New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Canadian Americans are American citizens whose ancestry is wholly or Canadian. The term is apt when applied or self-applied to people with strong ties to Canada, such as those who have lived a significant portion of their lives or were educated in Canada, relocated to the United States. To others for those living in New England or the Midwest, a Canadian American is one whose ancestors came from Canada; the term Canadian refers to some as nationality, to others as ethnicity. English-speaking Canadian immigrants integrate and assimilate into American culture and society as a result of the cultural similarities and in the vocabulary and accent in spoken English. French-speaking Canadians, because of language and religion, tend to take longer to assimilate. However, by the 3rd generation, the assimilation is complete, the Canadian identity is more or less folklore; this took place though half of the population of the province of Quebec emigrated to the US between 1840 and 1930. Many New England cities formed Little Canadas, but many of these have disappeared.
This cultural "invisibility" within the larger US population is seen as creating stronger affinity amongst Canadians living in the US than might otherwise exist. According to US Census estimates the number of Canadian residents was around 640,000 in 2000; some sources have cited the number to be over 1,000,000. This number though is far smaller than the number of Americans who can trace part or the whole of their ancestry to Canada; the percentage of these in the New England States is 25% of the total population. Canadians who travel to the US to escape their colder winter are known as "snowbirds", they sometimes have residences south of the 37th parallel. Biloxi, founded by Pierre LeMoyne d'Iberville Bourbonnais, named after François Bourbonnais Chandler, founded by Dr. Alexander J. Chandler Dubuque, founded by and named after Julien Dubuque Juneau, named after Joe Juneau Milwaukee, founded by Solomon Juneau Mobile, founded by Pierre LeMoyne d'Iberville New Orleans, founded by Lemoyne de Bienville Ontario, founded by George Chaffey Saint Paul, first settled by Pierre Parrant Vincennes, founded by François-Marie Bissot The Connecticut State Senate unanimously passed a bill in 2009, making June 24 Canadian American Day in the state of Connecticut.
The bill allows state officials to hold ceremonies at the capitol and other places each year to honor Americans of Canadian ancestry. As a consequence of Article 3 of the Jay Treaty of 1794, official First Nations status, or in the United States, Native American status confers the right to live and work on either side of the border; some institutions in the United States focus on Canadian-American studies, including the Canadian-American Center at the University of Maine, the Center for Canadian American studies at Western Washington University, the SUNY University at Buffalo Canadian-American Studies Committee. American Canadians Category:American people of Canadian descent Canada–United States relations Franco-Americans French Canadians Hyphenated American Little Canadas Quebec diaspora Hamilton, Janice. Canadians in America. Lerner. ISBN 0-8225-2681-6. Jeffrey Simpson Star-Spangled Canadians: Canadians Living the American Dream. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-255767-3 Connect2Canada.com
Welsh Americans are an American ethnic group whose ancestry originates wholly or in Wales. In the 2008 U. S. Census community survey, an estimated 1.98 million Americans had Welsh ancestry, 0.6% of the total U. S. population. This compares with a population of 3 million in Wales. However, 3.8% of Americans appear to bear a Welsh surname. There have been several U. S. Presidents with Welsh ancestry, including Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, James A. Garfield, Calvin Coolidge, Richard Nixon. Jefferson Davis, President of The Confederate States of America P. G. T. Beauregard, U. S. Vice President Hubert Humphrey, U. S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton are of Welsh heritage; the proportion of the population with a name of Welsh origin ranges from 9.5% in South Carolina to 1.1% in North Dakota. Names of Welsh origin are concentrated in the mid-Atlantic states, the Carolinas and Alabama and in Appalachia, West Virginia and Tennessee. By contrast, there are fewer Welsh names in New England, the northern Midwest, the southwest.
The legends of Celtic voyages to America, settlement there in the twelfth century, led by Madog, son of Owain Gwynedd, prince of Gwynedd, are dismissed, although such doubts are not conclusive. The Madog legend attained its greatest prominence during the Elizabethan era when Welsh and English writers used it bolster British claims in the New World versus those of Spain; the earliest surviving full account of Madoc's voyage, as the first to make the claim that Madoc had come to America, appears in Humphrey Llwyd 1559 Cronica Walliae, an English adaptation of the Brut y Tywysogion. In 1810, John Sevier, the first governor of Tennessee, wrote to his friend Major Amos Stoddard about a conversation he had had in 1782 with the old Cherokee chief Oconostota concerning ancient fortifications built along the Alabama River; the chief told him that the forts had been built by a white people called "Welsh", as protection against the ancestors of the Cherokee, who drove them from the region. Sevier had written in 1799 of the alleged discovery of six skeletons in brass armor bearing the Welsh coat-of-arms.
