how much the original track evolved in the early years as the three sports matured and stabilized. The first club formed in 1897, the first purpose-built track for bobsleds opened in 1902 outside St Moritz. Over the years, bobsleigh tracks evolved from straight runs to turning tracks; the original wooden sleds gave way to streamlined fiberglass and metal ones. The International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation was founded in 1923. Men's four-man bobsleigh appeared in the first Winter Olympic Games in 1924, the men's two-man bobsleigh event was added in 1932. Though not included in the 1960 Winter Olympics, bobsleigh has featured in every Winter Olympics since. Women's bobsleigh competition began in the US in 1983 with two demonstration races in Lake Placid, New York, one held in February and the second held during the World Cup races in March 1983.
Women's two-woman bobsleigh made its Olympic debut at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. Bobsleigh is contested at American and World Cup championships. Germany and Switzerland have proven the most successful bobsleighing nations measured by overall success in European, World Cup, Olympic championships. Since the 1990s Germans have dominated in international competition, having won more medals than any other nation. Italy, United States and Canada have strong bobsleigh traditions. Bobsleighs can attain speeds of 150 km/h, with the reported world record being 201 km/h."Bobsleigh competitors are noble". The World Fair Play Trophy was awarded to an Italian bobsleigh competitor, Eugenio Monti, 1964 30 years to an Australian bobsleigh competitor, Justin McDonald, 1994. Modern tracks are made of concrete, coated with ice, they are required to have one labyrinth. Ideally, a modern track should have at least fifteen curves. Speeds may exceed 120 kilometres per hour, some curves can subject the crews to as much as 5 g.
Some bobsleigh tracks are used for luge and skeleton competiti
Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Winter Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding and skiing, it was developed in the United States in the 1960s, became a Winter Olympic Sport at Nagano in 1998 and first featured in the Winter Paralympics at Sochi in 2014. Its popularity in the United States has been in a decline since. Modern snowboarding began in 1965 when Sherman Poppen, an engineer in Muskegon, invented a toy for his daughters by fastening two skis together and attaching a rope to one end so he would have some control as they stood on the board and glided downhill. Dubbed the "snurfer" by his wife Nancy, the toy proved so popular among his daughters' friends that Poppen licensed the idea to a manufacturer, Brunswick Corporation, that sold about a million snurfers over the next decade. And, in 1966 alone over half a million snurfers were sold.
In February 1968, Poppen organized the first snurfing competition at a Michigan ski resort that attracted enthusiasts from all over the country. One of those early pioneers was a devotee of skateboarding; as an eighth grader in Haddonfield, New Jersey, in the 1960s, Sims crafted a snowboard in his school shop class by gluing carpet to the top of a piece of wood and attaching aluminum sheeting to the bottom. He produced commercial snowboards in the mid-70s. Articles about his invention in such mainstream magazines as Newsweek helped publicize the young sport; the pioneers were not all from the United States. During this same period, in 1977, Jake Burton Carpenter, a Vermont native who had enjoyed snurfing since the age of 14, impressed the crowd at a Michigan snurfing competition with bindings he had designed to secure his feet to the board; that same year, he founded Burton Snowboards in Vermont. The "snowboards" were made of wooden planks that had water ski foot traps. Few people picked up snowboarding because the price of the board was considered too high at $38, but Burton would become the biggest snowboarding company in the business.
In the early 1980s, Aleksey Ostatnigrosh and Alexei Melnikov, two Snurfers from the Soviet Union, patented design changes to the Snurfer to allow jumping by attaching a bungee cord, a single footed binding to the Snurfer tail, a two-foot binding design for improved control. The first competitions to offer prize money were the National Snurfing Championship, held at Muskegon State Park in Muskegon Michigan. In 1979, Jake Burton Carpenter, came from Vermont to compete with a snowboard of his own design. There were protests about Jake entering with a non-snurfer board. Paul Graves, others, advocated that Jake be allowed to race. A "modified" "Open" division was won by Jake as the sole entrant; that race was considered the first competition for snowboards and is the start of what has now become competitive snowboarding. Ken Kampenga, John Asmussen and Jim Trim placed 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the Standard competition with best 2 combined times of 24.71, 25.02 and 25.41 and Jake Carpenter won prize money as the sole entrant in the "open" division with a time of 26.35.
In 1980 the event moved to Pando Winter Sports Park near Grand Rapids, Michigan because of a lack of snow that year at the original venue. As snowboarding became more popular in the 1970s and 1980s, pioneers such as Dimitrije Milovich, Jake Burton Carpenter, Tom Sims, Mike Olson came up with new designs for boards and mechanisms that developed into the snowboards and other related equipment that we know today. In April 1981 the "King of the Mountain" Snowboard competition was held at Ski Cooper ski area in Colorado. Tom Sims along with an assortment of other snowboarders of the time were present. One entrant showed up on a homemade snowboard with a formica bottom that turned out to not slide so well on the snow. In 1982, the first USA National Snowboard race was held near Vermont, at Suicide Six; the race, organized by Graves, was won by Burton's first team rider Doug Bouton. In 1983, the first World Championship halfpipe competition was held at California. Tom Sims, founder of Sims Snowboards, organized the event with the help of Mike Chantry, a snowboard instructor at Soda Springs.
In 1985, the first World Cup was held in Zürs, further cementing snowboarding's recognition as an official international competitive sport. In 1990, the International Snowboard Federation was founded to provide universal contest regulations. In addition, the United States of America Snowboard Association provides instructing guidelines and runs snowboard competitions in the U. S. today, high-profile snowboarding events like the Winter X Games, Air & Style, US Open, Olympic Games and other events are broadcast worldwide. Many alpine resorts have terrain parks. At the 1998 Winter Olympic Games in Nagano, Snowboarding became an official Olympic event. France's Karine Ruby was the first to win an Olympic gold medal for Woman's Snowboarding at the 1998 Olympics, while Canadian Ross Rebagliati was the first to win an Olympic gold medal for Men's Snowboarding. Ski areas adopted the sport at a much slower pace than the winter s