Thomas S. Hinde claimed that in 1799, six soldiers had been dug up near Jeffersonville, Indiana on the Ohio River with breastplates that contained Welsh coat of arms, it is possible these were the same 6 Sevier referred to, as the number, brass plates and Welsh coat of arms are consistent with both references. Speculation abounds connecting Madog with certain sites, such as Devil's Backbone, located on the Ohio River at Fourteen Mile Creek near Louisville, Kentucky; the more substantiated claim is that the first Welsh arrivals came from Wales after 1618. In the late seventeenth century, there was a large emigration of Welsh Quakers to Pennsylvania, where a Welsh Tract was established in the region west of Philadelphia. By 1700, the Welsh accounted for about one-third of the colony's estimated population of twenty thousand. There are a number of Welsh place names in this area. There was a second wave of immigration in the late eighteenth century, notably a Welsh colony named Cambria established by Morgan John Rhys in what is now Cambria County, Pennsylvania.
The Welsh were numerous and politically active in colonial Pennsylvania, where they elected 9% of the legislature. In the 19th century, thousands of Welsh coal miners emigrated to the anthracite and bituminous mines of Pennsylvania, many becoming mine managers and executives; the miners brought organizational skills, exemplified in the United Mine Workers labour union, its most famous leader John L. Lewis, born in a Welsh settlement in Iowa. Pennsylvania has the largest number of Welsh-Americans 200,000. Mass emigration from Wales to the United States got underway in the nineteenth century with Ohio cities and towns such as Canal Dover and Gloucester being popular destinations. In the early nineteenth century most of the Welsh settlers were farmers, but on there was emigration by coal miners to the coalfields of Ohio and Pennsylvania and by slate quarrymen from North Wales to the "Slate Valley" region of Vermont and New York. There was a large concentration of Welsh people in the Appalachian section of Southeast Ohio, such as Jackson County and was nicknamed "Little Wales".
The Welsh language was spoken there for generations until the 1950s when its use began to subside. As of 2010, more than 126,000 Ohioans are of Welsh descent and about 135 speak the language, with significant concentrations still found in many communities of Ohio such as Oak Hill, Franklin, Jackson and Jefferson. A large proportion of the African American population has Welsh surnames. Factors leading to this result are predominantly in adopting the surname of their former slave masters. A large number of Welsh Americans settled in the American South and were predominant in the slave trade. Examples of slave plantation owning Americans include American Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. While there were cases of slaves adopting slaveholders' names, there were Welsh religious groups and anti-slavery groups helping to assist slaves to freedom and evidence of names adopted for this reason. In other situations, slaves took on their own new identity of Freeman, Liberty, while others choose the surnames of American heroes or founding fathers, which in both cases could have been Welsh in origin.
Following the American Civil War, 104 Welsh immigrant families moved from the Welsh Barony in Pennsylvania to East Tennessee. These Welsh families settled in an area now known as Me
Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or in Scotland. Scottish Americans are related to Scotch-Irish Americans, descendants of Ulster Scots, communities emphasize and celebrate a common heritage; the majority of Scotch-Irish Americans came from Lowland Scotland and Northern England before migrating to the province of Ulster in Ireland and thence, beginning about five generations to North America in large numbers during the eighteenth century. Large-scale emigration from Scotland to America began in the 1700s, accelerating after the Jacobite rising of 1745, the resulting breakup of the clan structures, the Highland Clearances. Displaced Scots went in search of a better life and settled in the thirteen colonies around South Carolina and Virginia, further in successive generations. According to the United States Historical Census Data Base, the ethnic populations in the British American Colonies of 1700, 1755 and 1775 were: The number of Americans of Scottish descent today is estimated to be 20 to 25 million, Scotch-Irish 27 to 30 million, the subgroups overlapping and not always distinguishable because of their shared ancestral surnames.
The majority of Scotch-Irish Americans came from Lowland Scotland and Northern England before migrating to the province of Ulster in Ireland and thence, beginning about five generations to North America in large numbers during the eighteenth century. The table shows the ethnic Scottish population in the United States from 1700 to 2013. In 1700 the total population of the American colonies was 250,888, of whom 223,071 were white and 3.0% were ethnically Scottish. In the 2000 census, 4.8 million Americans self-reported Scottish ancestry, 1.7% of the total US population. Another 4.3 million self-reported Scotch-Irish ancestry, for a total of 9.2 million Americans self-reporting some kind of Scottish descent. Self-reported numbers are regarded by demographers as massive under-counts, because Scottish ancestry is known to be disproportionately under-reported among the majority of mixed ancestry, because areas where people reported "American" ancestry were the places where Scottish and Scotch-Irish Protestants settled in America.
Scottish Americans descended from nineteenth-century Scottish emigrants tend to be concentrated in the West, while many in New England are the descendants of emigrants Gaelic-speaking, from the Maritime Provinces of Canada, from the 1880s onward. Americans of Scottish descent outnumber the population of Scotland, where 4,459,071 or 88.09% of people identified as ethnic Scottish in the 2001 Census. The states with the largest Scottish populations: California - 519,955 Texas - 369,161 Florida - 296,667 North Carolina - 245,021 Michigan - 227,372 New York - 215,898 Ohio - 214,649 Washington - 200,085 The states with the top percentages of Scottish residents: Maine Utah New Hampshire Vermont Wyoming Idaho Oregon, Montana Washington The first Scots in North America came with the Vikings. A Christian bard from the Hebrides accompanied Bjarni Herjolfsson on his voyage around Greenland in 985/6 which sighted the mainland to the west; the first Scots recorded as having set foot in the New World were a man named Haki and a woman named Hekja, slaves owned by Leif Eiriksson.
The Scottish couple were runners who scouted for Thorfinn Karlsefni's expedition in c. 1010, gathering wheat and the grapes for which Vinland was named. The controversial Zeno letters have been cited in support of a claim that Henry Sinclair, earl of Orkney, visited Nova Scotia in 1398. In the early years of Spanish colonization of the Americas, a Scot named Tam Blake spent 20 years in Colombia and Mexico, he took part in the conquest of New Granada in 1532 with Alonso de Heredia. He arrived in Mexico in 1534-5, joined Coronado's 1540 expedition to the American Southwest. Scottish-American naturalist John Muir is best known for his exploration of California's Sierra Nevada mountains during the 19th century. After the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England in 1603, King James VI, a Scot, promoted joint expeditions overseas, became the founder of English America; the first permanent English settlement in the Americas, was thus named for a Scot. The earliest Scottish communities in America were formed by traders and planters rather than farmer settlers.
The hub of Scottish commercial activity in the colonial period was Virginia. Regular contacts began with the transportation of indentured servants to the colony from Scotland, including prisoners taken in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. By the 1670s Glasgow was the main outlet for Virginian tobacco, in open defiance of English restrictions on colonial trade. In the 1670s and 1680s Presbyterian Dissenters fled persecution by the Royalist privy council in Edinburgh to settle in South Carolina and New Jersey, where they maintained their distinctive religious culture. Trade between Scotland and the American colonies was regularized by the parliamentary Act of Union of Scotland and England in 1707. Population growth and the commercialization of agriculture in Scotland encouraged mass emigration to America after the French and Indian War, a conflict which had seen the first use of Scottish Highland
Australian Paraguayans are citizens of Paraguay of Australian background. Most of them are descendants of a group of radical socialist Australians who voluntarily went to Paraguay to create a failed master-planned community, known as Nueva Australia. In 1893, a group of Australian shearers fed up with the lack of job opportunities and security were persuaded by a controversial journalist, William Lane, to form the New Australia movement and over 2,000 prospective colonists signed up immediately. Paraguay was eager to offer the Australian colonists 185,000 acres of fertile land. Having lost 90% of its male population only 20 years before in the Paraguayan War the country was desperate for manpower to work the land and re-populate the diminished nation; the first group entirely men, was meant to set everything up for the thousands who would follow, create the world’s first great communist city. They secured a ship to Buenos Aires in Argentina and from there the 238 adults and children traveled across the grasslands in the heart of South America to Paraguay, where the national government had granted them land to start their own colony.
For a few years, new colonists continued to trickle into both communities from Australia and the UK, but the majority of settlers left, heading back to Australia or to farm work on Patagonian estancias. But, around eight families did remain and to this day 2,000 descendents of those colonists still call Paraguay home. León Cadogan - Paraguayan ethnologist Gilbert Casey - Australian trade unionist Mary Gilmore - Australian socialist poet and journalist. William Lane - Pioneer of the Australian labour movement and utopian. Rose Summerfield - Australian feminist and labour activist. Robin Wood - Paraguayan comic book writer Alex Sharman - Former Rugby union player for Paraguay national rugby union team. Australia–Paraguay relations Foreign relations of Australia Foreign relations of Paraguay Confederados - Brazilians descended from Confederate Americans who fled the United States to Brazil after the American Civil War Nueva Londres